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close this bookSmall-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)
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Small-scale marine fisheries: An Extension Training Manual

This fisheries training manual has been developed for use in preservice training of prospective Volunteers whose Peace Corps service will be spent working with small-scale, artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. The module, or design, lends itself to both single-country or multicountry use.

The technical content of the training design was well researched in the field. One member of the design team spent 8 months overseas in 1980-81, researching the needs of small-scale artisanal fishing communities and meeting with ministry officials from various countries with and without existing Peace Corps programs. In September of 1982, the design team met in Boqueron, Puerto Rico, with the Fisheries Programming and Training Specialist from Peace Corps/Washington. He had just returned from 4 months in the field meeting with various Peace Corps staffs in 8 countries of the three regions Peace Corps serves, to determine the role of Volunteers in marine fisheries programs and to ascertain the types of training future Volunteers would need to maximize their effectiveness. After reviewing the task analysis, it was decided that the training format used by Peace Corps' Forestry Sector for its preservice training of forestry Volunteers would be best suited in meeting the objectives of the marine fisheries training design.

Each session of this training program builds towards or from the one(s) preceding and following it. However, with minor modification, sessions may be used independently.

The suggestions for timing, location and administration of the sessions are drawn from the results of the field testing done during the pilot training program. While the constraints of your setting may require modifying these guidelines, we suggest that special consideration be given to each of these categories, so that training programs may be of the greatest benefit to the prospective marine fisheries Volunteer.

This training program is based on the experiential learning model. The elements of each session are: the experience itself, the processing of the experience by the trainers; the generalization of the learning by the trainees; the application of the learning; summarizing; and, finally, the linking of the experience to the next session.

Training Program Overview

The general purpose of this training program is to prepare prospective Peace Corps Volunteers who will serve in small-scale, artisanal fishing communities in developing nations. This program is an eight week intensive training program designed to build trainees competence in marine fisheries technology and fisheries extension work. Further, the program helps trainees build confidence in their own abilities to transfer skills and knowledge. The technical training is experiential; trainees learn by doing rather than by being told a series of "how to's".

It is important to note that this training program puts heavy emphasis on the economic development of small-scale and subsistence-level fishermen. The trainees from this program will be involved as extensionists on the community level and thus will be in direct contact with fishermen and their families on a daily basis. This front-line contact gives the PCV exposure in which to act as a valuable resource, not only in the realm of fishing and related support areas, but also in other income generating projects which will improve the standard of living of the fishing family, i.e. improved fish smokers and solar dryers, salt-making, alternative energy production from fish silage, gardening and handicraft development.

Throughout the pilot program the trainees understood the value of the communication exercises, cultural awareness exercises and community analysis. We were certain that conducting the pilot program in Puerto Rico contributed greatly to their immediate acceptance of extension skill-building and practice.

There is at the beginning of training an orientation to Peace Corps. In this orientation, trainees learn about Peace Corps policies, explore their aspirations for Peace Corps service, use the "Cross-Cultural Workbook" from the CAST model, and do exercises that give them insight into the role of the Volunteer as a development worker.

The next phase of the program is field placement (or family live-in). The trainees are placed at different sites with commercial fishing families. While at the site, trainees are given two tasks: to collect as much data as possible using the social cybernetics sub-systems (see Community Analysis, Session T-31); and, based on their observations, to formulate a list of technical skills they believe they will need to be an effective marine fisheries PCV. Learnings that were generated by the field placement were:

- the importance of language; _ the importance of non-verbal communication; _ different concepts of privacy;
- differences in the roles between men and women;
- overwhelming hospitality, and how one deals with that;
- observation of local fishing practices and marketing structures; and,
- the government official from Washington being viewed as the solver of all problems in the community.

All of the trainees in the pilot program saw the "live-in" as a positive experience. The staff believes that the live-in set the stage for the rest of training: it provided the trainees with a frame of reference both technical and cross-cultural - on which to build throughout the duration of the training program. During this live-in trainees can test their emotional readiness to live and work in a different culture.

The introduction to fisheries technology starts with the trainees being introduced to Diesel and outboard engines. Here, major emphasis is given to proper maintenance practices. Trouble-shooting is also thoroughly covered. Next, the trainees learn net mending; and, over the remaining weeks of training, they will continue to mend nets, using various techniques of knot tying. The next seven weeks of training will include the following technical areas:

- fish preservation and processing;
- fishing gear;
- fish economics, marketing and income generation;
- extension;
- nutrition and fish culinary skills;
- navigation and seamanship;
- boat building, maintenance and construction;
- aquaculture; and,
- proposal writing and fund raising.

In addition, special projects are assigned to trainees in all of the above areas.

Intertwined with technical training are communication skills, team building, group process, community analysis, and core curriculum exercises, as well as individual problem-solving exercises.

The identification and practice of skills developed and areas of personal growth will be useful to the trainees in their role as Peace Corps Volunteers. The identification of areas of accomplishment will aid trainees in acquiring confidence for a successful service. All sessions, exercises, special projects, and skills practice are directed toward the practical application in their work as Volunteers.

Finally, participants are made aware from the first session that they are responsible for their own learnings. What we have done in this training program is to provide them with the opportunity for educational enhancement and skills development. In the process, they are afforded the chance to examine what commitment means as a Peace Corps Volunteer.

Training Program Goals

The design of the fisheries extension training program is such that upon completion, the trainee will be provided technical information, knowledge and skills, facilitating productive and satisfying Peace Corps Volunteer service.

Specific training goals are:

- to enable trainees to recognize their skills and to feel competent in the use of those skills;
- to teach trainees how to transfer the technical skills they have to others;
- to identify and improve skill areas that need strengthening;
- for trainees to understand their role as fisheries extension Peace Corps Volunteers in their host country;
- to help trainees identify and find resources available to them at their community sites and host country agencies;
- the illustration of competency in fisheries extension techniques, in fish processing, fish preservation, outboard/Diesel repair and maintenance, fisheries economics and marketing, small-scale fishing and fishing vessels, and vessel repair and construction;
- the ability to analyze properly communities' social systems, which should identify problems and help communities seek solutions;
- an understanding of the basic theories of fisheries extension work;
- increased interpersonal, team building and communication skills; and,
- a better understanding of global and country-specific fisheries issues.

Each session's objectives and activities will be described to trainees at the start of the session.

