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close this bookSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Planting Trees - An Illustrated Technical Guide and Training Manual (ILO - UNDP, 1993, 190 p.)
close this folder9. Working conditions
View the document(introduction...)
View the document9.1 Hours of work and rest
View the document9.2 Nutrition and amenities
View the document9.3 Wage systems
View the document9.4 Training, job content and labour-management relations
View the document9.5 Safety

9.2 Nutrition and amenities

Safe drinking water should be available in sufficient quantity, especially during hot weather. Water should be drunk frequently in small quantities. In hot surroundings it may be necessary to drink 5 litres or more during a day. To replace salt lost by sweating, 1 gram of salt may be added to one litre of water.

Planting is heavy work and the worker will need food at regular intervals. Workers suffering from malnutrition cannot sustain this kind of work. If the workforce is large enough, traditionally acceptable food should be provided on site. This will ensure that the workers receive a balanced diet suitable for their work. This will raise productivity and decrease the number of accidents and absenteeism from work. It may be difficult to introduce a change of eating habits because of traditional customs or for religious reasons. However, workers usually respond favourably to measures for the improvement of food supplies.

If possible, transport should be provided for workers between the dwelling and the plantation areas, to save time and energy if the worksite is distant. Loads carried over longer distances should not exceed 10-15kg.

The workers should be provided with appropriate tools (see page 124). They should be equipped with adequate footwear and protection from the rain. A wide-brimmed hat provides protection from the sun.

Nutrition and amenities

Sufficient water supply

Drink frequently

Add salt


Regular food supply is needed for heavy work

Transport of workers

Tools adapted to body size

Adequate clothing


Wide-brimmed hat


When too much time would be required for transport to a distant site, it is better to build camps near the worksite.

Camp sites must be carefully located in healthy, pleasant surroundings. They should be some distance from noisy, dusty roads and in a well-drained place.

Adequate water supply is crucial. Piped water to which taps and showers can be connected is preferable.

Sleeping quarters must provide sufficient air and floor space and be screened from mosquitoes.

Kitchen facilities, which may be combined with a canteen, should be kept separate. Food storage and preparation require greatest care. There should always be a plentiful supply of clean drinking water.

Proper toilet facilities and adequate disposal of waste and sewage are indispensable to prevent the spreading of diseases.

Remote camps should have a health dispensary.


Adequate water supply

Sleeping quarters in pleasant surrounding

Kitchen facilities


Adequate toilet facilities and waste disposal