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close this bookParticipatory Methods in Community-based Coastal Resource Management - Volume 1 - Introductory Papers (IIRR, 1998)
close this folderCommunity-based coastal resource management
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPrinciples of CBCRM
View the documentComponents of CBCRM
View the documentThe CBCRM cycle
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Components of CBCRM

Resource tenure improvement

Resource tenure improvement means gaining/ensuring access and management control by the community over productive resources. This is also called the clarification of use rights or community property rights. Operationally, this means institutionalizing access and control through national or local policies or legislation. This is largely achieved through effective community organizing and policy advocacy work.


Capability building

Capability-building means empowering the community through education, training and organizational development. Environmental or conservation education is a critical part of capacity building. It helps to build a common understanding of the often complex and interrelated aspects of coastal resource management. By emphasizing local issues, environmental education can build awareness and skills that contribute to the capacity of individuals and communities to effect change.


Community leaders build their confidence through the acquisition of knowledge and skills. It also includes building and strengthening the people's organizational capacity (e.g., training its leaders, expanding its membership, acquiring funds and assets, installing organizational systems, networking). All these efforts are directed towards achieving greater autonomy and self-reliance for the community-based organizations and the community as a whole.

Environmental conservation

Coastal habitats support the coastal resource base. Once habitats are degraded or destroyed, there is an immediate impact on resource productivity. The health of coastal habitats is directly related to the intensity and type of activities carried out to exploit the resources.


Environmental conservation focuses on the rehabilitation, enhancement and protection of the coastal habitats. Examples of these measures include the establishment of marine reserves and sanctuaries, and mangrove reforestation and rehabilitation.

Environmental conservation should cover the various coastal ecosystems because these ecosystems are interconnected, from the watershed to the open sea. Environmental conservation is closely linked with regulation and strict enforcement of environmental laws to minimize the damaging impact of some activities on the coastal resource base.

Sustainable livelihood development

Food security is a primary concern of CBCRM. Sustainable livelihood development plays a key role in ensuring the economic and food security of fishers. Livelihood is the main point of interaction between the fisher and the coastal resource. The type of interaction determines whether the use is Sustainable or not.


Sustainable livelihood development may involve introduction of alternative land- or sea-based livelihoods (e.g., pig or livestock dispersal, mariculture), promotion of existing sustainable livelihoods, modifications or improvements to existing livelihoods and campaigns against destructive methods. Promotion of household and village food security is an important aspect of this component.