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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans - Primary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 190 p.)
close this folderSection Four: Sample Activities
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.1 Unit One - OUR HEALTH
View the document4.2 Unit Nine - HIV/AIDS
View the document4.3 Unit Thirteen - FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS



The family is the basic unit of society. The state of the family greatly affects the growth and development of its members who depend on one other for their health i.e. physical, mental and social wellbeing. Therefore, it is important student teachers as individuals, generally understand their roles in promoting healthy relationships in the family.

On the one hand, they are youth facing a lot of pressure and influences from peers, relatives and community on how they should behave. They need life skills education. They are aged 18 years and have had at least 11 years of formal education. They have rich experience of facing challenges at home and in their schools and communities. They need to reflect and build upon these experiences in order to translate them into healthy life styles of their own.

At the same time, these student teachers are potential professional educators who can have a lot of positive influence on school children and youth in the community. They are potential agents of change in the entire education system and society. Therefore, they need skills and abilities to identify and cope with different social problems in the school and the community.


By the end of this unit, students should be able to:

1. Describe different types of families and their characteristics.

2. Describe the factors and circumstances that promote or inhibit healthy relationships in the family and community.

3. Explain the role of the individual, family, community and the school in promoting healthy relationships.

4. Explain the causes, consequences, prevention and management of:

· juvenile delinquency.
· alcohol and drug abuse.
· smoking.

5. Explain the children’s rights and the problems and challenges facing the girl child as well as her opportunities in the family and community.

6. Explain the importance of good marriage relationships in the family and community.

7. Identify and practice life skills that promote good relationships in the family, school and community.




By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Define a family
2. Describe the different types of families found in Uganda
3. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of different types of families.
4. Explain the effects of different family types on the individual, family and community.
5. Demonstrate their own life skills more effectively in real life situations.



Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, self awareness, critical thinking and coping with stress.


Papers, pens/pencils.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Tutor divides the students into 3 groups.

2. Tutor asks students to discuss and present in a diagram or picture form on a large sheet of paper the following:

Group A: “The family I would enjoy living in.”
Group B: “The family I would not enjoy living in.”
Group C: “The minimum requirements for a happy family”.

3. In plenary each group will present their work, identifying the people and the things/items found in the family they have drawn and why.

4. The tutor summarizes the activity by leading a discussion on the following:

(i) Family types and memberships identified.
(ii) Aspects that make certain families easier to live in them others.
(iii) Aspects that make certain families more difficult to live in than others.
(iv) Children’s rights and responsibilities in families.
(v) How common is the ideal family?

Learning Points

· It is difficult to define a family in the current Ugandan situation. The extended family has largely broken down, especially in the town leaving a wide variety of families including monogamous and polygamous families as well as single parent families, step parents, children living with their relatives permanently

· Aspects that make a happy family: love, fidelity, honesty, good character, education, adequate income, good goals, healthy life styles etc.

· Aspects that make certain families difficult to live in: large family size, inadequate income, poor character of members, poor hygiene, alcohol abuse, domestic violence etc.


· Drawings do not have to be elaborate

· Discussion should bring out the content.

· It will probably become clear from the drawings that students see families in a broader sense than mere family relationships. The quality of life of the family is essential.

· Emphasise that since the ideal is not common, all family types can be turned into relatively healthy and happy ones or vise versa depending on the behaviours of the family members.

Extension Activity

1. Discuss with your best friend the things that do not make you happy in your families and describe how you can improve them.




Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making.


Paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes


1. Divide the class into four groups.

2. Each group agrees upon the nine most important characteristics of a good family. The characteristics should be serially numbered (10 minutes).

3. Using the diamond ranking method groups, rank the characteristics they have identified to show their order of priority (10 minutes) The characteristics of highest priority are the ones that are most essential for creating a good family for example:


4. Groups present and discuss their work in plenary giving reasons for their ranking (10 minutes).

5. Tutor summarizes the presentations bringing out the salient aspects.

Learning Point

· The ideal family is not common, however, all types of families can be turned into relatively healthy and happy ones or vice versa depending on the behaviours of the family members.


