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close this bookPHAST Step-by-Step Guide: A Participatory Approach for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease (PHAST - SIDA - UNDP - WB - WHO, 2000, 137 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPHAST training and information
View the documentWelcome
View the documentEvaluation form: PHAST
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contentsPart I: Introduction to the PHAST
Open this folder and view contentsPart II: Step-by-Step Activities
Open this folder and view contentsPart III: Making a toolkit
View the documentActivity, tool and artist acknowledgements
View the documentGlossary
View the documentReferences
View the documentHistorical background to PHAST


activity: in this manual, what the group works through in order to discover the information and skills necessary to reach understanding or take a decision.

census: official counting of inhabitants by local authority, national government, etc.

empower: to help people to develop the ability and knowledge to take decisions on matters relating to themselves.

evaluation: occasional assessment carried out at important stages of a project.

facilitate: to assist an activity so that it runs smoothly and in an organized way, and so that participants gain maximum benefit from it.

faecal-oral routes: routes (e.g. contaminated drinking-water or eating utensils) via which faecal matter is transmitted to the mouth.

feedback: response or reaction to an activity, which serves as information to improve that activity.

goal: aim or objective.

latrine: place or building, not normally within a house or other building, for defecation and urination. “Latrine” and “toilet” are often used interchangeably; however, a latrine more commonly refers to a temporary structure.

methodology: system of methods and rules.

monitoring: routine checking or controlling of progress throughout the life of a project to ensure that e.g. goals are met and met efficiently.

poster: a poster is a large drawing of A4 size or larger; it is usually put up on a wall (commonly called “posting on the wall”) and is used for discussion purposes.

project: planned activity with realizable goals for a specified time period and with a budget.

programme: continuous undertaking for planned objectives with long-term support for operation and maintenance from an institution; may include a series of projects.

sanitation: measures to break the cycle of disease; community environmental sanitation usually involves hygienic (i.e. safe) disposal of human and animal excreta, wastewater and solid waste, and drainage and other hygiene behaviours.

sewer: a pipe or drain, usually underground, used to carry off wastewater.

step: one or more activities which together aim to achieve one overall objective.

sustainability: sustainability in relation to sanitation projects means that the community is able to keep the system working. This applies both to operation and maintenance, including financing, and to environmental aspects. Making effective use of resources, protecting against depletion and overuse, preventing pollution and ensuring conservation of resources are therefore important sustainability issues.

tool: in this guide, technique or materials used by the facilitator to help the group work through an activity. They may include whatever works best to aid the group in the activity.

toolkit: in this manual, a set of drawings or other materials, which show people, situations, customs, etc., that are familiar to participants, and which act as visual aids for facilitating activities.

unserialized posters: it should be possible to put the drawings used in these activities in lots of different orders to tell different stories. They are very different from other health education materials (such as a flip-chart or comic strip) which must be presented in a particular or “serialized” order.

wastewater: sewage.