Advance Information

Before training starts, country-specific information for each country with trainee assignments need to be obtained from the Country Desks at PC/Washington. The optimum plan would be to have the Desk Officer or an RPCV from that country come to training during orientation to give a country overview. It is also helpful to have the Desk Officer at orientation to discuss specific country policies, as well as Peace

Corps policies. If it is not possible to have any of the above, the Desk Officer should send slides, movies and any written materials they may have for the staff to use. It is wise to discuss with the Desk Officer any special concerns that they may have about trainees entering the host country, and to find out if there are any unique situations that trainees should be prepared for.

The training staff of the pilot program felt very strongly that the trainees were not only being trained as volunteers but also as professionals. Consequently, they established a dress code for marine fisheries volunteers. In the past, volunteers have not always been as careful about their dress as they could have been. In order for our trainees to be accepted as professionals we felt they not only had to perform as professionals would, but also dress the part as well. We felt that by establishing this dress code and enforcing it during training that trainees would become familiar with - and hopefully continue to use appropriate dress throughout their volunteer service. The following dress code should be sent out by the Country Desk Officer with the invitation to training. Please check to see if this has been done. If not, it should be done immediately.

Peace Corps training is the appropriate place to instill the appropriate image of the PCV development worker. Throughout the eight week duration of the training program, trainees need to be given feedback by the training staff on their professional appearance, or lack of it. Para-military clothes, T-shirts and jogging shorts are not appropriate attire for the PCV development worker. Men must keep their hair, and beards and mustaches neatly trimmed, and/or clean shaven. Women with medium to long hair styles must keep their hair up. Peace Corps will never be seen by the host country as a serious development organization if its volunteers dress as if they were on their junior year abroad, or worse.

What to Bring - Peace Corps Training and Volunteer Service

The following is a listing of items, clothing in particular, that prospective volunteers should bring with them to the training program and for their volunteer service overseas.

For both men and women:

- a small, two blade pocket knife;
- a small, waterproof day pack;
- a pair of polarized sunglasses;
- a hat (for sun);
- two towels;
- tennis shoes or deck shoes;
- one pair of canvas work boots;
- two pairs of work pants;
- cotton underwear;
- cotton-poly blend socks;
- bathing suit;
- a light weight jacket;

For men:

- pants (Levis are ok, but they're hot. 50/50 cotton blend is best);
- two work shirts;
- two dress shirts (short-sleeved);
- knit shirts with collars;
- light weight sport coat;
- one tie; and,
- two dress walking shorts (for when on boat only).

For women:

- loose skirts (below knee);
- cotton blouses (modest);
- cotton dresses;
- cotton bras;
- cotton slips; and,
- cotton nightgown or robe.

Please note: Para-military clothes, jogging shorts, and T-shirts are not appropriate attire for the Peace Corps Volunteer development worker.

Getting Ready

There are several preparatory steps that must be taken in order to get ready for the training program.

In order for you to be well prepared, we offer the following suggestions concerning resources, materials, equipment, descriptions of training sites, or session sites, which will assist in managing staff time and handling administrative aspects of marine artisanal fisheries programs.

1. Stock the Reference Library

Several books and sets of reference materials are needed as library stock. Select materials which will aid trainees in technical skills development, special project assignments and fish technology. Further, incorporate a few manuals and research papers that you think will be of general interest. Putting together the library is a difficult task. You will find that you have few friends and fewer resources when it comes to borrowing books We give one of the trainees a special project for setting up the library. They make up a 3" x 5" card for each item with title and author:


Diesel Mechanics
Erich J. Schulz
McGraw Hill Book Company


The appropriate card is attached with paper clip to each piece of reference material. As items are checked out, the trainee keeps the card to know who has each item throughout training. Also, they will have responsibility for seeing that all materials are returned at the end of training.

During the pilot program we were very fortunate to have a technical trainer who brought many of his own materials to share. We were also able to get materials from the ICE sector of Peace Corps. We have included here our list of reference materials used during the pilot program. This list is not exhaustive by any means; there were many materials we wished we had but were unable to locate in Puerto Rico.

Anderson, E.P. and Palmquist, R.E. Refrigeration: Home and Commercial. Theodore Audel & Co. Indianapolis, Indiana. 1977.

Aypa, Simeon N. A Study on the Viability of Salt Making in Polyethylene Plastic Material for Small Scale Industry Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Manila, Philippines.

Bagnis, R. Fish Poisoning in the South Pacific. South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Baines, Graham K. Mangrove and Esturine Area Development in Fiji. Government of Fiji. Suva, Fiji.

Bardach, J.E. & Magnuson, J.J. Fish Behavior and its Use in the Capture and Culture of Fishes. 1977. ICLARM. Metro Manila, Philippines.

Barron, L.A. Fishery Training in Papua New Guinea. XXII Regional Technical Meeting on Fisheries. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Ben-Yami, M. Community Fishery Centers and the Transfer of technology to Small-Scale Fisheries. 1980. FAO. Rome, Italy.

Blandford, P.W. Netmaking. Brown and Son. Ferguson, Glasgow. 1977.

Bosworth, Velma. Photographing Tidepools. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon. 97331.

Boyd, N.S. Freezing and Cold Storage of Fish. Massey University, New Zealand.

Bowditch, Nathaniel. American Practical Navagator. U.S. Naval Hydrographic Office. 1966.

Brothers, Gerald. Inshore Fishing Gear and Technology. Industrial Development Branch, Fisheries and Marine Service. St. Johns, New Foundland, Canada. 1975.

Cansdale, George S. Report on Second Regional Consultancy Low-Cost Water Filtration. UNDP/South China Seas Programme. Manila, Philippines.

Chakroff, M.S. Marine Fisheries Case Studies. U.S. Peace Corps, I.C.E. 1981.

Chapman, Charles F. Piloting Seamanship and Small Boat Handling. Motor Boating and Sailing. 1972.

Clark, Althline M. Dangerous Marine Organisms of Hawaii. Sea Grant. University of Hawaii. Honolulu, HI 96822.

Coker, R.E. This Great and Wide Sea. Harper Touchbooks. Harper & Row. New York. 1947.

Crook, Michael, ed. A Chinese Biogas Manual. Intermediate Technology Publications, Ltd. London.

Darrow, Ken, Keller, Kent and Pam Rick. Appropriate Technology Source-book, Volume II. Volunteers in Asia Publication. Stanford, CA 94305.

Darrow, Ken and Pam Rick. Appropriate Technology Sourcebook. Volunteers in Asia. Stanford, CA. 1976.

Davidson, William D. Life Begins at 40°F: How to use a Seafood-Handlers Thermometer. Sea Grant, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 93771.

de Jesus, Arseno S. Lecture in Fish Capture, Unpublished papers. Fishermens Training Center. Cavite, Philippines.

