|Community Emergency Preparedness: A Manual for Managers and Policy-Makers (WHO, 1999, 141 p.)|
The checklists in this annex can be used for developing or evaluating emergency preparedness programmes. Some parts of the checklists would also be of value during response and recovery operations.
· Have all emergency management parts of relevant legislation been located, and have the implications of this legislation been considered in community emergency preparedness?
· Have any inconsistencies in the legislation been reported to central government?
· Is there power for the following actions during emergencies:
- commandeering of resources?
- evacuation of people at risk?
- centralized coordination of emergency work at the national, provincial, and community levels?
· Is a vulnerability assessment available for emergency preparedness, as well as for emergency response and recovery work?
· Are there procedures for reviewing vulnerability assessment in the light of:
- community change?
- vulnerability change?
- hazards change?
- capacity/capability change?
· Have private organizations and NGOs been involved in the planning process?
· Has assistance or guidance in developing emergency plans been provided to government, private organizations, and NGOs?
· Are there emergency plans that are related to the community emergency plan?
· If such plans exist, what are the implications for your plans?
· Has contact been made with people in other organizations or jurisdictional areas who may be able to assist the community?
· Has the plan been approved by the chief executive of the community administration?
· Has the plan been endorsed by all relevant organizations?
· Has a person or organization been assigned responsibility for developing the community emergency plan?
· Who is responsible for keeping the emergency plan up to date and how often is it to be formally reviewed?
· Do people who hold existing plans receive amendments?
· Is a distribution list of the plan maintained?
· Have the community emergency management structure and organizational responsibilities been described?
· Who is responsible for the overall management?
· Who is responsible for the operations of particular organizations?
· Who is responsible for coordinating particular tasks?
· Are all the necessary tasks assigned to organizations and personnel?
· Are the responsibilities of all organizations described?
· Does the plan contain a summary of the vulnerability assessment?
· Has the relationship between different levels of planning been described?
· Have mutual aid and twinning agreements with adjacent communities been made?
· Is the plan consistent with related plans?
· Does the plan make reference to the legislation that establishes the legal basis for planning and carrying out emergency measures?
Training and education
· Who is responsible for the various training and education requirements of emergency workers and the public?
· Has a training needs analysis of emergency workers been performed?
· Have a number of different public education strategies been implemented?
· How quickly are new personnel in organizations made capable of working in emergency management?
· Is institutional memory being preserved? For example, do people have to reinvent the wheel or are past, practical lessons learned, documented, and passed on?
· Do the capabilities and capacities of organizations improve over time during the implementation of preparedness strategies?
Monitoring and evaluation
· Is there a procedure for reviewing emergency preparedness on a regular or as-required basis? How is it done and who is responsible?
· How often is the community plan to be exercised? Who is responsible?
· How are the lessons learned from exercises to be incorporated into plans?
· Are multi-organizational exercises run, as well as single-organizational exercises?
· What forms of communication are available?
· Are there backups?
· Who is responsible for communications maintenance and planning?
· Do people know the relevant radio frequencies and contact numbers?
· Are there contact lists (containing names, telephone numbers, etc.) for all emergency management organizations?
· Do the communications systems allow communication between all relevant organizations?
Search and rescue
· What rescue tasks may need to be performed?
· Who is responsible, who coordinates?
· Are there procedures for detecting and marking danger areas?
· How are search and rescue activities integrated with other emergency functions, in particular health?
Health and medical
· Have the ambulance and hospital services planned and been trained for the handling of mass casualties?
· Are they aware of each others arrangements?
· Are there emergency field medical teams?
· Who manages these on-site?
· Are there arrangements for counselling the public and emergency workers? Who is responsible for providing this service and who pays for it?
· Are the arrangements for feeding and accommodating people linked to the registration and enquiry system and the evacuation procedures?
· Is there any arrangement for expediting the assessment of damage to private and public property and payment for losses?
· Do the insurance companies have any cooperative arrangements among themselves?
· Where, when, and how do people have access to insurance companies?
· What is insurance company policy on makeshift repairs or repairs to minimize damage?
· Is there access to legal advisers during emergency response and recovery operations?
· Is there a system for providing legal advice to emergency-affected persons?
Transport and lifelines
· Who is responsible for each lifeline?
· What are the priorities for repairing damaged lifelines?
