|Trainee's Manual on Disaster Preparedness (European Commission Humanitarian Office, 59 p.)|
|Module I. Hazards, Disasters & Disaster Management Concepts|
A. International Disasters
1. Types of Disasters
2. Statistics of Disaster Occurrences Worldwide
B. National Disasters
1. Types of Disasters in the Philippines
2. Statistics of Disaster Occurrences in the Country
C. Local Disasters (Regional/Municipal/Provincial)
1. Disaster Occurrences in the Area
2. Participants Sharing of Disaster Experiences
A. Natural Hazards
1. Types of Natural Hazards
a. Geological and Seismological Hazards
a.1 Structure of the Earth
a.2 Plate Tectonics
EARTHQUAKES are ground vibrations caused by rock failure or volcanic activity.
b.2 Types of Earthquakes
The most common type of earthquake is the TECTONIC earthquakes which are produced when rocks break suddenly in response to geological forces within the earth. Another is VOLCANIC quake which occurs in conjunction with volcanic activity.
TECTONIC earthquakes occur mainly because rocks are elastic and they store energy during tectonic deformation. When this strain builds to a level which is beyond that which can be sustained by weak fractures on the earths surface, these fractures suddenly slip thereby producing vibrating waves that are transmitted all over the earth.
VOLCANIC quakes are those recorded from within active volcanoes and sometimes, their mechanism may be similar to that of tectonic quakes. On many occasions, however, volcanic quakes are generated by the movement of molten rock materials inside a volcano, or when magma is being extruded to the outside.
b.3 Magnitude and Measurement
b.4 Intensity and Measurement
b.5 Associated Hazards
TSUNAMI - are large sea waves generated by underwater or near-shore earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. Not all submarine earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, however, cause tsunami. Tsunami occur only when the event is strong enough to cause sea floor displacement and disturb the mass of water over it such that a series of large waves are generated. Other sources of tsunami had been observed. These include submarine or coastal landslides, pyroclastic flows from oceanic or partly submerged volcanoes, caldera collapse and mudflows entering the sea.
SAND BOILS -
c. Volcanic Eruption
VOLCANIC ERUPTION is the process wherein molten rock materials (collectively called magma or lava) are emitted or ejected in the form of flowing masses (lava flows and pyroclastic flows), discrete particles (volcanic ash and pyroclastic) and steam (water vapor and gases) from a crater, vent or fissure.
c.2 Types of Volcanoes and Eruptive Activity
c.3 Warning Phases
Permanent Danger Zone
· Permanent habitation not
· Limited habitation
· Habitation allowed
· Evacuation and access limited according to intensity and character of eruption
c.4 Associated Hazards
There are several processes that occur on the slopes of the volcano that pose hazards to man and his environment. Most of the hazards are directly caused by volcanic eruptions which usually involve expressive flows of hot and usually molten materials out of the volcanos crater. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows are the main volcanic hazards. The effects that can be expected from these are the damage and injury or death by impact, incineration, burial and bulldozing.
Another hazard that is also directly related to volcanic eruption is the fall of volcanic materials ejected from the crater. The size of these materials vary and range from large volcanic bombs to small dust-sized particles called volcanic ash. The distance reached by these particles falling nearer the source and the smaller ones farther away, the intensity of the eruption, and wind velocity and direction. The effects that may be expected from these falling materials is hot, burial from substantial deposits and respiratory complications from inhalation of the fine particles.
Other hazards that may be directly associated to volcanic eruptions are the occurrence of strong earthquakes, fissuring of the ground and the generation of tsunami and seiches for volcanoes in or near the sea or lakes.
Some hazards are indirectly related to volcanic eruptions. These include the hazards from volcanic mudflows or lahars. Lahars occur when the loose materials on the volcanos slopes are mobilized by heavy rainfall causing a river of high density mud to flow. These lahars travel with velocities from 5 to 20 m per second and usually reach as far as the sea. Landslides and debris avalanches are the other hazards that may occur even without volcanic eruptions. The effects that can be expected from these debris flows and slides are damages and injuries resulting from the bulldozing effect of the flow or slide, burial by the deposit, erosion and impact of the large boulders that accompany the materials.