Dempsey, Paul. How to Repair Small Gasoline Engines. Tab Books. Blue Ridge Summit, PA. 1972.

Dixon, Ruth. Rural Women at Work. John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, Md. 1976.

Drew, Stephen. A Simple Line and Net Hauler for Small and Mid-sized

Eastman, Peter F. Advanced First Aid Afloat. Cornell Maritime Press. Cambridge, Maryland 21513.

Erickson, Ralph D. Discover the Underwater World. U.S. Divers Co. Santa Ana, CA 92702.

Fisher, R.B. and Marshall, Charles A. Hydraulic Fishing Machinery Systems for Outboard Motor-Powered Boats. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Fyson, J.F. Fishing Vessel Design Proposals for Small Scale Fisheries in the Philippines. UNDP/South China Seas Programme. Manila, Philippinest

Gentle, M.T. Population Ecology of Beche-de-mer. South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Hakim, A Detailed Structure of a Verandah Net. Fishier Division, Ministry of Ag. and Fisheries. Suva, Fiji.

Helsing, Guy Recognizing and Controlling Marine Wood Borers. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York. 1952.

Hendericks, Peter L. Outboard Motor Maintenance Tips. Sea Grant, University of Hawaii. Honolulu, HI 96822.

Hermansson, Birgin. Training Fishermen at Sea. Fishing News Book. England. 1979.

Hildebrand, Kenneth S. Fish Pickling for Home Use. Pacific Northwest Publication. Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Hilderbrand, Kenneth S. Preparation of Salt Brines for the Fishing Industry. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Hillier, Albert J. How to Plan and Cut Nets. Fisheries and Marine Technology. Sea Grant, University of Rhode Island, RI 02882.

Johns, Frederick D. and Rand, Arthur G. Jr. Enzyme Methods to Assess Marine Food Quality. University of Rhode Island. Kingston, RI 02881.

Kelsen, Suend and Pizzali, A. Medina. Samahang Nayon Manual on Fish Processing and Marketing FAO/UNDP Manila Philippines. 1980..

King, Warren B. Seabirds of the Tropical Pacific Ocean. Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D.C.

Kolbe, Edward: Mate, Bruce & Jacobson, Robt. Bonding of Boats and Adjustment of Trolling Wire Voltages. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Korb, Albin W. Basic Training Manual for Marine Engineers. FAO/South China Seas Programme. Manila, Philippines.

Kotsch, William J. Weather for the Mariner. Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Md. 1977.

Kreuzer, Rudolph L. ed. Fishery Products Fishing News Books. England. 1974.

Laevatsu, Taivo and Hayes, Murray. Fisheries Oceanography and Ecology Fishing News Books. London, England. 1981.

Linder, Gert. Field Guide to Seashells of the World. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York. 1975.

Lodge, Dennis. Fish Finding Systems Course. Sea Grant/Clatsop Community College Astoria. Oregon 97103 Unpublished report.

Lodge, Dennis. Fishing Technology Course. Sea Grant/Clatsop Community College. Astoria, Oregon 97103. Unpublished report.

Mallon, Michael H., Kolbe, Edward. Cathodic Protection for Boats in Saltwater. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Martinson, Norman. Fish Signs and Techniques. Unpublished paper. Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon. 1980.

Matthiessen, Peter. Far Tortuga. Bantam Books, Inc. Random House. N.Y., N.Y. 1 975.

Mead, Paul. Report on the Second Visit of the South Pacific Commission Deep Sea Fisheries Development Project to the Kingdom of Tonga South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Motte, Geoffrey A. Cutting Web Tapers. Fisheries and Marine Technology. Sea Grant, University of Rhode Island. Narragansett, RI 02882.

McCeary, Linda Sunburn and Skin Care. Sea Grant, University of Hawaii Honolulu, HI 96822.

McInnis, Walter J. and Chappelle, Howard I. Wood as a Fishing Vessel Construction Material. Department of Fisheries of Canada, Ottawa.

Noble III, Maximino. The "Immersion" of an Island. Unpublished report. 1980.

Obispo, Rolando C. Some Municipal Fishing Gear Used in the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Cebu City, Philippines. Unpublished report.

Pizzalo, A. Medina. Application of Chilled Sea Water in a Small-Scale Fishery Project-A Case Study. FAO/UNDP. Manila,Philippines. 1980.

Pollnac, Richard B. Continuity and Change in Marine Fishing Communities. AID Working Paper #10,22. International Center for Marine Resource Development. University of Rhode Island. Kingston, RI 02881.

Prescott, J. A Handbook for Lobster Fishermen of the Tropical Pacific Islands. South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Reinhart, Johanna, ed. Small Boat Design. International Center for Living and Aquatic Resources Management. Metro Manila, Philippines.

Ronquillo, Inocencio A. Detecting Fish Caught with Explosives. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Manila, Philippines.

Royce, William F. Introduction to the Fishery Sciences, Academic Press New York. 1972.

Sainsburg, John C. Commercial Fishing !Methods Fishing News Books England.

Sanchez, Jesus P. and Pastoral, Prospero C. Tuna Purse Seining with the Use of the Payao (Fish Aggregating Device). Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Metro Manila, Philippines.

Schulz, Erich J. Diesel Mechanics. Gregg Division. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.

Schumacher, E.F. Small is Beautiful. Blond and Briggs London 1973.

Smith, Frederick J. Organizing and Operating a Fishery Cooperative Part 1. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon. 97331.

Smith, Frederick J. Organizing and Operating a Fishery Cooperative Part 2. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Smith, Frederick J. Understanding and Using Marine Economic Data Sheets Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Smith, Ian R. A Research Framework for Traditional Fisheries. 1979 ICLARM. Metro Manila, Philippines.

Smith, Ian R. Puzon, M.Y., Vidal-Libuans, C.N. Philippine Municipal Fisheries: A Review of Resources Technology and Socioeconomics ICLARM. Manila, Philippines.

Souchotte, E. & Smith, D.W. Marine Auxiliary Machinery. Newnes-Butterworths. Boston. 1975.

Soucy, Robert. A Curriculum for Training Marine Mechanics Southern Maine Vocational-Technical Institute. South Portland, Maine 04106.

Southcott, R.Y. Australian Venomous and Poisonous Fishes. Mitcham South Australia 5062.

Sperling, Harry. Some Comments on Technology Transfer with Respect to Fisheries. Unpublished paper. 1980.

Steinbeck, John The Log from the Sea of Cortez Penguin Books Viking Press. N.Y., N.Y. 1941.

Stoker, Ted. Birds of the Atlantic Ocean International Marine Publishers. Camden, ME 1968.