· Refer to the diamond 9 ranking exercise in Section Two for a more detailed description of the methodology

· There is no single correct order of ranking the characteristics but the groups should be able to defend their rankings.

Extension Activity

1. Discuss with your friend how to build an ideal family. How do you think such a family would prioritise its use of the family income.




By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the role of each family member in promoting healthy family relationships-
2. Identify barriers to happy family relationships and ways of resolving them.
3. Adopt behaviours that promote healthy family relationships.



Life Skills to be developed

Interpersonal relationship, friendship formation, decision making.


Copies of the story, paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes


1. Divide the class in groups of eight and give each group copies of the story.
2. Ask groups to read the story and discuss the given questions.


Kato is a happily married man who lives with his wife and three children. The first born, Matata is a trained teacher, aged 23 years. The second, is a 16 year old boy in S.2 and the last one is a girl, aged 12 years in Primary seven.

Kato is a Ministry of Education and Sports employee. He doesn’t earn a lot of money but he managed to put up a house for his family and always provides clothing, protection and medical care to them. At the same time, his wife is innovative and very creative. Despite being a housewife, she started a poultry and tailoring project which supplements the husband’s income. She has trained some people from the community in tailoring and others have acquired more knowledge and skills on poultry keeping and tailoring. Besides, people from other villages near and far come to see the projects. They openly appreciate the projects and family relationships between the husband and wife and children.

Mr. and Mrs Kato love their children and always guide and direct them positively. This couple is free and open to the children and on several occasions Mr. and Mrs. Kato consult them on matters pertaining to home management, education, and lifestyles.

Once in a while the family organises outing to visit grand parents, aunts, uncles, friends, distant relatives and educative interesting places. The children love and respect their parents and all other elders in their village. Boys and girls help with domestic chores equally and they really confide in one another. Soon Matata is getting married to her fianchom she met at school. The whole family is involved in preparations. The aunts, uncles and grand parents have been invited to come and give advice and guidance to the bride. The whole family is happy and collectively looks forward to seeing Matata marry properly.


(i) How do Mr. and Mrs Kato relate to one another?
(ii) In your opinion what life skills do Mr. and Mrs Kato apply in their family?
(iii) How do Mr. and Mr. Kato relate to their children?
(iv) Why did Matata decide to get a fiancBR>(v) How does one arrive at getting a fiancianc

3. In the plenary, groups present and discuss their findings.

4. Tutor summarises important points in the story on good family relationships

Learning Points

· Responsibilities of each family member in promoting good relationship in the family. Parents/guardians provide love, security, shelter, care, clothing, financial support etc. Children provide love to parents and other people in the family, help on another etc.

· Importance of children’s rights in a good family relationship:

· a caring environment.
· they get basic necessities.
· they are involved in decision making.
· not discriminated against sex, origin etc.

· All children regardless of sex share chores equally.

· Some aspects that could promote good family relationship in a family.

· caring for one another
· working together
· interpersonal relationship
· accepting one another


· Tutor should avoid bias on matters pertaining to husband and wife relationship and nature of families. The story portrays one example of a good family; explore more.

Extension Activity

1. Students discuss contributions that parents and children can make to promote good family and community relationship.



Life Skills to be developed

Coping with stress and emotion, empathy, negotiation, interpersonal relationship.


Copies of the case study, paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 30 minutes


1. Divide the class in four groups.
2. Ask them to read the case study and discuss the given questions.

Case Study: Amon

Amon is a business man. He is married to Jane who is not employed. They have five daughters, aged between five and fifteen. Amon’s mother, Yunia, is a widow and stays with Amon. Amon enjoys going to parties and night clubs with friends. He normally comes home after midnight and wakes up his wife to give him warm water for bathing, food and news about his mother. He always leaves early in the morning before 6.00 a.m. Sometimes, Amon does not come home at all for days. He leaves some money with his mother who decides how to spend it for the family. Jane often attempts to explain to her husband the problems in the family but he does not listen. Occasionally, they end up fighting. The children too are not happy with their father.