(Pyroclastic Flow, Ashfall, Mudflow Lahar, Ballistic Bombs, etc.)
B. Meteorological & Hydrological Hazards
b. Monsoon (NE and SW)
c. Fronts (Cold and Warm)
d. Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
e. Easterly Wave
f. Tropical Cyclones
f.2 Characteristics (Structure, Movement, Intensity)
f.3 Areas of Formation
f.4 Associated Hazards
f.4.1 Strong Winds
f.4.2 Heavy Rainfall
f.4.3 Strong Surge
f.5 Warning and Dissemination
h. Climate Change
FLOODS can be defined as an abnormal progressive rise in the water level of a stream that may result in the overflowing by the water of the normal confines of the stream with the subsequent inundation or flooding of the areas which are not normally submerged.
a. RIVERINE is due to overflowing of river banks and/or protective dikes and levees.
b. FLASH FLOOD is a condition which develops into flood in a very short period of time after a rainfall event
c. STANDING FLOOD cover a wide continuous area and rapidly spread to adjoining areas or relatively lower elevation.
d. DAM FLOODING is caused by the overflowing of rivers and lakes unexpected and serious breaks in dikes, levees and other protective structures or uncontrolled releases of dam water.
C. Man-made & Technological Hazards
1. FIRE is a chemical reaction known as combustion. It is frequently defined as the rapid oxidation of combustible material accompanied by a release of energy in the form of heat and light.
2. CIVIL STRIFE
3. OIL SPILL
4. RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT
5. BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Evaporating Vapor Explosion)
6. SEA AND AIR MISHAPS
7. POLLUTION is the undesirable change in the physical, chemical and biological conditions of the environment. It may or will harmfully affect human life, plants and animals, industrial, agricultural and commercial processes, recreational or cultural assets.
· Types of pollution
1. Meaning of Hazard Matrix and Content
2. Procedures in Hazard Matrix Preparation
B. Hazard Matrix Preparation
1. Data Gathering
2. Data Processing and Analysis
A. Definition of Disaster Management Terms
1. HAZARD is a phenomenon that pose threat(s) to people, structure or economic assets and which may cause a disaster. They could be either man-made or naturally occuring in our environment (natural).
2. NATURAL HAZARD
3. MAN-MADE HAZARD
4. TECHNOLOGICAL HAZARD
5. DISASTER is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope within its own resources.
6. DISASTER MANAGEMENT refers to the range of activities designed to maintain control over a disaster and emergency situation and to provide a framework for helping at risk persons to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster.
7. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS includes measures taken to be able to deal with a threat when it occurs, e.g. warnings and evacuation. Such measures are usually aimed at minimizing loss of life, disruption of critical services and damage.
8. DISASTER PREVENTION refers to measures that are aimed at impending occurrence of a disaster and actually stop disasters from occuring, e.g. artificially producing rain to prevent drought.
9. DISASTER MITIGATION - measures to reduce the impacts of disaster, e.g. enforcement of building code and constructing sabo dams to control lahar flow.
11. ACCESS SURVEY
12. DISASTER RESPONSE refers to measures which are taken immediately prior to and following a disaster. Such measures are directed towards saving life, protecting property, and dealing with the immediate damage caused by the disaster. Such measures include the activation of emergency operations center, mobilization of task services, emergency relief assistance, warning notification, and post-disaster assessment.
13. DISASTER ASSESSMENT
14. REHABILITATION refers to activities that are undertaken to help the victims return to normal life and be re-integrated into the regular community functions. It includes restoration of repairable public utilities, housing and resettlement inclusive of provision of new livelihood activities. It provides the link between the disaster-related activities and national development and at the same time ensures that the results of the disaster are effectively reflected in future policies in the interest of national progress.
