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close this bookThe Reintegration of War-Affected Youth: The Experience of Mozambique (International Labour Organization, 1997, 52 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentExecutive Summary
View the document1. Introduction
close this folder2. Background: The impact of armed conflict on youth in Mozambique
View the document2.1. The long years of war
View the document2.2. The legacy of the conflict
close this folder3. Reintegrating war-affected youth into society in Mozambique through vocational skills training programmes
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1. The demobilization and reintegration of former youth combatants
View the document3.2. The reintegration of child soldiers
View the document3.3. The reintegration of youth civilians
close this folder3.4. Selected examples of mainstream vocational training courses
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.4.1. GPE/GTZ Micro-Enterprise Promotion Project in Mozambique
View the document3.4.2. Agricultural Training Centre (Centro da Formação Agrario)
View the document3.4.3. Ntwanano project (Polana Caniço)
close this folder4. Incorporating life skills into vocational skills training
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.1. Literacy and numeracy
View the document4.2. Basic management skills
View the document4.3. Civic education
View the document4.4. Peace education
View the document4.5. Knowledge of human rights and labour standards
View the document4.6. HIV/AIDS awareness
View the document4.7. Psychosocial assistance
View the document4.8. Drug and alcohol abuse
View the document4.9. Mine awareness
close this folder5. Recommendations
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder5.1. Planning technical and life (basic) skills training as well as employment creation programmes
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View the document5.1.1. Needs assessment
View the document5.1.2. Mainstreaming of “vulnerable” groups
close this folder5.2. Implementation of skills training programmes for war-affected youth
View the document(introduction...)
View the document5.2.1. Selection of beneficiaries
View the document5.2.2. Selection and training of trainers
View the document5.2.3. Content of courses
View the document5.2.4. Follow-up
View the document5.3. Monitoring and evaluation
View the document5.4. Policy considerations
View the documentBibliography
View the documentAnnex 1. Selected list of organizations providing vocational training to youth in Mozambique

2.2. The legacy of the conflict

The war in Mozambique finally ended in October 1992 with the signing of the General Peace Accord. But the legacy of the long years of conflict remains. Despite a number of valuable natural resources, such as coal, natural gas, titanium and a large fishing potential, Mozambique is today one of the world's poorest countries. More than 70 per cent of Mozambique's 16.5 million inhabitants live in absolute poverty and per capita gross national product was estimated in 1994 to be US$80.2 Despite abundant fertile agricultural land, agricultural production is no more than 75 per cent of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Even in a good year such as 1996, the main problem was still selling surpluses. Poor roads, lack of transport and few shops meant that much of the surplus will rot or be sold extremely cheaply. Moreover, areas in the south where the harvest was poor will experience shortages.3 Industry operates at only 20 to 40 per cent of capacity.4 In 1996, the infant mortality rate was estimated to be between 140 and 173 per thousand, and the maternal mortality rate may be as high as 1,000 per 100,000.5

2 UNICEF, Children and women in Mozambique, information materials, Maputo, 1996, p. 1.

3 UNICEF, Mozambique situation update, May-July 1996, Maputo, undated. In addition, as a result of the difficulty of obtaining credit from banks, shopkeepers in rural areas are unable to buy the local produce and it is often exported, for example to Malawi.

4 United States Central Intelligence Agency information, Internet address:

5 UNICEF, op. cit.

In March 1996, the Minister of Labour in Mozambique, Guilherme Mavila, told the Assembly of the republic that the official unemployment rate (based on those registered unemployed) was 7.2 per cent, but admitted that the official figures were a gross underestimate.6 He thought that the real rate was in excess of 50 per cent of an economically active population of some 8.5 million. Every year, an additional 600,000 people join the labour market. The vast majority of those in work are self-employed or work in family businesses. Only one in 6 of the workforce is waged and just one in 125 is an employer.7 Approximately 40 per cent of the population live in the northern provinces of Nampula and Zambezia, which have the most fertile agricultural land. Tens of thousands of men living in the southern provinces have traditionally migrated to work on mines and farms in South Africa.

6 AIM Report, 26 Mar. 1996, Internet:

7 ibid.

Although the trade union movement in Mozambique lacks power and resources, there are two national trade unions in existence: OTM, the Organizaciondos Tralhadores de Mobique,8 historically with close links to the Government, and Sintigrim. OTM is particularly concerned with the consequences of privatization, which is causing employers to shed large numbers of workers. With particular regard to youth, OTM fears that many young people have been marginalized by society and are turning to drugs and criminality. It believes that this development can be ascribed, in part, to deficiencies in the demobilization and reintegration process.9

8 OTM groups together 13 separate organizations with a combined membership of 290,000.

9 Discussion with OTM officials, 5 Dec. 1996.

The legal minimum age for work in Mozambique is 15 and for hazardous work 18.1 Education is compulsory for every children between the age of 7 and 13.2 In spite of this legal requirement, however, in both rural and urban areas, an unknown, but substantial number of young Mozambican children, are working instead of attending school. Traditionally, children in Mozambique were involved in hunting and herding, but since the beginning of the 1990s, as the economic crisis deepened, children were put to work in other areas. In rural agricultural areas, children do weeding, pick cotton, sesame and sunflower seeds, and gather cashew nuts. In Maputo, children work as street vendors, bus ticket collectors, or workers at home-based industries. Thousands of children pour into the city everyday to compete to watch over parked cars, sell chewing gum, or fill a minibus with passengers. Some young vendors are contracted by established businesses to sell their products on the streets.3

1 International Labour Office, Child labour: Targeting the intolerable, ILO, Geneva, p. 40. Of the major ILO Conventions, Mozambique has ratified No. 105, which abolishes forced labour.

2 ibid.

3 AIM Report, op. cit.

Mozambique's deep-rooted problems notwithstanding, a general optimism does appear to pervade the country. The economic climate is better than it has been for many years, although some question whether the political structure is equal to the task of ensuring long-term growth and stability. Rising criminality, especially violent crime, directed against foreigners and Mozambicans alike, is an increasing concern, particularly in the overcrowded cities where job opportunities other than in the informal sector are scarce.

Thus, it is against the backdrop of long years of armed conflict and within an exacting climate - social, political and economic - that the success or failure of programmes supporting the reintegration of war-affected Mozambican youth must be judged.