(i) How does Amon relate to his wife?
(ii) If you were Jane, what would you do? Why?
(iii) If you were Amon, what problems are you likely to encounter?
(iv) If you were one of the children what would you do?
(v) Why do you think Amon gives money to his mother to run his family matters?
(vi) What do we learn from the case study?

3. In the plenary each group presents their findings for discussion.

4. Tutor highlights the salient points in the case study.

Learning Points

· Unacceptable behaviour of one family member leads to serious problems, e.g. distrust, alcohol abuse, infidelity.

· Consequences of abnormal family relationship to parents, children and community.

· Parents: separation of divorce, constant fighting, alcohol abuse, loss of weight, etc.

· Children: juvenile delinquency illiteracy, poor hygiene and nutrition etc.

· Importance of good family relationship in the family and community, e.g. poverty eradication, goals attained, healthy life styles etc.


· Tutor should avoid bias.
· S/he should create a free environment for discussion.

Extension Activity

1. Students discuss the cause and consequences of abnormal family relationship in their community.



Life Skills to be developed

Coping with stress and emotion, negotiation, decision making, interpersonal relationship.


Paper, pens, pencils, chalk board.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Divide the students into six groups.

2. Explain to the students that they are to produce a short role play which shows their feelings about different kinds of families. Give each group one family to role play.

Group One: “Growing up with mum alone.”
Group Two: “Growing up with dad alone.”
Group Three: “Growing up with auntie.”
Group Four: “Children growing up alone.”
Group Five: “Growing up with all our relatives.”
Group Six: “Growing up with the housegirl.”

3. Discussion of each group’s presentation in plenary using the guiding questions below:

(i) How realistic was the presentation?
(ii) How stereotyped was the presentation?
(iii) How do we ensure good relationships in all family type variations.

4. Tutor summarizes positive and negative points portrayed in the role plays e.g. over protection, over dependency, stereo typing, neglect, rejection, love, proper care etc.

Learning Point

· There will probably be a stereotyped presentation of most of the family types. The teacher should counteract this with examples of positive behaviours in all kinds of families.


· Tutor should be aware that this activity is sensitive. S/he should not show bias.
· Role plays should not take more than five minutes.

Extension Activity

1. Students identify two family type variations in their community and describe how the members relate to one another.




By the end of the topic, students will be able to:

1. Identify ways they can cope with emotions caused by problems at home

2. Explain the effects of bad relationships on children

3. Negotiate better in difficult family situations

4. Develop and demonstrate their self-esteem whatever family they belong to.



Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, self awareness, coping with stress and emotion, empathy.


Paper, pens/pens, task cards writing papers prepared before hand.

Time: 30 minutes


1. Divide students into groups of six to eight.
2. Give each group two tasks to discuss and write down their findings (10 minutes).


(i) Mother is drinking too much?

(ii) You never see your father because he always comes home late?

(iii) You stay with your mother/father and she/he won’t let you see your other parent?

(iv) You want to go out to a disco with your friend on Saturday night i but your parents won’t let you go?

(v) Your mother keeps taking you out of school to help at home?

(vi) You live with an orphaned relative but your father/mother is not treating her/him well?

(vii) Your mother is very unhappy and she tells you that your father has another woman?

(viii) One of our parents/guardians is terminally ill?

(ix) You are brought up by a stepmother?

(x) You are brought up by a stepfather?

3. Groups present their findings in plenary for discussion (10 minutes)

4. Brainstorm on factors that cause parents/guardians to be difficult (5 minutes)

5. Tutor summarizes the main aspects in dealing with difficult parents or guardians e. g. tolerance, negotiation, using a sympathetic adult, seeking advice etc.

Learning Points

· Factors that may cause parents or guardians to be difficult include:

· their nature.
· inadequate income.
· too many responsibilities or demands.
· large family size.
· poor relationships etc.

· Values for the children include:

· negotiation.
· assertiveness
· tolerance
· critical thinking

· Children’s rights related to safety and security at home.

