|School Health Education to Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) : Teachers' Guide (UNESCO - WHO, 1994, 117 p.)|
|1. The programme|
|2. Teaching methods|
|3. The classroom atmosphere|
|4. Peer leaders|
|5. Participation of parents and family members|
|6. Test items for student evaluation|
|7. Questions on HIV/AIDS/STD|
|Unit 1. Basic knowledge on HIV/AIDS/STD|
|1 HIV/AIDS/STD basic questions and answers - What is HIV/AIDS/STD?|
|2 Looking into AIDS - Fun test on HIV/AIDS/STD|
|3 HIV/AIDS/STD - What do they mean? - Definitions of HIV/AIDS/STD|
|4 How a person gets HIV - Information on transmission|
|5 You cant get AIDS by... - Ways HIV is not transmitted|
|6 What do you believe? - Short test on transmission|
|7 What would you do? - Case studies on transmission|
|8 What is your risk? - Evaluating risk behaviours|
|9 Are you at risk (part 1)|
|Are you at risk (part 2)|
|Are you at risk (part 3) - Evaluating risk behaviours and accumulated risks|
|10 Protect yourself against AIDS - Information sheet on protection|
|11 Dear Doctor Sue - Letters on protection|
|12 Which is safer? - Evaluating ways of protection|
|13 What happens with HIV infection? - Information on signs and symptoms|
|14 How do you know if you have HIV/AIDS? - Case studies on signs and symptoms|
|15 Testing for HIV - Basic information on testing|
|16 Test: What you know about testing - Short test on testing for HIV|
|17 AIDS help - Who? Where? - Where help can be found|
|18 You be the doctor - Case studies on drug use|
|19 Are you a responsible person? - Behavioural intent questions on personal responsibility|
|Unit 2. Responsible behaviour: delaying sex|
|1 Reasons to say NO - Reasons for delaying sex|
|2 To delay or not to delay (a, b) - Case Study - Reasons for and against sex|
|3 Lines and more lines - Pressure to have sex|
|4 Guidelines: help to delay sex - Help for delaying sex|
|5 What to do? - Case studies on sex for delaying sex|
|6 Affection without sex? - Alternatives to sexual intercourse|
|7 Whats next? - Ranking physical activities|
|8 Am I assertive? - Definition of passive, aggressive, and assertive behaviours|
|9 Whos assertive? - Case studies - types of behaviours|
|10 Assertive messages - Four steps to assertive behaviour|
|11 Your assertive message (class) - Four steps to assertive behaviour|
|12 Your assertive message (individual) - Four steps to assertive behaviour|
|13 Responding to persuasion (demonstration) - How to refuse, delay, bargain|
|14 Responding to persuasion (class activity) - How to refuse, delay, bargain|
|15 Responding to persuasion (individual) - How to refuse, delay, bargain|
|16 You decide - Activity on gender differences|
|17 Dealing with threats and violence - Case study on violence in dating|
|18 Being assertive every day - Take-home activity on being assertive|
|Unit 3. Responsible behaviour: protected sex|
|1 The condom - Information about the condom|
|2 Arguments people use against using condoms - How to deal with a partner who is negative about condom use|
|3 How to use a condom - Humorous explanation about condom use|
|Condom practice - Students practice putting a condom on a model|
|5 No to unprotected sex (demonstration) - How to be assertive with someone who doesnt want to use a condom|
|6 No to unprotected sex (class participation) - How to be assertive with someone who doesnt want to use a condom|
|7 No to unprotected sex (individual participation) - How to be assertive with someone who doesnt want to use a condom|
|Unit 4. Care and support|
|1 Who discriminates? - Definition and case studies|
|2 The story of two communities - Two communities react differently to someone with AIDS|
|3 Why compassion? - Explores reasons for compassion|
|4 What could you do? - Compassion for two people with AIDS|
|5 How tos of care giving - Information on how to care for someone with AIDS|
|6 How to keep yourself safe - Precautionary care for someone who is looking after someone with AIDS|
|7 What do you know? - Two tests to determine what students know about caregiving|
|8 Support for responsible behaviour - How to show support for someone who has made healthy decisions|
|9 Compassion, tolerance and support - Showing support outside the classroom|
Students learn to assess multiple risk behaviours by looking at a variety of activities. They then evaluate their personal level of susceptibility based on their own risk behaviours.
