|Small-Scale Processing of Fish (ILO - WEP, 1982, 140 p.)|
|CHAPTER III. FISH SMOKING AND BOILING|
|II. BOILED FISH PRODUCTS|
The examples outline below are processes used in South-East Asia.
II.1.1. Processes used in Cambodia
The fish processed by boiling are usually the Eleutheronema, Stromateus, Polynemus or Sardinella spp. They are placed in small baskets and immersed in boiling brine (5 kg salt per 20 litres of sea water) for three minutes. The same baskets are used for distribution. Prior to consumption the fish are re-boiled in water containing salt (30 kg salt/100 litre water) until cooked. The storage life of such products is one to three days.
II.1.2. Processes used in Malaysia
Fresh Rastrelliger spp., of 14 to 22 cm in length, are washed in sea water and immersed in saturated brine for three to four hours in wooden tubs. The fish are then arranged in bamboo baskets and immersed in boiling brine in a steel trough containing 25% to 34% w/w salt until the fish are cooked. The baskets are removed and allowed to cool for 24 hours. The fish are then either stored in a cold room or distributed immediately. In a cold room (at 0-5° C), the shelf life would be from three to four months whereas, at ambient temperatures, only a short shelf life is to be expected (i.e. one to three days). The yield of product is approximately 70% of the weight of the fresh fish.
II.1.3. Processes used in Indonesia
In Indonesia, various boiled fish products are produced. They are generally known as pindang. Many species of fish, including sharks and Rastrelliger, Decapterus, Euthynnus and Caranx spp., can be used as the raw material for this product.
The fish are first gutted and cut to fit into earthenware pots or tin plate cans. Small fish need not be gutted. The fish are then washed and arranged in the containers in alternating layers of fish and salt. The ratio of fish and salt varies between 20:1 and 3:1 depending on the shelf life and taste required. The more salt used, the longer the shelf life. Freshwater 0.5 to 3 or more litres depending on the size of the container is added and the container is then heated above a fire until the fish is cooked. Most, but not all, of the liquid is drained through a hole in the bottom of the container. More salt is then added to the surface fish and cooking continues until no free water remains in the bottom of the container. The latter is finally sealed with leaves or paper and the product is then ready for distribution. The yield is 80-90% of the weight of the fresh fish and the shelf life varies between a few days and a few months, depending on the quantity of salt used and the effectiveness of the sealing material.