Cover Image
close this bookThe Long Road to Recovery: Community Responses to Industrial Disasters (UNU, 1996, 307 p.)
close this folder3 Environmental contamination, community transformation, and the Centralia mine fire
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentCentralia: A dependent town
View the documentThe Centralia mine fire
View the documentA stage model of industrial contamination
View the documentConclusions
View the documentImplications
View the documentRecommendations
View the documentReferences


Aurand, Harold. 1971. From the Molly Maguires to the United Mine Workers: The Social Ecology of an Industrial Union, 1869-1897. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Baltzell, E. Digby. 1958. Philadelphia Gentlemen: The Making of a National Upper Class. Glencoe, III.: Free Press.

Baum, Andrew. 1987. "Toxins, technology and natural disasters." In: Gary Van den Bos and Brenda Bryant, eds. Cataclysms, Crises and Catastrophes. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 5-54.

Baum, Andrew., Raymond Fleming, and Laura M. Davidson. 1983. "Natural disaster and technological catastrophe." Environment and Behavior 15: 333-354.

Baum, Andrew., Raymond Fleming, and Jerome E. Singer. 1983. "Coping with victimization by technological disaster." Journal of Social Issues 39: 122.

Berren, Michael R., Allan Biegel, and Stuart Ghertner. 1980. "A typology for the classification of disasters." Mental Health Journal 16: 103-110.

Bertoff, Rowland. 1965. "The social order of the Anthracite Region, 1825-1902." The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography (July).

Brown, Phil. 1991. "The popular epidemiology approach to toxic waste contamination." In: Stephen R. Couch and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith, eds. Communities At Risk: Collective Responses to Technological Hazards. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 133-156.

Bullard, Robert D. 1983. "Solid waste sites and the black Houston community." Sociological Inquiry 53: 273-288.

Bullard, Robert D., and Beverly Hendrix Wright. 1986. "The politics of pollution: Implications for the black community." Phylon XLVII: 71-78.

Castleman, Barry I. 1979. "The export of hazardous factories to developing nations." International Journal of Health Services 9: 569-606.

Caudill, Henry. 1963. Night Comes to the Cumberlands. Boston: Little, Brown.

Chapman, Dwight W. 1962. "A brief introduction to contemporary disaster research." In: George W. Baker and Dwight W. Chapman, eds. Man and Society in Disaster. New York: Basic Books, pp. 3-22.

Couch, Stephen R. 1984. "The coal and iron police in anthracite country." In: David L. Salay, ed. Hard Coal, Hard Times: Ethnicity and Labor in the Anthracite Region. Scranton, Pa.: Anthracite Museum Press, pp. 100-119.

Couch, Stephen R. and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith. 1985. "The chronic technical disaster: Toward a social scientific perspective." Social Science Quarterly 66(3): 564-575.

Couch, Stephen R. and. J. Stephen Kroll-Smith. 1991. "Alienation and toxic contamination." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Social Problems, Cincinnati (August).

Couch, Stephen R. and. J. Stephen Kroll-Smith. 1992. "Controllability, social breakdown, and the Centralia mine fire." In: S.K. Majumdar, E.W. Miller, G.S. Forbes, and R.F. Schmalz, eds. Natural and Technological Disasters: Causes, Effects and Preventive Measures. Easton, Pa.: Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences.

Couch, Stephen R., J. Stephen Kroll-Smith. and John P. Wilson. 1992. "The psychosocial impact of toxic exposure at Brookhurst: Final report." Prepared for Spence, Moriarity, and Schuster, Jackson, Wyoming.

Davidson, Laura M., and Andrew Baum. 1991. "Victimization and self-blame following a technological disaster." In: Stephen R. Couch and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith, eds. Communities At Risk: Collective Responses to Technological Hazards. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 3352.

Eavenson, Howard N. 1942. The First Century and a Quarter of the American Coal Industry. Baltimore: Waverly Press, p. 378.

Edelstein, Michael R. 1988. Contaminated Communities: The Social and Psychological Impacts of Residential Toxic Exposure. Boulder: Westview.

Edelstein, Michael R. 1991. "Ecological threats and spoiled identities: Radon gas and environmental stigma." In: Stephen R. Couch and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith, eds. Communities At Risk: Collective Responses to Technological Hazards. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 205-226.