· How long should it take to repair each lifeline from the predicted levels of damage?
· How are alternative lifelines to be arranged if required?
Police and investigation
· Are there procedures to ensure that resources are reserved from the emergency response work to enforce law and order?
· Who is responsible for receiving warnings from outside the community?
· Is there a clear system that ensures that all relevant organizations and personnel are alerted?
· Does this system:
- assign responsibility for initiating an alert?
- provide for a cascade method of alerting, whereby those alerted are responsible for further alerting where appropriate?
- describe the first actions required by those alerted?
- provide for the cancellation of an alert and the stand-down of organizations and personnel?
Command, control and coordination
· Is there a threat to the existence or continuity of government?
· Who is responsible for planning for continuity of government?
· Have all senior management personnel and elected officials been allocated a task?
· To whom do management personnel or officials turn for information?
· Are there procedures for ensuring the safety of government and administrative records (paper and computerized)?
· Have lines of succession been determined to ensure continuity of leadership?
· Have alternative sites for government organizations been identified?
· Have locations for emergency coordination centres been designated and promulgated?
· Are there alternative centres?
· Are they remote from areas likely to be damaged?
· Do they have adequate communications, feeding, sleeping, and sanitation facilities?
· Do they have backup power?
· Is the availability of backup communications equipment known?
· Is there an adequate water supply?
· Is there a designated centre manager and alternative and relieving managers?
· Do the centres have trained staff?
· Are there procedures for developing staff rosters?
· Are there procedures for activating and operating the centres?
· Is there adequate administrative support for the centres?
· Are functions of the centres succinctly described?
· Is there a procedure method for collecting, verifying, analysing, and disseminating information?
· Is there a procedure for recording events, requests for assistance, decisions, and allocating resources?
· Are there internal security arrangements for the centres?
· Has responsibility for day-to-day maintenance of the centres been assigned?
· Are there procedures within and between organizations for the briefing of personnel on an impending or actual emergency?
· Are there procedures for conducting single and multi-organizational debriefings following an emergency or alert?
· Are maps of the community (topographic, demographic, hazard, and vulnerability) available?
· Is a public information centre designated as the official point of contact by public and the media during an emergency?
· Are there provisions for releasing information to the public, including appropriate protective actions and devised responses?
· Have agreements been reached with the media for disseminating public information and emergency warnings?
· Are contact details for all media outlets (radio, television, and newspapers) available?
· Who is responsible for providing information to the media?
· Who is responsible for authorizing information?
· Who is responsible for emergency assessment and to whom do they report? How is the information recorded and who relays the information to those concerned?
· Who is responsible for issuing public statements about emergencies?
· Do they have public credibility and adequate liaison with other organizations who may also issue warnings?
· Who is responsible for providing warnings for each likely type of emergency?
· To whom is the warning supplied?
· At which warning level is response action initiated?
· What is the purpose of the warnings and what action is required of the public?
· Who will inform the public when the danger has passed?
· Is there a point of contact for members of the public wanting specific information, and is this point of contact publicly known?
· Is there a referral service for directing people to the appropriate sources of information?
· Is there a registration and enquiry system for recording the whereabouts of displaced, injured, or dead persons?
· Is there a system for providing this information to bona fide inquirers?
· Does the community know how to contact the registration and inquiry system?
· Is there a facility for multilingual message broadcasting and an interpreter service for incoming calls?
· Are there plans for establishing public information centres?
· Is the community aware of the existence of these centres?
· Who coordinates resources within each organization?
· Who is responsible for supplying resources beyond the normal capabilities of each organization? Who records the use and cost of resources?
· Have arrangements been made with national or provincial military organizations for assistance in times of emergency?
· Is there agreed access to emergency funds?
· Who records the expenditure for future acquittal/repayment?
· What are the limits of expenditure for personnel?
· What tasks can be safely performed by unskilled volunteers?
· Who coordinates this work?
· Is it likely that some organizations will begin public appeals for donations to emergency-affected persons?
· How can these appeals be coordinated?
· How is equitable disbursement of appeal money to be ensured?
· Who coordinates the requests for assistance for the community?
· What sort of assistance is likely to be required?
· Where is this assistance likely to come from?
· Is there an expected form that the request should take?
