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close this bookTrainer's Guide for Training of Elected Officials (HABITAT)
close this folderPart III - Workshop learning components
View the documentOverview
View the documentReading
View the documentPresentations
View the documentDiscussions
View the documentStructured exercises
View the documentCase study
View the documentRole playing
View the documentSimulations
View the documentInstruments


Somewhat higher on the ladder of participant interaction is the presentation. You can take advantage of the essay material in each handbook to create your own presentations for furnishing information needed by workshop participants to carry out planned learning activities. You will find the presentation useful for explaining new concepts and subject-matter details and to stimulate critical thinking. Used in conjunction with other learning methods, your presentations will get workshop participants informed, involved, and comfortable with learning new things.

Presentations are more than just a way of presenting information. You can use them at the start of a workshop to establish a proper learning climate, promote interest in learning, and reduce participant anxiety. You may present information spontaneously at any point in the workshop to stimulate thought, introduce exercises, clarify or interpret a new concept, or test for comprehension. Finally, you can take advantage of presentations at the conclusion of a workshop to summarize important [earnings and encourage learning transfer.

Many trainers see the presentation only as a form of information delivery. Viewed from a broader perspective, the presentation is an opportunity for the trainer to get a group of participants involved in their own learning. This is more likely to happen when a presentation includes planned or spontaneous participant-involvement techniques such as the following:

· Ask participants to think about and discuss situations in their own work experiences that illustrate a concept you have just introduced to them as a way of helping them see its practical application to their own work;

· Ask participants to answer prepared questions about material just covered or to paraphrase (restate in their own words) what they just heard you say about the subject as a comprehension check before going on to new material;

· ive participants a handout that covers some aspect of the material being presented orally and include some blank spaces in the handout for their use in writing down their own interpretations or possible job applications of the material being discussed;

· Most important, use visual materials to supplement your oral presentations (primarily, flipcharts, chalkboards, and overhead projection equipment), thereby lengthening participant attention span, increasing the retention of new information, adding realism, and lessening the chance of your being misunderstood.

In summary, successful presentations are thoughtfully planned with four considertions in mind.

· First, they are brief, focused on a few key ideas from the essay material and paced to deliver the selected information in "bite-sized" chunks.

· Secondly, they are carefully designed to include provocative beginnings, convincing middles, and strong endings.

· Thirdly, they give participants ample opportunity through question and answer techniques to demonstrate their comprehension and to compare viewpoints and experiences with the trainer and with one another.

· Finally, successful presentations recognize the need of participants for multiple ways of accessing information by supplementing oral forms of information delivery with audio-visual aids;