Sumner, J.L., Boyd, N.S., Wilson, N.D. Effective Cleaning and Methods of Assessment Lincoln College, Cantebury, New Zealand.

Sweat, Don E., and Cato, James C. Squid for Supper. Sea Grant, Oregon State University. Corvallis, Oregon 97331.

Taketa, Howard A. ed. Hawaiian Prawn Recipes. University of Hawaii Sea Grant, Marine Advisory Program, 2540 Maile Way, Spalding 252B, Honolulu, HI 96822.

Takenaka, Brooks. Efficient Fish Processing and Storing. Sea Grant, University of Hawaii. Honolulu, HI 98622.

Tamesis, Pablo T. Fisheries Extension: Labors for Hercules. Unpublished paper.

Thomas, Lowell P."Who's Killing the Corals?". Sport Diver Magazine. 1981.

Thomson, David B. Intermediate Technology and Alternative Energy Systems for Small-Scale Fisheries. FAO/South China Seas. Programme. Manila, Philippines.

Thomson, David B. Lecture Notes on Fishing Methods, Equipment and Deck Layout of Fishing Vessels. UNDP/South China Seas · Programme. Manila, Philippines.

Thomson, David B. Marine Fisheries Extension FAO/South China Seas Programme. Manila, Philippines.

Urrali, Augustin F. Guide to the Classification of Fishing Gear in the Philippines. Fish and Wildlife Service. U.S. Department of the Interior. 1950.

Von Brandt, Andres. Fish Catching Methods of the World. Fishing News Book. England. 1982.

West, Morris. The Navigator. Fontana Books. William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. Glasgow. 1976.

Appropriate Technology for Alternative Energy Sources in Fisheries Asian Development Bank - ICLARM. Metro Manila, Philippines.

Beche-de-mer For Profit. Fisheries Division MAF..Suva, Fiji.

Beche-de-mer of the South Pacific South Pacific Commission Noumea, New Caledonia.

Bibliography for Fishermens Training. Fisheries Technical Paper No. 184. FAO. Rome. 1981.

The Biology of Reef-Building Corals with Notes on the Genera Commonly Found on the Reefs of Fiji. Marine Fisheries Department. University of the South Pacific. Suva, Fiji. Unpublished paper.

The Care and Handling of Lobsters Rhode Island Seafood Council. Narragansett, RI 02882.

Cituatera Poisoning. Fisheries Division. MAF. Suva, Fiji.

Commercial Trolling for Spanish Mackeral. Australia Fisheries. 1970.

Currents. Oregon State University Sea Grant, Corvallis, Oregon.

Detroit Diesel Engines. Detroit Diesel Allison General Motors Corporation. Detroit, Michigan 48228.

Fire. Fisheries Department. University of the South Pacific. Suva, Fiji.

First Aid for Fishermen. OSU Sea Grant Program. Corvallis, Oregon. 1971.

The Fish Boat. H.L. Peace Publications. Covington, Louisiana.

Fish Handling and Preservation at Sea. University of Rhode Island Marine Advisory Service. Narragansett, RI. 1981.

Fish Processing/Sun Curing. Fisheries Division. MAF. Suva, Fiji.

Fish Spoilage. Fisheries Division. MAF. Suva, Fiji.

Fisheries Newsletter. The South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia

Fisheries Rural Training Programme for Local Fishermen. Fisheries Division. MAF. Suva, Fiji. 1980.

Fishing in Japan. Yamaha Motor Co. Japan. 1978.

Fishermans Manual. World Fishing. London. 1976

Fishing Gazette. Fishing Gazette Publishing Corp. New York.

Fishing News International. Arthur J. Heighway Publications, Ltd. London, England.

Fishing Systems. Fisheries Division. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Suva, Fiji. Unpublished paper.

General Processing Method of "Loaloa". Fisheries Division. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Suva, Fiji.

Guide to the Classification of Fishing Gear in the Philippines. Research Report 17. Fish and Wildlife Service. Department of Interior. USGPO. 1950.

Handbook of Homemade Power. Mother Earth News. Bantam Books. New York. 1974.

Handling Ships in Heavy Weather. Fisheries Department. University of the South Pacific. Suva, Fiji.

Home Curing Fish. Kanudi Fisheries Station. Department of Primary Industry. Konedobu, Papua New Guinea.

How to Get the Most Out of Your Fishing Line Berkley and Company Spirit Lake, Iowa 51360.

ICLARM Newsletter. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management. Metro Manila, Philippines.

Knots, Bends, and Hitches. Derrick Technical Institute. Samabla, Fiji.

Liklik Buk. The Melanesian Council of Churches. Lee, Papua New Guinea. 1978.

Makai. University of Hawaii Sea Grant. Honolulu, Hawaii.

Manual on Farming of Eucheunea Spinosum. GENU Products. Cebu City, Philippines. 1979,

Marine Fisheries Review. NDAA-NMFS. USGPO.

Navigation. Time-Life Books. Alexandria, VA.

Net Mending and Patching. Oregon State University Sea Grant Program. Corvallis, Oregon. 1978

Notes on Tropical Photography. Eastman Kodak Company. Rochester, N.Y. 14650.

Pasin Bilong Wakim Pis Igo Long Maket. National Fisheries College. Kovieng. New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.

Processing of Beche-de-mer. Fisheries Division. MAF. Suva, Fiji.

Purse Siene Fishing in the Philippines. Deep Sea Fisheries Division. BFAR Metro Manila, Philippines. Unpublished paper.

Ring Net. Deep Sea Fisheries Division BFAR. Metro Manila, Philippines. 1378. Unpublished paper.

Salt: A Major Growing Crop in Pangasinan. Countryside Banking. Manila, Philippines. 1980.

Seafood Business Report. Journal Publications. Camden, ME.

Seafood Leader, Waterfront Press Co. Seattle, Washington.

Sea Grant Today. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blackburg, VA.

Small Scale Fisheries in Central America: Acquiring Information for Decision Making. International Center for Marine Resource Development University of Rhode Island. 1981.

Spear Fishing Fisheries Division, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Suva, Fiji. Unpublished paper.

State of Municipal Fishery Technology in the Philippines. Unpublished report.

Stock Assessment for Tropical Small-Scale Fisheries. U.S. Agency for International Development and University of Rhode Island. Kingston, RI.

Swimming and Water Safety Courses. American Red Cross. 1976.

Teaching Nutrition in Developing Countries or the Joys of Eating Dark Green Leaves. Shack, Kathryn W. ed. Meals for Millions Foundation Santa Barbara, CA. 1976.

