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close this bookSmall-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)
close this folderWeek 7: Training
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSession T-86: Introduction to fisheries economics and marketing
View the documentSession T-87: ''Gyotaku'' fish art special project
View the documentSession T-88: Fund raising - special group project
View the documentSession T-89: Economic data sheets
View the documentSession T-90: Transportation systems - special project
View the documentSession T-91: Fish cooperatives special group project
View the documentSession T-92: Simple accounting techniques
View the documentSession T-93: Reef survey preparation
View the documentSession T-94: Artificial reefs and floating tire breakwaters - special project
View the documentSession T-95: Resources/proposal writing
View the documentSession T-96: Reef survey
View the documentSession T-97: Interviews
View the documentSession T-98: Fish issues - special group project
View the documentSession T-99: Ecology and conservation - special group project
View the documentSession T-100: Report writing

Session T-86: Introduction to fisheries economics and marketing

Time: 7:30 AM


· For trainees to become aware of the various economic activities in which small-scale fishermen are involved

· To bring the individual volunteer's role as a development worker into perspective

· For trainees to become knowledgable of the basic components in the decision-making process and procedures necessary to make a sound decision


This session begins by explaining the basic economic concepts fishermen must contend with in their daily lives. Possible solutions are brought out, and the role of the fisheries extensionist as an agent of change is discussed. The decision making apparatus is explored, and its economic relationship to the fishermen is discussed - as well as the logical five-ate? process to better decision making.


1. Fishery Economics/Economic Activities:
a. definitions of economic activities (see appendix 1);
b. natural fisheries (see appendix 2);
c. economic treadmill (see appendix 3).

2. Development Role Play

3. Decision-Making in Fishery Economics


· flip chart, markers, handouts, Appendix 1, 2, 3

Trainer's Note:

We felt it was important to keep the human perspective when dealing with economics. We kept in mind that trainees would be transferring basic economic/marketing skills to people who would not be impressed with flow charts, graphs or analysis tables.


· The Fisherman's Business Guide Smith, Fred. Oregon State University

Press. Corvallis, Oregon 97331

EXERCISE 1 - Fishery Economic Activities

Total Time: 2 Hours Goal 5

· To give definitions of economic activities
· To help trainees understand basic concepts of economics


In this session trainees are exposed to the basic concepts of fish economics. The general economic condition of small-scale fishermen is the focus.


· flip charts, markers, tape, Appendix 1, 2, and 3 drawn on flip chart paper




15 Minutes

1. Talk on economic activities (using flip chart drawing of appendix 1)

a. definition of economics

b. production and services

c. consuming and using

d. costs of production, market availability

10 Minutes

2. Natural Fisheries. Technical trainer uses flip chart drawing of appendix 2, and covers the following topics:

a. artisinal

b. industrial

c. needs of artisinal fisheries development

d. cash income for increased standard of living; production of protein

10 Minutes

3. Technical trainer now asks trainees for questions they may have. Points out that this is a western economic concept. Asks trainees how they think these concepts may be in conflict with cultures they are going to work in Trainer lists replies on newsprint.

15 Minutes

4. Technical trainer now continues with Economic Treadmill using appendix 3 drawn on flip chart paper.

a. what is a treadmill - beast of burden inside going nowhere

b. artisinal fishermen are caught up in an economic treadmill benefiting others more than themselves

c. fish merchant prospers

d. ice plant owner prospers

e. engine Salesmen prosper

f. fuel agent prospers

g. fishermen stay the same, remain at bottom of social scale in terms of income, housing, education, health care

h. money advanced by merchants or money lenders to keep boat, gear, in repair

i. interest rate is so high, by the time money is repaid for a loan, fishermen need another loan to carry them through

Trainer points out that once western economics/marketing, fishing technology and equipment are Introduced to developing countries, western economic problems are introduced at the same time.

10 Minutes

5. Technical trainer returns to newsprint of conflicts generated during step 3. Given these conflicts and the economic realities presented in step 4, what are the possible solutions to the dilemma?

10 Minutes

6. Technical trainer responds to solutions on news print and goes into the following:

Role of Fisheries Extensionist

a. cooperative marketing

b. injection of credit with easier repayment


c. improvement on productivity

d. improved catch quality

10 Minutes

7. Trainees are asked to list on paper how they, as fisheries extensionists, envision becoming part of the solution.

35 Minutes

8. The trainees now form into small groups, share their lists, and on flip chart paper list what they think are the most feasible solutions that an extensionist can be part of. These are presented to larger group.

5 Minutes

9. Technical trainer responds to small group presentations, and leads into next exercise.


Economic Activity
Every person has his own definition for Economics:
Economics affects our everyday life in many ways; what we eat, where we live, where we work, what we do in our spare time.
All these above examples are economic activity.
Any act of producing or servicing a product is an economic activity:
Fish farming, building, teaching.
In the same way any act of consuming or using a service is an economic activity: Buying, transporting, learning.
We can now see that fishing, fish farming, transporting fish, buying fish, are all economic activities.
In Economics we look at the costs of production and availability of markets.