· Specific problems of the girl child such as work load, son preference, early marriage, push out of school etc.


· Ensure participation of all students in the groups.



Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, empathy, creative thinking, problem solving, effective communication.


Paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Tutor reviews the previous lesson on coping with difficult parents and guardians - what they do/don’t do and how children try to cope.

2. Whole class brainstorms on the meaning of the topic for the debate.

3. Divide the class into two groups; PRO and CONTRA. Each group chooses their two main speakers.

4. Each group prepares the speeches to be given by their main speakers.

5. The two groups debate in plenary by the chairmen presenting their points of view. Each side is given 5 minutes.

6. If there is time, speeches from the floor are allowed.

7. Tutor summarizes the salient aspects raised by the debate.

Learning Points

· Growing up with difficult parents or guardians can have terrible consequences which greatly outweigh some incidental seeming benefits on the child.

· “Training” the child for life does not mean or require creating very difficult conditions for him/her.

· Children’s rights, for both boys and girls.


· It may be necessary to allow a double class for this activity
· It is a debate - there is no right or wrong side.
· Tutor should use the opportunity to examine children’s rights.

Extension Activity

1. Visit a primary school and collect from teachers real life examples of children whole behaviour was affected by difficult parents/guardians.




By the end of this topic, students should be able to:

1. Explain some of the problems facing orphans and analyse the reasons for them.
2. List ways of improving the orphan situation
3. Act as responsible teachers to those who are orphans in their class



Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, coping with stress and emotion, self esteem.


Copies of the story about Musa, paper, pens/pencils.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Divide students into groups.

2. Give each group a copy of the story about Musa and ask them to read and discuss the given questions.


Evening always found Musa very tired at home. After school he had to fetch water, bring in the goats, sweep the court yard and heat bath water for the children.

However Dina would complain to her husband about Musa. “Musa is an eater and not a producer”, she said. “He doesn’t want to work, yet he doesn’t miss any meal!”

Musa always had tea without milk or sugar though the rest of the children had these. “If Musa wanted milk, why didn’t he come with a cow?” she retorted when her husband pointed out that Musa’s tea had no milk in it.

“Mother, please give Musa some sugar with his tea,” Jane implored her mother. “We don’t have a sugar depot!” Dina spat out.

Musa drank his brown hot water suppressing a desire to cry. He must do what brought him to Kyeera and not let food divert his aims. He was determined to abide by his father’s parting words.



(i) Draw the family diagram showing how Musa fits into the family.

(ii) Explain how Musa’s health is affected;

· physically
· mentally
· socially

(iii) How does Dina attempt to break Musa’s esteem?

(iv) Could Dina’s husband have done more?

(v) Could Jane have done more for Musa? If you were Jane, what would you have done?

(vi) Where has Musa’s father gone? What is meant by ‘parting words’? What do you think were his parting words?

(vii) How does Musa try to cope with his situation?

3. In plenary, groups present and discuss their findings.

4. Tutor summarizes salient points about caring for orphans and other extended relatives in a family.

Learning Points

· Problems of orphans:

· lack of basic necessities e.g. food, shelter.
· no proper medical care.
· no parental love.
· pushed out of school etc.

· Improving the orphan situation:

· provide love, shelter, education, clothing, medical care, food etc.

· Musa’s position in the family.



· The topic is very sensitive to students who are orphans. Tutor could help them cope up with stress and emotions.

Extension Activity

1. Students carry out a debate based on Musa’s story. One group supports Dina and the other oppose her.



By the end of this topic, the student teachers should be able to:

1. Avoid the habit of smoking if they have not already started.
2. Assist other non-smokers to avoid the habit of smoking.
3. Stop smoking if they already smoke.
4. Assist other smokers to stop smoking.
5. Promote and protect children’s rights against smoking.



Life Skills to be developed

Decision making, peer pressure resistance, friendship formation, negotiation.


Rolled papers to resemble cigarettes, match boxes, manila paper, markers.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Students are divided into two groups A and B.

2. Group A prepares arguments in favour of smoking and Group B prepares arguments against smoking. Each group chooses 2 members who will role play on their behalf in an argument about smoking.