Trap Net. Deep Sea Fisheries Division BFAR. Metro Manila, Philippines. 1978. Unpublished paper.

Tuna Fishing. Fisheries Division. MAF. Suva, Fiji.

Wooden Boat Maintenance: Decay and its Prevention. Oregon State University Sea Grant Program. Corvallis, Oregon. 1975.

Wood Destroyers in the Marine Environment. Robert Graham, Guy Helsing and John Lew. 1975. 75 Slides, 18 minutes. Rental: $15.00. Purchase: $95.00 (716.1 S-T) Describes the organisms involved in marine wood deterioration, the nature of their attack on wood, and the conditions that favor their development. Outlines preventive measures.

Wooden Boat Inspection and Maintenance. Guy Helsing, Richard Wagner and Robt. Graham. 110 Slides, 29 minutes. Rental: $15.00, Purchase: $105.00. (716.4 S-T). Describes common organisms and processes causing decay in wooden boats. Shows how to prevent decay, how to inspect boats for its presence, and how to make durable repairs. Focuses on the West Coast of the U.S., but the principles presented apply everywhere.

Both of the above are available from:

Sea Grant Communications AdS A418 Oregon State University Corvall is, Oregon, 97331, U.S.A.

Fish Aggregating Devices - FAD's. Mark Grandioni, RPCV Philippines 36 Slides, 12 minutes. Provides details of bamboo and steel FAD's. Fishing operations include both small-scale fishermen in out-rigger craft and industrial style purse seiners. Available from:

Fisheries Programmes, Office of Program Development Peace Corps Washington, D.C. 20526, U.S.A.

2. Order Books

There was one book we felt it was imperitive for trainees to have during their Peace Corps service, as well as for use during training. This book, The Fisherman's Business Guide, by Frederick Smith, needs to be ordered from:

Department of Agricultural and Resource
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331, U.S.A.
Telephone: (503) 754-0123
Approximate cost $10.00 per book, one book per trainee.

The following is a list of books, catalogues and publication listings we suggest you order in advance and have on hand during the training program for staff use.

Althouse, Andrewd, Turquist and Bracciano. Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. GoodheartWillcox Company, Inc. South Holland, Illinois. 1979.

Emmeshing Nets, Gill Nets and Entangling Nets, Andres Von Brandt and J.M. Hamley. Fishing News Books Ltd. 1 Long Garden Walk, Farnham, Surrey, England. (0252)726-868. Cost approximately $20.00.

FAO-Catalog of Small Scale Fishing Gear. edited by C. Nedelec. Fishing News Books, Ltd, 1 Long Garden Walk, Farnham, Surrey, England. Also available from International Marine Publishing Co. 21 Elm Street, Camden, Maine, 04843. Cost approximately $26.00.

Boat Maintenance. Bob Whittier. International Marine Publishing Co. 21 Elm Street, Camden, Maine, 04843, 1-207-236-4342. Cost approximately $12.95.

The Care and Repair of Small Marine Diesels. Chris Thompson International Marine Publishing Co. 21 Elm Street, Camden, Maine, 04843. Cost approximately $15.00.

Commonsense Coastal Navigation. Hewitt Schlereth. International Marine Publishing Co. 21 Elm Street, Camden, Maine 04843. Cost approximately $19.95.


Atlantic and Gulf Fishing Supply Corporation 591 S.W. 8th Street Miami, Florida 33130, U.S.A. 1-800-3276167

Nylon Net Company 7 Vance Avenue, P.O.BOX 592 Memphis, Tennessee 38101, U.S.A. 1-800-2387529 1-800-238-6680

Publication Lists:

Fishing News Books, Ltd. 1 Long Garden Walk Farnham, Surrey, England

Marine-Related Publications Sea Grant Communications Ad S A418/Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon 97331, U.S.A.

Commercial Fisheries Publications University of Rhode Island Marine Advisory Service - Sea Grant Narragansett, R.I. 02882, U.S.A.

International Marine Publishing Company 21 Elm Street Camden, Maine, 04843, U.S.A.

3. The Training Site

Must include the following:

1. Be located in a small coastal fishing community.
2. Have facilities to provide room and board.
3. Staff housing/office space.
4. Classroom facilities.
5. Workshop space.
6. Access to pier/dock.
7. Be as close to water as possible.

We were very fortunate to discover Puerto Real in the Cabo Rojo area of Puerto Rico. Puerto Real is a small fishing community with both a private commercial fishing operation and a fishermen's association. There was a small hotel which provided breakfast, and local restaurants which provided lunch and dinner. The staff was able to rent a house next to the training site, which included office space. The fishermen's association provided the classrooms and workshop area. They also gave us access to the fish processing room, the refrigerators, and to their large dock. The trainees' hotel, the restaurants, the staff house, and the classroom were all within a square block of one another, and all on the water front.

Another advantage we had was that we were 20 miles from Mayaguez, a large town that was handy for medical needs, supplies, and trainees' shopping.

In choosing the training site it is important to remember that the focus of the training program is on participant learning. Trainees should not have to cope with a physical environment that needs a great deal of managing during the training cycle. A certain amount of privacy, running water, electricity and dependable meals are minimal requirements.

4. Equipment

A certain amount of marine-specific equipment is needed for this program. We found that it was best to locate this equipment early and have it on hand for the duration of the training program.

Equipment List


- one life jacket P.F.D. (USCG Classification #1) for each trainee;
- boats-17'to 21' wooden w/15 to 25 H.P., O.B. motors, one for every six trainees;
- one small diesel engine, 15-30 H.P. and preferably Yanmar, for maintenance and repair practice;
- one used wooden fishing boat in need of repair, i.e., joint to be replaced, rotting wood, etc.
- a fishing boat 28' to 40', with either outboard or Diesel power, and if available, a fishfinder/echosounder, one fish boat per 6-10 trainees depending on size of boat;
- slide projector, with extra carrousels,
- 16 mm. movie projector;
- one outboard motor for maintenance and repair;
- 30" x 30" work tables, 1 for every three trainees;
- folding chairs, 1 for each trainee and staff;
- one industrial size first aid kit; and,
- access to photo copying machine that also furnishes copying paper.

- 1 small sail boat, 12' to 16'.

5. Arrange for Live-ins

The criteria for site placements is that the trainees be placed in different fishing communities, and that they stay with commercial fishing families. Trainees take local transportation to their live-in sites.