Erikson, Kai. 1991. "A new species of trouble." In Stephen R. Couch and J. Stephen KrollSmith, eds. Communities At Risk: Collective Responses to Technological Hazards. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 11-30.

Feitelson, E. 1991. "Sharing the globe: The role of attachment to place." Global Environmental Change 1: 396-406.

Fischer, Claude S. 1977. "Comments on the history and study of 'Community'." In: Claude S. Fischer et al., eds. Networks and Places: Social Relations in the Urban Setting. New York: Free Press, pp. 189-204.

Fritz, Charles E. 1961. "Disaster." In: Robert K. Merton and Robert A. Nisbet, eds. Contemporary Social Problems. New York: Harcourt, pp. 651-694.

General Accounting Office. 1983. "Siting of hazardous waste landfills and their correlation with racial and economic status of surrounding communities." Washington, DC: General Accounting Office, Resources, Community and Economic Development Division.

Gephart, R.P., Jr. 1992. "Sensemaking, communicative distortion and the logic of public inquiry legitimation." Industrial Crisis Quarterly 6: 115-136.

Geschwindt, John. 1984. Letter to the author, 27 March. State Library of Pennsylvania.

Gill, Duane A. 1986. "A disaster impact assessment model: An empirical study of a technological disaster." Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Sociology, Texas A & M University.

Gonzales-Casanova, Pablo. 1965. "Internal colonialism and national development." Studies in Comparative International Development 1: 27-37.

Hechter, Michael. 1975. Internal Colonialism: The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 1536-1966. Berkeley: University of California Press.

History of Schuylkill County. 1881. New York: W.W. Munsell, pp. 53-54.

Homrighaus, Barbara K., Stephen R. Couch, and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith. 1985. "Building a town but preventing a community: A social history of Centralia, Pennsylvania." In: Lance E. Metz, ed. Proceedings of the Canal History and Technology Symposium. Easton: Center for Canal History and Technology, pp. 69-91.

Kasperson, Roger E., and K. David Pijawka. 1985. "Societal response to hazards and major hazard events: Comparing natural and technological hazards." Public Administration Review 45: 7-18.

Kliman, Jodie, and Gilbert Kliman. 1982. "Natural and human made disasters: Some therapeutic and epidemiological implications for crisis intervention." In: V. Rueveni, Ross U. Speck, and Joan L. Speck, eds. Therapeutic Intervention. New York: Human Science Press.

Kroll-Smith, J. Stephen, and Stephen Robert Couch. 1990. The Real Disaster Is Above Ground. A Mine Fire and Social Conflict. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Kroll-Smith, J. Stephen, and Stephen Robert Couch. 1991. "What is a disaster? An ecological-symbolic approach to resolving the definitional debate." International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 9(3): 355-366.

Levine, Adeline G. 1982. Love Canal: Science, Politics and People. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Nyden, Paul. 1979. "An internal colony: Labor conflict and capitalism in Appalachian coal." Insurgent Sociologist 8: 33-43.

Raphael, Beverley. 1986. When Disaster Strikes: How Individuals and Communities Cope with Catastrophe. New York: Basic Books.

Reich, Michael. 1983. "Environmental politics and science: The case of PBB contamination in Michigan." American Journal of Public Health 73(3): 302-313.

Reich, Michael. 1991. Toxic Politics: Responding to Chemical Disasters. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, pp. 140-253.

Schalek, Adolf W., and D.C. Henning (eds.). 1907. History of Schuylkill County, Pa. Vol. 1. Harrisburg: State Historical Society.

Shrivastava, Paul. 1987. Bhopal: Anatomy of a Crisis. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger.

Shrivastava, Paul. 1991. "Organizational myths in industrial crises: Obfuscating revelations." In: Stephen Robert Couch and J. Stephen Kroll-Smith, eds. Communities At Risk: Collective Responses to Technological Hazards. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 263-290.

Vyner, Henry. 1988. Invisible Trauma. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books.

Wallace, Anthony F.C. 1981. St. Clair: A Nineteenth-Century Coal Town's Experience with a Disaster-Prone Industry. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.

Wilkinson, Kenneth P. 1991. The Community in Rural America. New York: Greenwood Press.

Zimmerman, Rae. 1985. "The relationship of emergency management to governmental policies on man-made technological disasters." Public Administration Review 45: 29-39.