What the teacher does
1. Divide the class into small groups (preferably 6 or 12 students in each group) and assign a leader to each group (to report back to the class and to direct and motivate the group).
2. Give each group a list of 6 behaviours/actions (you will have to repeat some lists if you have more than 6 groups).
3. Read the How? section to all of the students and explain to them how HIV can spread and the four risk levels (from the activity sheet).
4. Then assign them the task of determining the risk level for each of their 6 behaviours/actions. Also assign the questions under Teacher asks to each group.
5. Write the 4 risk levels on the blackboard with lots of space for the students to write the numbers of the various behaviours/actions (see example below) or go over the 36 behaviours/actions having each group report their results (see next page).
No risk (NR)
Low risk (LR)
High risk (HR)
No agreement (?)
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6. Review each behaviour/action when the students have finished writing on the board. Try to determine where the No agreement activities would go.
The answers are listed on the next page. There may be some questions about some of the behaviours/actions and if the doubt is reasonable allow that activity to be in more than one category. The high risk related to ejaculation into the mouth during oral sex and the low risk related to oral sex without semen in the mouth, might have to be discussed.
7. Have students place the correct risk factor for all 36 activities on their activity sheets (if they have been distributed to each student).
NR 1. Body to body rubbing with clothes on.
HR 2. Sharing a razor to shave legs or face.
HR 3. Having sex with a condom - condom breaks.
NR 4. Back rub - massage.
NR 5. Riding on a bus with an HIV-infected person.
HR 6. Cutting the skin with a knife used by others.
NR 1. Using toilets in a public washroom.
HR 2. Sharing needles for injection drug use.
NR 3. Being bitten by a mosquito.
NR 4. Dry kissing.
HR 5. Having vaginal sex without a condom.
HR 6. Cleaning up spilled HIV-infected blood without wearing gloves
HR 1. Having anal sex without a condom.
NR 2. Abstaining from sexual intercourse.
HR 3. Sharing needles for ear-piercing.
NR 4. Shaking hands with an HIV-infected person.
LR 5. Having oral sex (without semen in the mouth).
NR 6. Swimming with an HIV-infected person.
HR 1. Sharing needles for tattooing.
NR 2. Sharing clothes with someone who has HIV.
NR 3. Donating blood.
NR 4. Eating food prepared by an HIV-infected person.
HR 5. Having sex with a number of partners - no condom.
NR 6. Going to school with an HIV-infected person.
NR 1. Using public drinking fountains.
LR 2. Giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation (if there are no sores in the mouth).
HR 3. Having unprotected sex with an STD- infected person.
NR 4. Playing sports with an HIV-infected person.
HR 5. Sharing a needle cleaned with water.
NR 6. Being close to an HIV-infected person who coughs or sneezes.
HR 1. Being bitten by an HIV-infected
LR 2. Wet (deep) kissing.
LR 3. Having sex using a condom properly.
NR 4. Sharing a towel with an HIV-infected person.
NR 5. Touching or comforting someone living with AIDS.
HR 6. Having sex using the same condom more than once.
8. Discuss the answers to the questions under Teacher asks.
Some young people become very afraid of HIV/AIDS.
a) Why do you think they are so afraid?
- their information is not very accurate;
- the illness is serious and fatal;
- they are unaware of how it can be transmitted;
- they may have participated in risky behaviours.
b) What could be done to prevent this fear of HIV/AIDS?
- get more reliable and accurate information;
- talk to a medical expert;
- get tested for HIV;
- be aware of your risk behaviours.