Cover Image
close this bookSustaining the Future. Economic, Social, and Environmental Change in Sub-Saharan Africa (UNU, 1996, 365 p.)
close this folderPart 5: Environment and development in Ghana
close this folderThe environmental impact and sustainability of plantations in Sub-Saharan Africa: Ghana's experiences with oil-palm plantations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentOverview of the plantation system in the Sub-Sahara
View the documentThe evolution of plantations in Ghana
View the documentThe positive impacts of the plantations
View the documentAdverse environmental impacts and sustainability
View the documentConclusion
View the documentReferences


Benneh, G. 1972. Systems of agriculture in tropical Africa. Economic Geography 48(3): 244 257.

Benneh, G. and E. A. Gyasi. 1991. Home gardens in West Africa: Progress in research role in agricultural production, nutrition, income generation and constraints to realizing their full potential as a sustainable agroforestry system. Paper presented at UNU/INRA Programme Consultative Meeting, University of Ghana, Legon, 22 26 April.

BOPP (Benso Oil Palm Plantation). 1990. An analysis of the palm sector's problems, mimeo, Adum Banso.

Courtenay, P. P. 1965. Plantation Agriculture. London: Bell.

Dickenson, J. P. et al. 1983. A Geography of the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dickson, K. B. 1969. A Historical Geography of Ghana. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dinham, B. and C. Hines. 1983. Agribusiness in Africa. London: Earth Resources.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 1991. Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development. Regional Document no. I (FAO/Netherlands Conference on Agriculture and the Environment: Strategies and Tools for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development, S-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, 15- 19 April, 1991). Rome: FAO.

Ghana Office of the Planning Commission. 1964. Seven-Year Plan for National Reconstruction and Development: 1963/64 1969/70. Accra.

Ghana, Republic of. 1987. National Programme for Economic Development. Accra.

Goliber, T. J. 1989. Africa's expanding population: Old problems, new policies. Population Bulletin 44(3): 1-50.

Gourou, P. 1966. The Tropical World. London: Longman.

Gyasi, E. A. 1987. The Risonpalm nucleus estate of Nigeria: An agricultural plantation and its effects on the surrounding area. Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography 15: 26 38.

---- 1990. Nucleus agricultural estates and food security. Rural Systems 7(2): 61 68.

---- 1991. The oil palm industry and its implications for the rural economy in Ghana. Unpublished study funded by the University of Ghana, Department of Geography and Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon.

---- 1992a. Emergence of a new oil palm belt in Ghana. Journal of Economic and Social Geography 83(1): 39- 49.

---- 1992b. Sustaining oil palm farming by organic methods in Ghana. In U. Kopke and 1). C. Schulz (eds.), Proceedings 9th IFOAM International Scientific Conference on Organic Agriculture. A Key to a Sound Development and Sustainable Environment, 16 21 November, Sao Paulo. Tholey-Theley, Germany: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements, pp. 233 238.

---- forthcoming. State expropriation of land for a plantation and its impact on peasants in Ghana. Proceedings of Commonwealth Geographical Bureau Indigenous Land Rights Workshop. Wellington: Department of Geography, University of Canterbury. and Christchurch: Ngai Tahu Maori Trust Board for the Commonwealth Geographical Bureau.

Halfani, M. S. and Barker, J. 1984. Agribusiness and agrarian change. In J. Barker (ed.), The Politics of Agriculture in Tropical Africa. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sagc Publications, pp. 35 63.

Hasselman, K.-H. 1981. Liberia. In H. De Blij and E. Martin (eds.), African Perspectives: The Economic Geography of Nine African States. New York: Methuen, pp. 137-171.

Howard, R. 1978. Colonialism and Underdevelopment in Ghana. London: Croom Helm.

ILO (International Labour Organization). 1989. From Redeployment to Sustained Employment Generation: Challenges for Ghana's Programme of Economic Recovery and Development. Addis Ababa: Jobs and Skills Programme for Africa.

Johnson, M. 1964. Migrants' progress. Bulletin of the Chana Geographical Association 9(2): 4 27.

Jones, C. F and G. G. Darkenwald. 1954. Economic Geography. New York: Macmillan.

Kopke, U. and D. C. Schulz (eds.) 1992. Proceedings 9th IFOAM International Scientific Conference on Organic Agriculture. A Key to a Sound Development and a Sustainable Fnvironment, 16 21 November, Sao Paulo. Tholey-Theley, Germany: International Federation of Organic Farming Movements.

Kotey, E. N.-A. 1990. Indigenous land tenure and registration of title to land in Ghana: Legal and political problems. Paper presented at World Bank-sponsored Seminar on Land Tenure and Agricultural Productivity in Ghana, Accra.

La-Anyane, S. 1961. The oil palm belt in Ghana. Chana Bulletin of Agricultural Economics 1(1): 7 43.

---- 1963. Ghana Agriculture: Its Economic Development from Early Times to the Middle of the Twentieth Century. London: Oxford University Press.

---- 1985. Economics of Agricultural Development in Tropical Africa. Chichester: John Wiley.

Ministry of Agriculture. 1990. Ghana Medium Term Agricultural Development Programme (MTADP): An Agenda for Sustained Agricultural Growth and Development (1991 2000), vol. 1. Accra.

---- 1991. Agriculture in Ghana: Facts and Figures. Accra: Policy Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation Department.

Miracle, M. P. and A. Seidman. 1968. State Farms in Chana. LTC Paper 43, Madison, Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin.

Population Reference Bureau. 1990.1990 World Population Data Sheet. Washington D.C.

Ruthenberg, H. 1971. Farming Systems in the Tropics. London: Oxford University Press.

Shephard, C. Y. 1936. Report on the Economics of Peasant Agriculture in the Gold Coast. Accra: Government Printer.

Symons, L. 1966. Agricultural Geography. London: G. Bell.

Thomas, C. Y. 1984. Plantations, Peasants and State: A Study of the Mode of Sugar Production in Guyana. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, University of California; Mona, Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of West Indies.

Udo, R. K. 1982. The Human Geography of Tropical Africa. Ibadan, London and Nairobi: Heinemann.

Usoro, E. J. 1974. The Nigerian Oil Palm Industry (Government Policy and Export Production, 1906 1965). Ibadan Social Science Series. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press.

Van Royen, W. 1954. The Agricultural Resources of the World. New York: PrenticeHall.

World Bank. 1989. Sub-Saharan Africa: From Crisis to Sustainable Growth: A Long Term Perspective Study. Washington D.C.: World Bank.