|Small-Scale Processing of Fish (ILO - WEP, 1982, 140 p.)|
|CHAPTER V. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES: EVALUATION, EMPLOYMENT GENERATION AND MANPOWER TRAINING|
|VI. ASSISTANCE TO THE SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES SECTOR: MANPOWER TRAINING AND SUPPORTING SERVICES|
In many developing countries, fishing communities lack the infrastructure necessary for chilling or freezing fish (e.g. cold storage, ice-making plants) and for marketing fresh and cured fish at some distance from the fishing areas. The lack of energy and water for fish processing or fuel for motor boats constitute additional constraints to the development of small-scale fisheries.
The provision of an adequate infrastructure could be costly, especially if fishing communities are established in isolated areas of the country. It may, however, be noted that some of the investments to improve the existing infrastructure are not generally required for fish production and processing only; they may also be required for other economic sectors (e.g. agriculture) and for improving the living conditions of the population. This is particularly true for public investments in road construction, water and energy supply, and transport facilities. Thus, investments which are specific to the small-scale fisheries sector are mostly needed for the handling and cold storage of fish. Some estimates of ice and cold storage requirements are provided below:
(i) In case the fish landing area is located in an important commercial centre, the following infrastructure will be required:
- An ice-making plant with a production capacity equal to four times the weight of the daily catch, and a storage capacity equal to six times the weight of the daily catch;
- Cold storage rooms (0-2° C) which can accomodate three times the volume of a maximum daily catch.
(ii) In case the fish landing area is not located in an important commercial area, the following infrastructure will be required:
- An ice-making plant with a production capacity equal to 2/3 of that described under (i) above.
- Fish freezing equipment to accomodate 50% of the maximum daily catch.
- Cold storage rooms (-18° C) which can accomodate four times the volume of a maximum daily catch.
Additional infrastructural requirements may include a roofed area for sorting, cleaning, washing and packaging fish before transport or storage.
If a country cannot afford investments of the type described above, fresh fish must be marketed within a short distance of the landing area. Excess supply of fish may either be wasted, or must be processed locally within a few hours after landing. In either case, the lack of cold storage or ice making plants will constitute a constraint to the expansion of fish supply by small-scale fisheries.