· Is the following information available to help outside assistance:
- lists of organizations working in the country, with information on their competence and capacity to be involved in emergency response and recovery activities?
- lists of essential response and recovery items not available in the community that would need to be obtained abroad, with available information on potential international sources?
- information on customs and taxation regulations covering the importation and transit of response and recovery (and other) items?
· Is the following information available:
- lists of essential response and recovery items, with specifications and average costs?
- lists of local manufacturers and regional manufacturers or suppliers of response and recovery items, with information on quality, capacity and capability, delivery times, and reliability?
- information on essential response and recovery resources that will allow a rapid response, e.g. water supply systems, sanitation systems, health networks, alternative shelter sites and materials, ports and transport networks, warehouses, and communications systems?
· Does any person or organization have the authority to evacuate people who are threatened?
· Are there designated locations to which evacuees should travel?
· How many people may need to be evacuated?
· In what circumstances should they be evacuated?
· Who will tell people that it is safe to return? What will trigger this?
· Are staging areas and pick-up points identified for evacuation?
· Are evacuees to be provided with information on where they are going and how they will be cared for?
· Is there security for evacuated areas?
· How are prisoners to be evacuated?
· How are the cultural and religious requirements of evacuees to be catered for?
· Who is responsible for traffic control during evacuation?
· How are evacuees to be registered?
Response and recovery operations
· Has a community emergency committee been set up?
· Have response teams been organized?
· Is anything being done for isolated families?
· Have arrangements been made to pick up the injured and take them to the health centre or hospital?
· Have people been evacuated from dangerous buildings?
· Have steps been taken to resolve the most urgent problems for the survival of the victims, including water, food, and shelter?
· Has a place been assigned for the dead to be kept while awaiting burial?
· Are steps being taken to identify the dead?
· Has an information centre been established?
· Have communications been established with the central (regional, national) government?
· Has there been a needs assessment to consider the number of people needing assistance, the type of assistance required, and the resources locally available?
· Are steps being taken to reunite families?
· Have safety instructions been issued?
· Are steps being taken to circulate information on:
- the consequences of the emergency?
- the dangers that exist?
- facts that may reassure people?
· Are communications being maintained with the central government?
· Is information on requirements being coordinated?
· Are local volunteer workers being coordinated?
· Are volunteer workers from outside being coordinated?
· Is inappropriate aid being successfully prevented and avoided?
· Are response and recovery supplies being fairly distributed?
· Is contact being maintained with all family groupings?
· Have families who are living in buildings that are damaged but not dangerous been reassured?
· Has an appropriate site been chosen for temporary shelters?
· In setting up shelters for emergency victims, have family and neighbourhood relationships and socioeconomic and cultural needs been taken into account?
· Have the victims been organized in family groupings?
· Have the essential problems been dealt with:
- water supply?
- the provision of clothing, footwear, and blankets?
- food supply?
- facilities for preparing hot meals?
- the installation of latrines?
- facilities for washing clothes and pots and pans?
- collection and disposal of waste?
· Have short meetings been arranged in the community to discuss the various problems and find solutions to them?
· Have steps been taken to encourage solidarity, mutual assistance, and constructive efforts among the people?
· Have school activities started up again?
· Have initiatives been taken for community action by children?
· Have steps been take to combat false rumours?
· Have measures been adopted to ensure that there is no favouritism in the distribution of response and recovery supplies?
· Is care being taken to make certain that volunteer workers from outside do not take the place of local people but help them to take the situation in hand?
· Have the victims been encouraged and helped to resume their activities?
· Have initiatives been taken to facilitate economic recovery, putting local resources to good use?
· Have steps been taken to ensure that people participate in drawing up plans of recovery and development and that those plans are in line with needs and the local culture?
· Are arrangements in force to avoid:
- crippling disputes?
1. Australian emergency manual: community emergency planning guide, 2nd ed. Canberra, Natural Disasters Organisation, 1992.
2. A guide for the review of state and local emergency operations plans. Washington, DC, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1992 (CPG 1-8A).
3. Capability assessment and standards for state and local government (interim guidance). Washington, DC, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1983 (CPG 1-102).
4. International Civil Defence Organisation. The international status of civil defence and the ICDO. International civil defence journal, 1993, 6(3):44-46.
5. Koob PC. Planning process II. Hobart, University of Tasmania, 1993.