3. Students role play the argument.

4. Students divide into small groups of six to eight participants to discuss the following questions.

(i) What have you learnt from the role play?
(ii) Who were more forceful in their arguments? Why?
(iii) Which side modified its position in any way? How?
(iv) Which side was most successful in arguing? Why?
(v) Which was more effective, confrontation or negotiation?

5. Groups present their findings to the plenary for discussion.

6. Tutor summarizes salient points.


Learning Points

· Smoking is a habit which has serious consequences to an individual, family and community. For example it is a health hazard and a financial drain on individual and family budgets.

· A person starts smoking due to several influences. For example, a child may get curious and tries to find out what her/his father/mother gets out of smoking. Another youth may take to smoking when s/he visits places where many patrons smoke, for example bars, night clubs and video cinemas. Being in the company of those who smoke may persuade a person to smoke just to keep up with them.

· Smoking is mostly started during teenage years.

· Breaking the habit of smoking requires a strong will to stop because nicotine is physically addictive. Guidance and counselling may assist.


· Encourage the role players to bring out, each of the intended life skills as much as possible.

Extension Activities

1. Ask students to identify and approach some smokers in the college or the local community ask them:

(i) When they started smoking.
(ii) How they started smoking.
(iii) How much they smoke everyday.
(iv) Whether anybody ever complains about their smoking.
(v) Whether they would like to give up smoking.



Life Skills to be developed

Effective communication, decision making, critical thinking.


Manila paper, markers, copies of a poem “Ring of Death”.

Time: 40 minutes


1. The students are each given a copy of the poem which they study on their own.


When I light up a fag,
I feel like a King
Among all my peers,
to smoke is the thing
I inhale and I blow
a lovely smoke ring
I whistle, I laugh
with joy as I sing
But the song is of death,
The death of the ring
The death of my cash
I blame on the ring
Family crash
I blame on the ring
Collapse of my lungs
was caused by the ring
Departure of breath
Death of the ring.

2. In groups discuss the following questions.

(i) According to the poem, what are the effects of smoking?

(ii) Do you think the poem has given a fair picture of the effects? Why?

(iii) What can be done:

· to encourage smokers to stop smoking?
· to discourage other people smoking?
· to reduce other people’s rate of smoking?

(iv) How can children be protected against smoking?

(v) Identify and explain life skills which can be used to prevent or control smoking.

Learning Points

· Smoking is a habit which has serious consequences for individuals, families and communities. For example it is a health hazard and a financial drain on individual and family budgets.

· Nicotine a chemical found in Tobacco is a drug that leads to dependence.

· Advertisements in support of smoking are just fallacies.

· Smoking constantly damages the lungs and other respiratory organs. This affects the body and functions and is especially noticed in sports or manual labour.


· If copies of the poem are not enough or available, it can be written on a chalk board.

Extension Activity

1. Each group is asked to compose a short poem conveying a particular message on a short poem.

2. The poems are written on a manilla paper/newsprint and displayed around the classroom.

3. The students go around the classroom identifying the major messages in each poem.



Life Skills to be developed

Peer pressure/resistance, friendship formation, assertiveness.


Manila paper, markers, a copy of the story.

Time: 30 minutes


1. Tutor reads the following situation to the class.

Richard was not a smoker. He used to spend a lot of his time with Maria. She was so charming and he really enjoyed her company. But his friends laughed at him and told him that if he wanted to remain friends with them, he had to smoke. So he smoked but when he went to see Maria later, she wrinkled her nose in disgust.

‘Richard, you’ve been smoking.’


‘I hate cigarette smoke. I’m sorry but if you want to be my friend, you’ll have to give up smoking.’

2. Students buzz with their neighbours as to what they would do if they were Richard.

3. In plenary, tutor asks the students to examine their own emotions on the issue by answering the following questions:

(i) Do you think Maria is being reasonable to Richard?
(ii) Who are more important, Maria or the other boys?
(iii) What is the best alternative for Richard?

