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close this bookEnvironmentally Sound Technologies for Women in Agriculture (IIRR, 1996, 213 p.)
close this folderAnimal husbandry and dairying
View the documentSelection and breeding of cattle buffaloes
View the documentSelection and breeding of goats and sheep
View the documentSelection and breeding of swine
View the documentCommunity pasture management
View the documentCattle feeding
View the documentMake hay to preserve fodder
View the documentMake silage to preserve green fodder
View the documentImprove dry fodder by adding urea
View the documentUrea-molasses liquid mixture
View the documentUrea-molasses-mineral lick
View the documentClean milk production
View the documentLivestock diseases
View the documentCommon maladies in cattle
View the documentProtect your cattle from poisoning
View the documentAdaptation of livestock

Urea-molasses-mineral lick



40 %


12 %


5 %

Mineral mixture

6 %


4 %

Groundnut cake

15 %

Cottonseed cake

10 %

Calcium oxide

8 %

Groundnut cake and cotton seed meal can be replaced with cheaper, locally avail able cakes and meals.

Ruminant animals, such as cattle, goats, and sheep, are able to convert nitrogen and fibrous feeds into protein and energy. Actually, the job of producing this protein and energy is done by bacteria which live in the rumen-one of the three stomachs of ruminant animals-in a process called microbial fermentation. Fibrous crop residues alone, a major feed for ruminant animals, are actually a very poor source of nitrogen, energy, and minerals. A urea-molasses-mineral (UMM) lick is an effective way to supplement nitrogen (necessary for making protein) and other essential nutrients lacking in fibrous feeds.


- UMM licks contain all the nutrients essential for growth and production.

- Adult cattle and buffalo can be maintained by licking 300500 g of UMM lick and consuming whatever crop residues are available.

- For growing animals, 20-30 percent of concentrate can be replaced with UMM lick.

- UMM licks are good for underfed, growing animals. The licks provide all essential nutrients and minerals, especially those required by rumen microbes for fermentation of fibrous material.

- In low-producing and underfed lactating animals, UMM supplementation can increase milk production by 30-SO percent depending on the production level.

- The essential minerals provided from UMM licks help in reproductive development, reducing the age to first calving.


With a little instruction, UMM licks can be prepared by farmers, on-farm, without special equipment. See the amounts of ingredients in the box above labelled "Composition".


UMM licks are safe. The chance of urea toxicity is virtually eliminated.


Do not leave the UMM lick exposed to the rain.

1 Pour molasses into a tub.

2 Mix the urea and common salt with a wooden stick on a sheet of plastic or a clean floor.

3 Stir the urea and salt mixture into the molasses.

4 Mix, one after the other, on a plastic sheet or on a clean floor, the mineral mixture, calcium oxide, bentonite, pow dered groundnut cake, and powdered cotton seed cake.

5 Slowly and thoroughly stir this powdered mixture into the tub with the molasses, urea, and salt.

6 Pour this semisolid mixture into a wooden, cardboard, or metal mould lined with polythene.

7 The lick will set in about 24 hours.


UMM licks can be made on-farm for between Rs 3.20 and 3.85 per kg, depending on the filler ingredients. One kilo is enough for 2-3 days for one animal. The cost can be reduced by using cheaper, locally available filler ingredients. All ingredients are readily available in the market.

Contributor: Dr. G. P. Singh