16. DAMAGE SURVEY
17. HAZARD MAPPING
18. RISK MAPPING
19. VULNERABILITY is the relationship between the severity of hazard and the degree of damage caused. Each element - a building, a person, an activity - will be affected differently by hazards of different severity. The more severe the hazard is, the more damage will be inflicted on the element.
20. EMERGENCY RESPONSE includes activities undertaken immediately following a disaster. It includes damage and needs assessment, immediate relief, rescue and debris clearance.
B. Disaster Cycle
1. Phases of Disaster e.g. of activities
2. Inter-relationship of the Phases
A. Objectives of Disaster Management
1. Save Lives
2. Reduce Suffering
3. Speed Recovery
4. Provide Protection
B. Elements of Disaster Management
1. Risk Management
This consists of identifying threats (hazards likely to occur), determining their probability of occurrence, estimating potential impact of the threat in the communities at risk, determining measures that can reduce the risk, and taking action to reduce the threat. This includes hazard mapping, vulnerability mapping, estimation of potential losses (housing and physical structures, agricultural, economic and infrastructures), and development of appropriate disaster prevention and mitigation strategies.
Risk management is achieved by taking action in development projects that will lessen the risks to an acceptable level. For example, if flooding is determined to be a major risk, the risk can be reduced by physical measures such as dams, flood control embankments or channeling of the streams. Risks can likewise be reduced by moving threatened communities from flood plains and/or restricting economic activities in the flood zone to those that could absorb flood losses such as forestry and agriculture.
2. Loss Management
This addresses the human, structural and economic losses through both pre-and post-disaster actions designed to keep the losses to a minimum. Pre-disaster loss management activities focus on reducing the communitys vulnerability to hazards. Actions include improving the resistance of buildings and physical structures, providing improved safety for the occupants of building or settlements situated in hazardous areas, and increasing/diversifying the network of social support mechanisms available to communities in threatened areas.
Post-disaster loss management focuses on improving the response and broadening the range of support given to victims that includes facilitating relief delivery and stimulating a rapid recovery.
3. Disaster Preparedness
4. Control of Events
This is the most critical element of disaster management. Control is maintained through the following measures:
· anticipation of a disaster and the cause-effect relationship generated by each type of event;
· mitigation or reduction of the scope of disaster;
· disaster preparedness;
· accurate information collection and assessment;
· balanced response;
· timely actions;
· effective leadership; and
· discipline among people involved in the relief and disaster management system.
5. Equity of Assistance
Disaster assistance should be provided in an equitable and fair manner. Fairness must underlie uniform relief and reconstruction policies in order to insure that disaster victims receive fair treatment and obtain adequate access to resources available.
6. Resource Management
In order to meet all competing needs and demands of a post-disaster environment, resource management becomes essential. The use of available resources should be maximized to the greatest advantage.
7. Impact Reduction
Disasters can have impact far beyond the immediate human, physical or economic losses. Disasters represent a loss of opportunity not only to individuals but also to the entire community. They can also be a serious setback to the countrys entire development program.
Disaster should be managed to reduce their impacts to the minimum and that recovery is accomplished quickly and their efforts contribute to the overall development needs of the country and its citizens.
C. Major Aspects of Disaster Management
2. Prediction and Warning
5. Hazard Analysis
6. Vulnerability Analysis
The process of estimating the vulnerability to potential disaster-causing hazard of specified elements-at-risk. Vulnerability analysis is an essential prelude to disaster management. The analysis results to the identification of disaster-potential areas that may be difficult to recognize because of the unusual combination of, as an example, population density, literacy and poorly constructed structure. It also allows the always inadequate resources for disaster mitigation to be applied to areas of disaster potential on a rational basis.
7. Mitigation and Prevention
A. Hazard Mapping
1. Importance of Hazard Map
2. Methodology in Hazard Map Preparation
B. Risk Mapping
1. Importance of Risk Map
2. Methodology in Risk Map Preparation
C. Hazard Mapping Workshop
1. Analysis of Hazard Matrix
2. Plotting of Hazard Data