We arranged these live-ins through a local fish extensionist working out of the CODREMAR marine laboratory at Joyuda. Host families were given an explanation of the purpose of the live-in by the extensionist. He also gave the family a letter in Spanish which verified the trainees' stay and explained how their expenses would be covered. The matter of paying families for hospitality has to be handled very delicately in a culture that values hospitality, as do the people of Puerto Rico. Nevertheless, an extra mouth to feed for three days can be a real burden on a small scale fishing family. See Session 013 for details of live-ins.

6. Transportation

The staff will need a car at its disposal throughout set-up and training. There will always be normal errands to run as well as the inevitable trainee emergencies. You will need to arrange transportation for field trips, medical days for overseas shots and eye examinations. We used the local taxi (Publico) for these trips. You will also need to arrange fishing vessels for fishing trips well in advance to be sure vessels will be available on the days you will need them (4 days). Small wooden boats with O.B. motors can be rented from local people. You will need these boats throughout training (one boat for each 6 trainees). If available, a small sail boat provides an excellent opportunity for trainees to learn basic small boat handling skills, as well as basic sailing skills.

7. Materials

The following is a listing of the minimal materials you will need during this training program. We have broken it down into a technical material list and a classroom/office material list.

Technical Material List
- outboard engine tool kit (1 per o/b): 8" crescent wrench, spark plug wrench, pliers, small and large screwdrivers, cotter pins, shear pins.
- Diesel engine tool kit (1 per diesel): 8" cresent wrench, 10" crescent wrench, open end box wrench set, small and large screwdrivers, injector pry bar.
- netting needles (1 size per trainee): Duro Nylon 5 1/4" x 5/8", Duro Nylon 6" x 3/8", Duro Nylon 8" x 1".
- netting 4" mesh (twine) - (20 mesh x 20 mesh per trainee) netting 3" mesh (Myron nsono) (20 mesh x 20 mesh per trainee)
- net twine (same dimensions as netting)
- fish hooks (Mustad brand)
2 boxes #9 Tuna Circle #39960ST (1 per 10 trainees)
1 box #7 Mustad-Kirby #2330 (1 per 10 trainees)
1 box #3/0 O'Shaughnessy #34007 (1 per 10 trainees)
1 box #5/0 Superior #94151 (1 per 10 trainees)
1 box #8/0 Superior $94151 (1 per 10 trainees)
- three-way swivels
1 dozen #3/0 (per 2 trainees)
- trolling wire leader (stainless steel)
1 #120 lb test packets (per 2 trainees)
1 #160 lb test packets (per 2 trainees)
- nylon monofilament line
1 #90 test 1 spool - 600 yds (per 4 trainees)
1 #150 test 1 spool - 420 yds (per 3 trainees)
1 #240 test 1 spool - 280 yds (per 2 trainees)
- plastic hand reels
1 6" or 8" reel (per trainee)
- parallel jaw plier ("Sargent" type line cutters)
1 6 1/2" or 4 1/2" (per trainee)
- vise grips
1 6" or 8" (per trainee)
- files
1 flat 1" x 8" (per 2 trainees)
1 Bastard 3/8" x 6" (per 2 trainees)
- hard bristle scrub brushes
1 8" scrub brush (per 3 trainees)
- plastic/galvinized tin buckets
1 bucket 2 1/2 gal (per 4 trainees).
- cotton mop
- brooms
- dust pans
- fillet knives - Dexter-Russell Sani-safe
1 7" x 5/8" stiff-silver horde spoon/knife (per 2 trainees)
1 7" x 5/8" fillet (per 2 trainees)
- sharpening stone/sharpening steel
1 stone/steel (per 10 trainees)
- wood for construction
2" x 2" (treated)
1" x 4" (treated)
2" x 4" (treated)
4 x 8 marine plywood (treated)
- wood working tools
1 hammer (per 5 trainees)
1 saw (rip) (per 5 trainees)
1 key hole saw (per 5 trainees)
1 hack saw (per 5 trainees)
1 tri-square (per 5 trainees)
1 level (small) (per 5 trainees)
1 screwdriver set (wood) (per 5 trainees)
1 chisel set (wood) (per 5 trainees)
1 cold chisel (steel)(per 5 trainees)
1 nail punch (per 5 trainees)
1 carpenter ruler (per 5 trainees)
1 pencil (per trainee)
1 brace drill (per 5 trainees)
1 wooden drill bits (per 5 trainees)
1 wood rasp (per 5 trainees)
1 paint scraper (per 3 trainees)
1 pry bar (per 5 trainees)
4 wood clamps (per 5 trainees)
1 carpenter wood glue (per 5 trainees)
1 spoke shave (per 5 trainees)
1 cheap paint brush (per 2 trainees)
sand paper: 20 sheets ea. #60, #80, #120 (per 10 trainees)
- wood fastenings
bronze wood screws
silicon-bronze nails (ringed)
galvinized finish nails
galvinized framing nails
- fiberglass resin/hardener
1 gallon (per 10 trainees)
- fiberglass fabric matting/2-3" tape
- marine paint - enamel
1 gallon (per 10 trainees)
- visquine plastic.006 mil
200 square feet (per 10 trainees)
- metal/nylon mosquito screening
2 square yards (per 10 trainees)
- case outboard motor oil 1 case (per 10 trainees)
- 3/8'' polypropylene/polyethylene line (yellow)
#18 pounds or 600 feet, (per 10 trainees)
- splicing fids
1 plastic/wooden 8-10" fid (per 2 trainees)
- thermometer (weather-mercury bulb-type)
2 hand held (as above)
- wind gauge
1 simpIe hand held type
- navigation charts
1 local and 1 regional chart (per 4 trainees)
- brass coupling fittings - male-female
2 1/2" x 5/8" (per 10 trainees)
- barometer (low cost)
- cooking utensils
1 12 qt. casserole (per 10 trainees)
1 12" skillet " " "
1 6 qt. sauce pan " " "
1 3 piece plastic mixing bowls (per 10 trainees)
1 mixing spoons set (per 10 trainees)
- spices
1 package salt (per 10 trainees)
1 package saffron " " "
1 package pepper (white) (per 10 trainees)
1 package tarragon " " "
1 package allspice " " "
1 package bay leaf " " "
1 package parsley " " "
1 package fennel " " "
1 package celery " " "
1 package curry " " "
1 package cloves " " "
1 package paprika " " "
1 package garlic " " "
1 package ginger " " "
1 package ginseng " " "
- charcoal briquettes (100 lbs)
- 1 charcoal grill - Hibachi style (per 10 trainees)
- 1 package of dried seaweed
- materials to be scrounged by the trainees:
used tires (as many as possible)
used spark plugs (as many as possible)
beer cans
it-bar 1/2"/1/4" x 10'
4-5 gal steel drums
corroded propellers, metal
- fish: 6 to 7 fish per 10 trainees from one to 10 days old (see Sessions 31-32).
- 1 star map
- 1 hand held compass