Learning Points

· Non smokers can be affected by smokers.
· Smokers who give up smoking can gradually regain their health.
· The main causes of smoking are peer pressure, imitation, poor decision making and lack of critical thinking.


· The story may be read by one of the students.
· Making a firm decision gives a basis for negotiation.
· At times negotiation is difficult because it involves independence, trust and power.

Extension Activity

1. Students discuss the following questions:

(i) What are the causes and consequences of smoking?
(ii) How can smoking be prevented?

2. State and explain life skills which can be used to prevent and control smoking.

3. How can we promote/protect children’s rights in relation to smoking?




By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Explain the causes, consequences, prevention and management of juvenile delinquency.
2. Develop life styles that are beneficial to themselves, their families peers and the community.
3. Identify and develop life skills beneficial within peers, family and community.



Life Skills to be developed

Interpersonal relationships, self awareness, critical thinking.


Cards or newsprint cut in pieces of 10 x 20 cm, pens, pencils.

Time: 30 minutes


1. Divide the students into groups of 5 and distribute cards and markers to each group.

2. Ask each group to discuss and agree on the definition of “Juvenile” and “Delinquency”.

3. The agreed definitions of each team are written on separate cards.

4. Tutor collects the cards and pins them up for discussion, and an agreed definition of Juvenile delinquency is arrived at.

5. Each group discusses the causes of juvenile delinquency and agrees on the five most critical ones. These are then written on separate cards.

6. The groups pin up their cards for discussion.

7. After studying the cards, students group them according to the following categories.

(i) Those to do with physical causes of Juvenile delinquency e.g. lack of food.
(ii) Social causes of Juvenile delinquency e.g. need for independence.

8. Tutor summarizes the work pointing out the importance of catering for the physical and social needs of juveniles.

Learning Points

· Juvenile delinquency - anti-social behaviour of children below 18 years of age.

· Examples of juvenile delinquency can include:

· Lying.
· Truancy (avoiding school).
· Stealing.
· Violence.
· Arson.
· Alcohol/Drug abuse.
· Loitering.
· Sex offences.

· Causes of Juvenile delinquency can include:

· Standards which are too high.
· Standards which are too low.
· Inconsistency in rewards and punishments.
· Disturbed homes.
· Poor social environment.
· Conflicting values in social groups.




Life Skills to be developed

Empathy, critical thinking, peer pressure resistance, self awareness.


Copies of the story of the prodigal son.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Divide the class into groups and give copies of the story to each group.

The Prodigal Son

He asked his father for the share of the wealth that should go to him which his father did willingly. In a far off country he squandered this wealth merry making with friends. Soon he was without money and all the friends he knew had disappeared. Hunger drove him to look for work. He even ate what was meant for his master’s pigs.

When he came to his senses he returned to his father from whom he asked for forgiveness. There was a great feast in honour of his return.

2. Groups answer the following questions. Each group answers either A or B or C.

A What could have caused the son to ask for his share of the wealth from his father? Give as many causes as you can think of.

B Imagine you were the prodigal son, narrate your experiences in the far away country before your wealth dried up.

C Imagine you were the prodigal son and your wealth has dried up. Narrate how you would prepare an apology to your father.

3. The groups present their answers to the plenary for discussion.

4. Tutor summarizes the presentations.

Learning Point

· The reaction of the father shows one very positive way of reclaiming delinquents.

Extension work

The groups can write and perform role plays on delinquency involving boys and girl children delinquents.




By the end of this topic students should be able to:

1. Avoid taking alcoholic drinks, if they have not already started.
2. Assist other non-alcoholic drinkers to avoid the habit of drinking.
3. Stop drinking alcohol, if they already drink
4. Assist other drinkers to stop drinking.
5. Promote and protect children’s rights with regard to alcohol.
6. Explain the effects of alcohol.



Life Skills to be developed

Coping with emotions, critical thinking, decision making.


Manila paper/newsprint, markers, copies of the cartoon story.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Students are divided to groups of 5-6.

2. Each group is given a copy of the cartoon story below to interpret and later discuss the given questions.


A (i) What type of a family can this be?

