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close this bookMeeting the Behavioural Data Collection Needs of National HIV/AIDS and STD Programmes (Implementing AIDS Prevention and Care Project - Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS - United States Agency for International Development, 1998, 41 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Why track behaviour?
View the document3. Linking behavioural data with HIV serosurveillance
Open this folder and view contents4. What is needed to understand and track behaviour?
View the document5. Do people tell the truth about their sexual and drug-taking behaviour?
Open this folder and view contents6. Recommended mix of data collection methods
View the document7. What next?
View the document8. Sustaining behavioural data collection over time
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAnnex


Elements of Survey Costs

Survey design

· sample sizes per group and per region
· number of selected target populations
· number of sample clusters (dispersion versus concentration)
· travel time within and between survey areas

Length of the preparatory phase

· availability of sampling frame (How up-to-date is me sampling frame? Do maps exist? Are there current estimates of population/subpopulations?)

· whether translation of questionnaires is done and into how many languages

· pretesting and printing of questionnaires

· development of guides for supervisors and interviewers

· recruitment and training of field staff

· set up of data management specifications

Length of field work

· number of interviews

· number of interviewers

· number of interviews per day (mainly determined by the length of the questionnaire/interview time)

· number of clusters

· number of callbacks

· travel time

Data entry and data analysis, production of final report

· computer equipment
· number of entry clerks
· printing and dissemination of final report
· office supplies


· salary levels (type of personnel required)
· per diem or living allowance levels


· number of drivers
· vehicles and other modes of transport
· petrol
· maintenance

In most surveys, personnel and transportation are the most expensive items.

A general population household survey in sub-Saharan Africa may cost on average between 40,000 US$ and 60,000 US$, depending on the domains involved (two urban areas or one urban and one rural area). The recommendation generally is not to carry out national surveys.

The cost of repeated surveys in populations with high-risk behaviour will depend heavily on the number of target populations and survey areas. For example, a single round of behavioural surveys in three selected population groups, conducted in two different geographical areas, may cost between 25,000 US$ and 35,000 US$ in countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

Additional information on surveys

National Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS-II and III) surveys with a module on AIDS and a subsample of men have been conducted in many countries, such as Burkina Faso, Malawi, Senegal, Tanzania, Benin, Central African Republic, Chad, Eritrea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Uganda, and Zambia.

A list of countries with such surveys is available on the Internet at the DHS+ website address:
Contact person: Martin Vaessen, Project Director
Macro International Inc.
11785 Beltsville Drive
Calverton, MD 20705 USA
Ph: 301-572-0200
Fax: 301-572-0999

The UNAIDS/WHO Epidemiological Fact Sheets are designed to collate the most recent country-specific data on HIV/AIDS prevalence together with information on behaviours. More than 140 countries have provided information from serosurveillance, behavioural surveys, and other studies. Please contact:

UNAIDS/WHO Global Working Group on
HIV/AIDS and STD Surveillance
20, Avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27
Fax: (+41 22) 791 4878
Email: or


This document is a summary of different regional workshops held in 1997 in Nairobi, Kenya; Bangkok, Thailand; Berlin, Germany; and Oxford, UK. The results of these workshops provided the basis for discussing and preparing this document. The following participants are greatly acknowledged for their valuable contributions: Karen Stanecki, Ties Boerma, Ann Blanc, Lisanne Brown, Joseph Amon, Robert Magnani.

Implementing AIDS
Prevention and Care
(IMPACT) Project

Family Health International
2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 700
Arlington, VA 22201 USA
Telephone: (703) 516 9779

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

20 Avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27
Telephone: (41 22) 791 4651
Fax: (41 22) 791 4187