Classroom and Office Materials

The following is a listing of minimal materials you will need for the classroom and staff office during this training program:

- newsprint pads (4 per week)
- three newsprint easels
- inch wide masking tape (8 rolls)
- magic markers (various colors)
- black ink, medium point pens (4 per trainee)
- 3 inch loose leaf binders (1 per trainee)
- lined paper (200 sheets per trainee)
- pocket notebooks (2 per trainee)
- one hole puncher (3 hole-desk top)
- two staplers with staples
- two scissors
- white out (6 bottles)
- paper clips (2 boxes)
- rulers (1 per trainee)
- pencils (1 per trainee)
- maps of each country
- vitamins (high potency)
- industrial size first aid kit
- file folders
- scotch tape (3)
- Elmer's glue (1)
- plain bond paper
- one dictionary
- one print out calculator
- one receipt book
- one accounts book
- 'post it' note pads

8. Field Trips

The following is a list of places we were able to take trainees to reinforce the [earnings in some of the sessions.

1. Marine OB and Diesel repair shop.
2. Salt making industry.
3. Swimming pool for swimming safety check and P.F.D. check.
4. Aquaculture station.
5. Boat-building yard.
6. Fish processing plant/cold storage.
7. Refrigeration plant/repair facility.

Many of these sites were within walking distance; others we traveled to. We encourage you to look around your site for similar resources. We found without exception that people were very receptive to the trainees visits and more than willing to answer questions.

9. Resource People

We decided to list the people we used either formally or informally during the training period. Some of these people came with the training site and were naturally part of the program. Others the training staff sought out. Some came later in the program as word got around about who we were and what we were doing. In any event they all added to the richness of the program.

1. Small-scale fishermen
2. Net menders
3. Fish processors
4. Diesel and O.B. mechanics
5. Fish handlers
6. O.B. and Diesel troubleshooters
7. People knowing about boat repair and construction
8. Fish statistican and identification expert
9. Person knowing about electronic equipment used on some small boats
10. Fisheries extensionist
11. Proposal writer/funding resources
12. Local person who took care of introducing us to other local people

In most of the above mentioned, contact was done on an informal basis. We found that local people were not comfortable standing up in front of a group, but did very well with 2 or 3 trainees informally. We allowed local people to sit in on any session we were giving. We had 2 or 3 regulars and for some of the outdoor sessions, we had as many as 12 on-lookers. People were very careful never to interrupt and be obtrusive in any way.

10. Certificates of Completion

Certificates need to be ordered for trainees before training starts. See Session 108 for details and rationale.

Final words about "getting ready": you will need at least two weeks prior to trainee arrival for setting up the program and for staff training. Therefore, any of the preceding steps that can be done prior to the two week lead time helps to reduce the stress generated when setting up such a program.

Conducting The Training Program


This training program comes as the initial introduction to Peace Corps service, as well as a technical training, for most of the trainees.

The design, therefore, assumes that trainees have had no actual Peace Corps field experience in smallscale marine fisheries, but that they bring allied marine fisheries experience to training.


As stated in the previous section, the setting for training is important. A training center located on the waterfront is imperative, since most of the activities are water related: Being right there saves the time of moving trainees back and forth. Of equal importance is locating the training in a small fishing community; it gives the trainee insight into the interdependence of the fisherman and the community. The cycle of life in a small fishing village is very apparent in relationship to the training activities. Trainees can test their newly acquired skills immediately, and have their experiences validated in the community. In such a location, the trainees entrance skills into developing communities are identified, practiced and instilled.

Available time is limited during the training. In selecting a site, consider as critical the "time lost factor" in taking care of "creature comforts," such as getting food, bathing and sleeping. The atmosphere of the training site directly effects participants attitudes. If they have to spend time coping with the facilities, they are less likely to spend time productively during training.

Group Size

There should not be less than 10 people in the training program. Countries recruiting less than ten people for marine fisheries programs should combine their training with other countries with similar geographic, climatic and related marine conditions. The program should not exceed 25 people. If the group size is too large, the facilitators do not have enough time during sessions to offer individual assistance, especially for the sessions identifying communications skills, technical skills and "hands on" activities.


This program requires one well-rounded, experienced small_scale marine fisheries technician, one experienced process trainer - who also acts as program director, and one administrative/technical trainer. If more than one country is involved, returned Volunteers from the countries who worked in small_scale marine fisheries could be added to the staff, particularly during the orientation week of this program.

During the small group activities, groups will need the assistance of a facilitator, particularly if the group is having difficulty. Once an activity is explained and the exercise begins, the trainer(s) "float" from group to group to check that the activity is moving smoothly. During these times, trainers also collect assessment data of trainees' performance. One person cannot cover all groups effectively. It is essential to have the support of another trainer/facilitator to share the load and to consult with in handling problem situations.

The trainers are the key to the success of the training program. They create the atmosphere, set the tone, role model, and help participants achieve maximum benefit from the overall training experience.

Trainers make clear that each person gets out of this program what they put into it, and that as adults they are responsible for their own learning.


As a part of the "tone," it is important to give a clear and concise overview of the training program what we're doing, where we're going and why. At the beginning of each session it is important to state the goals of the session (posted on flip chart paper), and, at the end, to review those goals to see if they were met. The directions for each exercise should also be written to prevent confusion by the trainees. In each session we have included the goals, directions and, where necessary, special trainer's notes to help sessions flow smoothly. The elements of each session are:

· the experience
· processing the experience

Each session also highlights at least one skill area, and are intended to build a variety of skills over the training period.

Some of the sessions, particularly those where special projects are presented, also include individual problem-solving rudiments.


In the previous section on "Getting Ready", we have included a long list of equipment and material needs covering the 8 week training program. At the beginning of each session there is a materials/equipment list that you will need for each session. Since there is a great deal of managing of equipment, i.e., the small fishing boats, many materials and tools, we suggest that one trainer be in charge of all materials and equipment, to be sure that they are available when needed.

The scheduling of equipment must be done by one person to prevent confusion and to permit equal practice time by all trainees.


Many of the activities involve sharing with a partner or small group. The reason for this is that trainees can get a different perspective about an idea or thought when they verbalize it or hear it repeated back from other people. The purpose of sharing is to add dimensions, to try to help people "stretch," and to get help and suggestings from one another.