(ii) Why can’t the man sleep without a drink.

B If you were the son:

(i) how would you have reacted to your father’s order to look for waragi?
(ii) how would you have found out good quality waragi?
(iii) how would you have reacted when the father fell asleep?

3. Groups present their findings to the plenary for discussion.

Learning Points

· The potent component in all alcoholic drinks is ethanol.

· Some distillates, e.g. crude waragi, may contain some toxic components, e.g. methanol, which have a dangerous cumulative effect on health.

· Alcoholic drinks, even those from which toxic components have been removed, are bad for health if their consumption is not carefully controlled e.g. damage to brain, sight, nervous system.

· Alcoholic drinks consumption may make a big drain a personal and family income.

· The children’s rights violated include

· exposure to night dangers
· exposure to alcoholics in the drinking places.
· tempting the child to drink to drink to determine quality.

· Alcoholics can be helped by counselling them to develop a will to stop on their own, first of all.


· Where it is not possible to reproduce the cartoon story, the situation could be presented in the form of a role play.

Extension Activities

1. Students should produce short stories in cartoon form, depicting how children’s rights and safety in families are abused.

A Drink to Sleep (Cartoon Story)



Life Skills to be developed

Critical thinking, decision making, negotiation, coping with emotions.


Copies of the play, newsprint, markers.

Time: 40 minutes


1. Divide the class into groups and give each group a copy of the following case study to read and later discuss the given questions.

Majala is a married man, with six children. He is employed in a big private company. He and his family stay in their family house in an electoral constituency. Majala stands for elections. He borrows and spends a lot of money buying alcohol, during the campaign period, to solicit for support.

(i) What are the likely effects of alcohol on the voters?

(ii) Do you think Majala will win?

(iii) If you were a voter, what would you feel about being given free drink? Would you vote for Majala?

(iv) If you were Majala,

· How else would you have solicited for votes?
· How would you feel before the votes were counted?
· How would you feel if you lost? Who would you blame?
· What would you do after losing the elections?

(v) If you were Majala’s wife, how would you react when Majala tells you that he is going to stand for elections? How would you feel if he lost the election? What would you do?

(vi) What problems do you think Majala is facing? How can you advise Majala to solve these problems?

2. Each group presents their findings to the plenary for discussion.

3. Summarise the main points.

Learning Points

· Events like elections raise a lot of feelings like expectations, hope, excitement, anxiety, joy, disappointment, despair among those participating in them.

· To win peoples’ support, one should rely on honest appeal, persuasion, negotiation and demonstration that you can assist them, using legal means, to overcome their problems. Bribing through such offers as alcohol should be avoided. Not only do bribes prevent people from assessing you objectively but their lives and productivity is impaired.

· All family members should be consulted and allowed to give their opinion on any activity where family resources are involved.


· To save some time, different questions on case study can be handled by different groups.

Extension Activities

1. Each group prepares a role play on case study which can be presented in next lesson.



Life Skills to be developed

Coping with emotions/stress, empathy, peer resistance.


Newsprint, markers.

Time: 40 minutes


1. The class brainstorms on:

(i) the dangers of alcohol abuse.
(ii) the signs of alcohol abuse
(iii) treatment of alcohol abuse

One of the students writes the points on the board.

2. The tutor divides the class in an even number group of groups of 5-6 students.

3. Each group designs an outline of an emblem and a motto.

4. Half of the groups write in the four corners of their shields how alcohol abuse can be prevented by the:

(i) individuals/self
(ii) family members
(iii) community members
(iv) government

These groups each compose a motto about prevention of alcohol abuse. The other groups write, in the four corners of the shields how a victim of alcohol abuse (an alcoholic) can be helped by the:

(i) individuals/self.
(ii) family members.
(iii) community members.
(iv) government.

They then compose a motto about helping a victim of alcohol abuse (an alcoholic)

5. The groups present their shields and mottos for discussion.


Learning Points

· Dangers of alcohol abuse include:

(i) Tolerance - drinking more and more alcohol as time goes on.

