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close this bookSpecial Public Works Programmes - SPWP - Planting Trees - An Illustrated Technical Guide and Training Manual (ILO - UNDP, 1993, 190 p.)
close this folder1. Planning a plantation
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1 What regeneration method to use?
View the document1.2 What species to establish?
View the document1.3 Whether to plant a single tree species or a mixture of several?
View the document1.4 What type of planting stock to use?
View the document1.5 What planting pattern to use and how many seedlings to plant?
View the document1.6 When to plant?
View the document1.7 How to protect the seedlings?
View the document1.8 The plantation plan



The choice of where and what to plant depends on the purpose of the plantation, on who the land and the trees belong to and on other possible uses of the land. The first step is to find out what the needs of the local populations are. What are the benefits they expect? Who in the local community benefits from a plantation and who might not benefit from it? How will the plantation affect other land-uses like food production or grazing? What are the potential conflicts in connection with the plantation? These factors have to be discussed until all concerned reach agreement. These discussions are very important and should start early during the planning of the plantation. Plantation programs which will result in reduced benefits for the population are not likely to succeed. More tree planting projects fail because of problems with the people involved than because of technical mistakes. This manual deals mostly with the work to be done after the basic agreement has been reached. The list of references at the end of this booklet includes useful documents on extension and people's participation in forestry projects.

When you start the technical planning take a close look at the area. Decisions have be made on:

- What regeneration method to use (whether to plant, rely on natural regeneration or seed directly on the site)?

- What tree species to establish (matching species to planting purpose and site)?

- Whether to plant a single tree species or a mixture of several?

- What type of planting stock to use (bare rooted, potted seedlings or stumps, small or large seedlings)?

- What planting pattern to use and how many seedlings to plant?

- When to plant?

- How to protect the seedlings?

To make the right decisions you have to get to know the area. Start by drawing a simple map of the plantation site and calculate the area available. One way of doing this is described in Technical Sheet 1. Mark variations in site conditions on the map. Information that can be of importance for further work should be written down.

Planning a plantation

Where and what to plant?

What regeneration method?

What species?

Mixed or single species?

What type of planting stock?

What planting pattern?

When to plant?

How to protect the seedlings?