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close this bookScience and Technology in the Transformation of the World (UNU, 1982, 496 p.)
close this folderSession I: Science and technology as formative factors of contemporary civilization - from domination to liberation
close this folderScience and the making of contemporary civilization
close this folderJ. Leite Lopes
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. The physical image of the world
View the documentII. Science and underdevelopment in Latin America
View the documentIII. Science and dependent development
View the documentIV. Endogenization of science in which society?
View the documentV. The aims of science
View the documentVI. Science for liberation
View the documentNotes


1. Quoted by C. W. Misner, K. S. Thorne, J. A. Wheeler, Gravitation. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1973, p. 73.

2. Cf. B. Russell, Human Knowledge, Its Scope and Limits. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, 1948, p. 24.

3. The difference between the reputation of Aristarchus and that of Copernicus and Galileo lies, according to Russell, in the fact that in ancient Greece, astronomy was an amusement of the idle rich and not an activity integrated in the life of the community. In the sixteenth century, however, science had made important inventions, the discovery of the Americas had shown the limitations of the ancient knowledge of geography, Catholic orthodoxy had begun to be an obstacle to material progress and the fury of theologians made scientists appear as heroic champions of a new wisdom (ibid., p. 25).

4. Albert Einstein, Philosopher-Scientist, ed. by P.A. Scilpp. The Library of Living Philosophers, Inc., Evanston, 1949, p. 19.

5. P. A. M. Dirac, "Development of the physicist's conception of nature," in The Physicist's Conception of Nature, ed. by J. Mehra. D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, Holland, 1973, p. 1.

6. See J. Leite Lopes, "The Evolution of the Notions of Space and Time," Scientia (Milano) 107, 1972, p. 411.

7. A. Einstein, Ideas and Opinions. Souvenir Press, London, 1973, p. 272.

8. I. Newton, Opticks. Dover Publications, New York, 1952, p. 400.

9. D. W. Sciama, "The Universe as a Whole," in The Physicist's Conception of Nature, op. cit.

10. F. Hoyle, The Ten Faces of the Universe. W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1977, p. 78.

11. See J. Leite Lopes, "Science for Development - A View from Latin America," Bull. Atomic Scientists 22, 1966, p. 7.

12. See for instance M. Roche, "Early History of Science in Spanish America," Science 194, 1976, p. 806; Ricardo Ferreira, "As origens da actividade cientifica no Brasil," Ciencia e Culture 30, 1978, p. 1301; M. S. Giambiagi and M. Giambiagi, "Alcune reflessioni suggerite dal tema: piani di studio per il dottorato in chimica teorica," IX Congreso dei Chimici Teorici di Espresione Latina, Stresa, Italy, September 1978.

13. Eric J. Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire. Penguin, London, p. 146, as quoted by O.G. Velho, op. cit.

14. See J. Leite Lopes, "Science and Dependent Development," Interciencia 2, 1977, p. 139.

15. O.G. Velho, Capitalismo autoritario e campesinato. Difel, Sao Paulo, 1976.

16. Cf. F. A. Biato, E.A. de Almeida Gulmaraes, and M.H. Poppe Figueiredo, Potencial de pesquisa tecnologica no Brasil. Ministerio do Planejamento, Instituto de Planejamento Economico e Social, Brasilia, 1971; J. Leite Lopes, "Les transferts de technologie: l'exemple du Bresil, in Plurisciences, Encyclopedia Universal is, Paris, 1978, p. 221.