In Natural Fisheries we look at two levels of fishing:

A. Artisanal i.e. low scale
B. Industrial i.e. large scale
- here bigger boats, more crews and sophisticated gear are used

We will concentrate on artisanal fisheries since they need extension work.

There are two kinds of artisanal fisheries:

(a) Subsistence Fishing - only interested in catching fish for the pot

(b) Commercial Fishing - concerned with earning income

Just like in other types of fishing there are subsistence fishermen and commercial fishermen and we must try to encourage more subsistence fishermen to become commercial fishermen so they will (1) earn a higher income and gain a better standard of living and (2) produce valuable protein which will improve the health of the whole population.

So for both fishermen and fish farmers it is important to encourage the motivation for a higher income.

All of us want to exchange something we produce with other items to consume. This is very difficult. We cannot say how many bags of rice are worth a pair of shoes.

Therefore we use money. Our money is dollars and cents. We sell fish for $15.00. We buy a pair of shoes.

Economists look at fish mainly as a food product. Fish is popular because it tastes good, it gives plenty of protein, it normally is cheaper than meat. All these points make up the demand for fish.


Economic treadmill

EXERCISE 2 - Development Role Play

Total Time: 1 1/2 Hours


· To introduce different points of view about development
· For trainees to envision possible frustrations they will have as a PCV
· For trainees to conceptualize different strategies that could be used in development work


In this exercise trainees try to conceptualize their role as a PCV, the possible frustrations that could arise around economic issues, and strategies that they could employ to overcome resistance to development.


· flip charts, markers, Development Story

Trainer's Note:

Immediately after Exercise 1, trainer asks for two volunteers to do a role play for this exercise. The two volunteers are given 15 minutes to prepare before exercise starts.




15 Minutes

1. Trainees present role play.

15 Minutes

2. Trainer asks the following questions posted on newsprint:

a. What would you have done differently?

b. What was the development worker really trying to do?

20 Minutes

3. Trainees break into two or three groups and prepare their own role plays based on previous discussion. (role plays 5 to 8 minutes)

20 Minutes

4. Trainees present skits.

3 Minutes

5. Trainer processes each skit.

15 Minutes

6. Trainer asks if trainees can envision frustrations they might have as development workers. Trainer has trainees get in touch with the feelings that were generated during role play. Lists the feelings on newsprint.


There is the old story about a fisheries expert with an international development organization who was extremely keen to promote increased fish production and improve the economic status of subsistence fishermen. He was walking the beach on a South Pacific atoll one calm, sunny morning when he came across an islander sitting under a palm tree, obviously relaxing and letting the world go by. There was a fine looking small runabout with an outboard motor anchored a short way offshore so the expert struck up a conversation that went something like this:

"Good morning. Is that your runabout out there?"

"Good morning. Yes it is."

"Do much fishing with it?"

"Not too much. Only what I need for the family and to sell a few fish to pay for petrol."

"Well look here. I know a village a couple of miles down the coast that is always short of fish so there is a good market, and if I were you I'd go into fishing full time to satisfy that market."

"Why should I? I really don't have to fish full time."

"But man, look what you could do for your family with some extra cash. You could buy them better clothing, some luxury items, provide your children with better education - there's really no limit on what you could do to improve your standard of living."

"O.K. Suppose the money does start coming in and my standard of living improves, what happens then?"

"Well, in time you could probably afford a larger boat and spend more time catching fish, and perhaps employ some of your people to fish with you."

"Alright. What happens then?"

"Well, after more time you will probably pay off the boat, start a savings account, and eventually you will be able to enjoy a comfortable retirement."

"So what do you think I'm enjoying now?"

At the risk of committing heresby, one would be less than honest not to admit that there are times when the islander's philosophy is much more appealing than our own.

EXERCISE 3 - Decision-Making in Fishery Economics Total Time: 1 Hour


· To make trainees aware that decision-making is an important part of business management
· For trainees to understand the procedures in making a logical decision; the five-step process


Trainees as extensionists, will have to present data to help others make decisions. They need to be clear about their own participation in this decision-making process.


· flip chart, markers




10 Minutes

1. Trainer makes opening remarks

a. What is decision-making?

and asks the following questions:

b. How does it work?

c. Is decision-making a necessity in a fishing environment?

Trainees respond to questions and discuss premises.

10 Minutes

2. Technical trainer presents the

a. make observation and obtain ideas

following five steps in decision-

b. analyze your observations


c. make the decision - yes or no

d. take action

e. accept responsibility

25 Minutes

3. Trainees break into small groups and come up with a process by which they can work with fishermen to use the five steps in decision-making. They list process on newsprint and present to large group.

10 Minutes

4. Trainer comments on each presentation, pointing out areas that are clearly working with someone and areas that are doing something for someone. It must be clear that local fishermen must make their own decisions.

5 Minutes

5. Trainer wraps up session by talking

a. the fisherman as a businessman

briefly about:

b. fishing as a business

c. decisions which face a businessman

Link to future session.