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close this bookEnvironmental Impact of Sudden Population Displacements - Expert Consultation on Priority Policy Issues and Humanitarian Aid (European Commission Humanitarian Office, 1995, 28 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
close this folder2. OPENING STATEMENTS
View the document2.1. Statement by Mr. E. Thielmann (ECHO III-Brussels)
View the document2.2. Statement by Dr D. Guha-Sapir (Université Catholique de Louvain - Brussels)
close this folder3. OVERVIEW OF POLICY ISSUES
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1. Environment and Sudden Population Displacement: Policy Issues for Humanitarian Action and Development Programmes (D. Guha-Sapir, Université Catholique de Louvain and M. Salih, Institute of Social Studies-The Hague)
View the document3.2. What Makes Emergencies Different? Interrelations of Development, Environment and Disasters (T. Cannon, University of Greenwich-London)
View the document3.3. Environmental Issues: UNHCR’s Experience and Response (R. Thiadens and H. Mori, UNHCR-Geneva)
View the document3.4. Environmental Change in Refugee Affected Areas: Research Needs and Future Directions (R. Black, University of Sussex-Brighton)
close this folder4. CASE STUDIES (SUMMARIES)
View the document4.1. Cooking Energy for Refugees: The Cases of Zaire and Kenya (A. Klingshirn and T. Hoerz, GTZ-Eschborn)
View the document4.2. Impact of Humanitarian Crises on Ecosystems (U. Bloesch, Swiss Disaster Relief-Bern)
View the document4.3. Environmental Health and Environmental Impact: Policy and Practice in Emergency Water Supply (P. Sherlock, Oxfam-Oxford)
View the document4.4. Environmental Impact of Refugees in Africa: Some Suggestions for Future Actions (Oweyegha-Afunaduula, University of Makerere-Kampala)
View the document4.5. When Refugees Stream: Environmental and Political Implications of Population Displacement (Shin-wha Lee, Harvard University-Cambridge)
View the document6.1. Principle
close this folder6.2. Time framework and policy parameters
View the documenti. Preparedness Phase
View the documentii. Emergency Phase
View the documentiii. Relief Phase (care and maintenance)
close this folder6.3. Urgent policy concerns
View the documenti. Energy
View the documentii. Shelter
View the documentiii. Agriculture
View the documentiv. Site and size of settlements
View the documentv. Indigenous knowledge
View the documentvi. Research and impact assessment
close this folder6.4 Institutions, resources and technical interventions
View the documenti. Institutional issues
View the documentii. Resource competition concerns
View the documentiii. Technical issues
close this folderANNEXES
View the document1. Selected Bibliography
View the document2. List of Participants
View the document3. Support Staff
View the document4. Programme and Presentations


The consultative experts were divided into three groups which discussed problem areas with regard to the environmental consequences of mass displacement and policy solutions. The discussions drew from the policy papers presented in the plenary sessions that covered both general policy issues from international and national perspectives and specific case studies from the field. The following is the summary of these discussions:

· Risk factors for negative environmental impact of relief and mass displacement need to be researched before policy can be developed;

· Comparative efficacy of a cross-sectoral approach or an independent approach to environmental problems in emergency situations should be examined;

· Environmental responses in emergencies are characterised by high pressure and short-term planning which detract from their effectiveness;

· Political and security constraints are frequently determinant in what can or cannot be applied for environmental protection;

· Emergency response to environmental impacts tends to fragmented and therefore less effective;

· Environmental impact assessment and monitoring systems for emergencies are generally very poorly developed. There is a lack of applicable measurement/observational methodologies for rapid impact assessment;

· When there are urgent environmental programmes, local authorities and population are often ignored;

· Immediate attention should be paid to provide complementary relief goods to mitigate conflicts over resources;

· Relief supplies should be environmentally friendly and procurement policies need to be reviewed in this direction;

· The number of operating agencies in an area should be limited to contain environmental damage;

· Assessments should be conducted keeping in mind the priorities of the local people;

· Environment element should be present in every part of the emergency response.