It is up to the trainers to create an atmosphere of trust and non-judgment that will encourage people to feel free to express themselves. Early in the training process, the trainers encourage people to share with each other. Part of this sharing is the use of feedback as a tool in skills expansion and building. Trainees have a session on use of feedback as a tool during the orientation phase of this program. They are encouraged to use feedback with one another throughout the training process.

Weekly Interviews

Trainees are interviewed once a week during training. This gives trainers individual time with trainees to go over the past week's [earnings; and for trainers and trainees to explore together the individual's areas of growth and development of expertise needed by Peace Corps Volunteers involved in marine fisheries projects. Trainers can also use this time with trainees to measure progress of training, and to obtain information about the program that may require intervention or adjustments. Trainers also give trainees feedback on their progress over the last week, based on the assessment criteria (see orientation session 0-1)

Termination of a Trainee From Program

In the event that a trainee must be terminated, either by their own choice or by a decision of the entire staff that they are not suitable for Peace Corps service, it is necessary to fill out PC 1485 (2/82) which can be obtained from the Office of Special Services, Peace Corps/Washington. A well-documented report when submitted to Special Services:

- is a clear, concise, factual account of the events leading to the action taken, whether it be a resignation or a separation;
- contains a chronology of events that includes all pertinent information, e.g., dates of meetings/interviews during which the trainee's behavior or performance relevant to this action was discussed, participants' names, topics discussed, trainee's response or reaction, whether a course of action was initiated and the outcome;
- reflects the early terminee's input;
- is objective in tone;
- responds to all questions asked or indicates why the information is not provided;
- contains a recommendation for further service which is consistent with the records of service detailed in the Report; and,
- has all the necessary signatures.

Listed below are suggestions that if followed will assist you in completing the Report and providing OSS with the information required:

- Plan ahead. Make notes of meetings/interviews with trainees, especially problem individuals. Use these notes to develop a plan of action to address any offending behavior. Should the need arise, incorporate these notes into the Report.
- State the facts. Broad generalizations such as "inappropriate social behavior" or "not Peace Corps material" must be avoided.
- Write in an outline, bulleted fashion rather than in narrative paragraph form. This style lends itself to specifically stating the facts in the case rather than generally describing the case.

Reports on Trainees

Peace Corps Country staff are anxious to know about the trainees they are receiving. For each trainee, the Director of Training should write a report to Peace Corps Country Directors at the conclusion of training using the following outline:

1. Staff's overall impression of the trainee.
2. Areas of strength exhibited during training, i.e., skills, attributes, etc.
3. Areas that need strengthening, as exhibited by....... (here particular need is described behaviorly).
4. Other concerns staff may have.

In writing these reports it is to be remembered that behavioral data is the best to report. Suppositions, hunches, and assumptions are not helpful data for in-country staff to receive about the trainee. and they're certainly not fair to the trainee.

Staff Meetings

It is important for trainers, and any other staff, to meet daily. We used the following agenda for our daily staff meetings:

1. Review of day
2. Ready for tomorrow materials
3. Anyone we are concerned about
4. Feedback to each other
5. Miscellaneous

We actually had two daily staff meetings - one mid-day for the assessment team to share and record data, and the other after the last session, where we dealt with the content and process of the day, and with our readiness for the following day. We also took care of any administrative matters at this meeting.

The staff time schedule on training days was as follows:

7:30 Technical Training session
11:30 Staff Assessment Data Meeting

12:30 Staff session preparation time
4:00 Training session
7:30 Training session
9:30 Staff Meeting

The day before individual interviews, staff assessment data meetings tend to run longer, as staff decides on feedback for each trainee. Staff must have consensus on feedback they provide to each trainee.

Presenting the Sessions

Each session has one or more exercises directed toward meeting the goals of the session. The information provided in each of the sessions includes:

1. Session Title/Exercise Title
2. Total Time required to complete session/exercise (all times are approximate and can vary depending on number of trainees involved).
3. Overview statement describing purpose of session/exercise
4. Procedure and activities - sequenced and time steps which describe what trainer and participants are required to do at a particular point in the program
5. Material/Equipment required
6. Trainer Notes - special instructions relevant to a particular session or exercise.

Review/Study the Training Program Guidelines

Even though each session is described in detail, it will be necessary for you and any co-staff to review carefully the entire design to assure that there is an understanding of the overall sequence of activities, and of specific trainer activities / responsibilities for each session. In reviewing the design for each session you should do the following:

1. Review the trainer and participant materials.
2. Review the purpose/goals of each session and determine the relationship of the session to the previous and subsequent sessions, and the total course.
3. Prepare session/exercise goals/objectives on flip chart. Note: Write these in your own words rather than copying them verbatim from the guidelines.
4. Be sure all the materials are prepared, equipment is working, and that the space needed is properly set up for training:
- Prepare flip charts before the sessions (if an easel is not available, paper may be tacked or taped to the wall);
- Prepare any lecture notes required (keep these to a minimum):
- Gather copies of all handouts and worksheets.
5. Review the sequence of activities, the points to be discussed, and materials several times before the session to become thoroughly familiar with the session and its content.
6. Assign shared responsibilities of co-trainers.
7. During the presentations, keep in mind the structure of the session, i.e., introduction, major points, summary.

If you are not confident of your own knowledge as to the content of one of the sessions, you may want to look for an outside resource to cover that session.

From time to time you will want to save newsprint from one session to another. Some newsprint you will want to keep posted for the entire training period.


We have included the schedules for each week. The basic training day schedule for trainees is as follows:

6:45 Breakfast
7:30 Training session
11:30 Lunch
12:00 Preparation of special projects; practice of net throwing; small boat handling; and fishing.
4:00 Training session
6:00 Dinner
7:30 Training Session

There are exceptions to the above. However, the pace is intense; trainees learn how to pace themselves and handle stress while being productive in their work.

Needless to say, with a trainee schedule like this one, the staff also has to pace themselves. They need to share their work load with one another to prevent "burn out" and to insure that all sessions are well prepared and presented energetically.


1. Small-Scale Fisherman - denoted in the manual as being inclusive of both men and women.
2. Small-Scale Fisheries - includes subsistence-level fishermen.

Resource Book to be used in conjunction with this manual

As we conducted the pilot program, we had access to several research papers, articles, diagrams and charts that we found useful and informative. We have compiled these materials in a separate book, which is available in limited quantities. Those articles, diagrams and charts that are an integral part of a given session are included in this manual immediately following the session in which it is used.

Closing Words

In the preparation of this manual we have attempted to be as clear and thorough as humanly possible. We took into consideration that each trainer brings to the program their own unique style and experience. Hopefully, we have written each session to accommodate both.