(ii) Dependence - failure to function without having taken alcohol.

(iii) Developing diseases of the liver, the digestive system, the brain.

(iv) Family problems - family neglect, child and spouse abuse, maladjusted children, loss of income - e.g. losing a job.

(v) Community problems - one may become violent, rape and defile, damage property, cause accidents.

· There are children’s rights related to alcohol, e.g. children should not be exposed to:

(i) places where alcohol is sold and drunk
(ii) situations that may tempt them to take alcohol.

· Signs of alcohol abuse include:

(i) Physical appearance - e.g. red mouth, swollen cheeks,

(ii) Behaviour - e.g. loss of body coordination, loss of memory, loss of appetite, shaky hands

(iii) Mental change - e.g. impaired speech, loss of memory.

· Prevention of alcohol abuse can be achieved by the:

(i) Individual through self discipline, e.g. controlling emotions and stress, resisting peer pressure, having self respect, making the right decision.

(ii) Family members through advising and counselling the individual, listening to problems and suggesting better solutions, showing exemplary behaviour.

(iii) Community members - through immunizing situations that will make the individual an alcoholic, e.g. alcohol sellers to prefer an individuals well being then money, peers to resist pleasing the individual through offering excessive drinks; community leaders to counsel the individual.

(iv) Government to enact guidelines and laws to prevent alcohol abuse.

· Assisting a victim of alcohol abuse can be achieved by the:

(i) Individual - through convincing oneself about the need to stop drinking and developing a will strategy to do so and implementing the strategy.

(ii) Family members - through encouraging, advising and supporting the alcoholic.

(iii) Community - through encouraging, advising and supporting the alcoholic.

(iv) Government - through offering appropriate heath education and care to the victim.


· This activity should be based on the learners’ personal experiences.

Extension activity

1. Students could compose songs based on the mottos they wrote.




By the end of the topic, students should be able to:

1. Describe and explain the disadvantages and consequences of drug addiction on the health of the individual, family and community.

2. Practice decision making and assertiveness skills in order to prevent and control drug abuse

3 Identify and explain children’s rights with respect to the prevention and control of drug abuse and drug trafficking.



Life Skills to be developed

Assertiveness, self esteem, effective communication, empathy, critical thinking.



Time: 30 minutes


1. Divide students into four groups and give each group one of the following to discuss.


(i) What is drug abuse?

(ii) What factors encourage drug abuse?

(iii) How can drug abuse be prevented?


(i) List the practices that lead to drug abuse.

(ii) What are the effects of drug abuse on the individual, family and community?


(i) What is drug addiction?

(ii) What is drug dependence?

(iii) How can it be prevented and controlled?


(i) What is drug trafficking?

(ii) What are its consequences?

(iii) How can it be prevented and controlled?

2. In plenary groups present their findings for discussion.

3. Tutor highlights outstanding points and aspects on the topic.

Learning Points

· Drugs are medicinal substances that can prevent, cure or reduce symptoms of disease. However it is essential that they are prescribed and used properly.

· Differentiate between medical and illegal drugs.

· Drug abuse is when drugs are used wrongly whether they are legal or illegal. It does harm to body and cause many psychological and social problems to the individual.

· Drug dependence is a result of drug abuse and prolonged use of the drug. The body and mind become dependent on taking the drug, the taker feels s/he cannot live without it and s/he suffers withdrawal symptoms when s/he stops taking the drugs.

· Drug trafficking is the dealing or buying and selling of illegal drugs.

· The factors which influence drug abuse include the biological effect of the drug, pressure from the social group and the individual’s personality.

· The following life skills are useful in the prevention and control of drug addiction. Resisting peer pressure, self-esteem, decision making, critical thinking.

· Children have the right to be protected against drug addiction: for example drugs should help out of children’s reach, and they should be taught the effects of drugs and how to resist peer pressure.


· Ensure that discussion brings out the learning points and life skills.
· Bring out promotion and protection of children’s rights.

Extension Activity

1. Carry out a survey among adults and youths with regard to the use of illegal drugs in village.