Cover Image
close this bookSchool Enterprises: Combining Vocational Learning with Production (UNEVOC, 1998, 64 p.)
close this folder3. Conclusions and Guidelines
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Rough typology of school enterprises
View the document3.2 Structures of school enterprises
View the document3.3 Organisation of learning
View the document3.4 Competency profile, learning outcomes and learning goals
View the document3.5 Curricular processes
View the document3.6 Teaching staff
View the document3.7 Regulatory framework of school enterprises
View the document3.8 External relations
View the document3.9 Impact of school enterprises
View the document3.10 Financial options for school enterprises
View the document3.11 Mixes of private and public roles
View the document3.12 Factors that may enhance school enterprises

3.2 Structures of school enterprises

A wide diversity of structures and focus is to be found in programmes of school enterprises, depending on whether production for the market takes place predominantly in an enterprise or in a learning workshop, and whether the learning takes place in a school/ training institute or in an enterprise with training functions. The two contexts - learning workshop and enterprise - should be seen as pure institutional forms with a relatively high degree of functional specialisation, but whose nature changes according to the nature and degree of interaction with the other domain. The key conceptual frame is the interaction between learning and production and its location in the curriculum.

Most school-based programmes at the secondary school level combine learning with production in a learning workshop. The emphasis here is on a combined learning and production place. The production division also serves as a training workshop.

In some schools, experiences with the logistics of production, and the continuous dilemma between pedagogic and economics have led to a separation of types of activities. For example, a distinction is made between productive activities as an integral part of certain subjects and workshops where the emphasis would be on developing skills, and production projects which are separate from the curriculum but still provide clear opportunities to apply what was previous learned in workshops and class.30 Drawing such organisational boundaries, and defining clear objectives, has eased the problem of interference. Training takes place in a training workshop, whereas production takes place in an enterprise, and the two contexts are linked in several ways. The emphasis here is also on the combination of education with production, but production for the market takes place in a separate enterprise attached to the school or training institute.31 The enterprise serves not only the production of goods and services for the market, but also as a location for application of skills learned in the learning workshops.

30 For example, the schools in Zimbabwe supported by ZIMFEP. Conradie, J.A., 1989

31 Greinert, W.-D. and Wiemann, G., 1993