Cover Image
close this bookGuide to Health and Hygiene in Agricultural Work (ILO, 1979, 328 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folder1. Living conditions and environmental hygiene
View the document1.1. Introduction
close this folder1.2. Housing
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.2.1. Construction
View the document1.2.2. Physiological principles
View the document1.2.3. Insect pests
View the document1.2.4. Rodents
close this folder1.3. Farm buildings
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.3.1. Grain stores
View the document1.3.2. Farm incinerators
View the document1.3.3. Buildings for livestock
View the document1.3.4. Piggeries
View the document1.3.5. Poultry sheds
close this folder1.4. Water supply
View the document1.4.1. Importance
View the document1.4.2. Sources
View the document1.4.3. Treatment
View the document1.4.4. Distribution
close this folder1.5. Manure and sewage
View the document1.5.1. Importance
View the document1.5.2. The latrine
View the document1.5.3. Disposal of solid wastes: composting
close this folder1.6. Environmental health
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.6.1. Man-made problems
View the document1.6.2. Plants
close this folder1.6.3. Animal life
View the documentInsects
View the documentWorms
View the documentRodents
View the documentDead animals
close this folder1.7. Food sanitation
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.7.1. Sources of infection
View the document1.7.2. The dairy farm
View the document1.7.3. Milk sanitation
close this folder1.8. Other problems of agricultural life
View the document1.8.1. some special problems
View the document1.8.2. Health legislation
View the document1.8.3. Examples of effective health education through community participation
View the document1.8.4. Health services
close this folder2. Problems of occupational physiology and ergonomics
close this folder2.1. General principles of occupational physiology
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.1.1. Muscular work
View the document2.1.2. Circulation of the blood and respiration during work
View the document2.1.3. Basal metabolism
View the document2.1.4. Static work
View the document2.1.5. Thermal regulation
View the document2.1.6. Co-ordination of physiological functions
View the document2.1.7. Adaptation to environment
close this folder2.1.8. Working capacity
View the documentState of health and working capacity
View the documentDiet and work
View the documentTraining
View the documentAge and aptitude for work
View the documentCurve of physiological work and biological rhythm
View the document2.1.9. Fatigue
close this folder2.1.10. Measurement of physical work
View the documentOxygen consumption
View the documentHeart rate
close this folder2.2. Principles of ergonomics in agriculture
View the document2.2.1. Definition and purpose
close this folder2.2.2. Arrangement of the workplace
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPosture of the body
View the documentTempo of work and body size
View the documentAlternation of heavy and light work
View the documentPrecision work and visual effort
View the documentWork done while walking
View the documentAdaptation of tools to man
View the documentAdaptation of machines to physiological capacities
View the documentArrangement of seats
close this folder2.2.3. Conditions of mechanised work1
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPhysiological aspects of mechanised work
View the documentVibration
View the documentNoise
View the documentDust
View the documentExhaust gases
View the documentLighting
close this folder2.2.4. Vocational training and health protection
View the documentWork and productivity in agriculture
View the documentApprenticeship methods
View the documentSystematic apprenticeship and health protection
close this folder3. Prevention and management of occupational pesticide poisonings
View the document3.1. Introduction and statement of the problem
close this folder3.2. General precautions for the prevention of pesticide poisonings
View the document3.2.1. Storage of pesticide containers
View the document3.2.2. Sanitation in space used for formulation, packaging and loading of application equipment
View the document3.2.3. Worker education
View the document3.2.4. Disposal of used containers
View the document3.2.5. Re-entry of pesticide-treated fields
View the document3.2.6. Cleaning and repair of equipment
close this folder3.3. Specific strategies to minimise worker injury by pesticides
View the document3.3.1. Sanitary standards and protective gear
View the document3.3.2. Medical surveillance
View the document3.3.3. Management of poisonings
View the document3.4. Physiology of pesticide absorption and action in man: general measures for management of poisonings
close this folder3.5. Toxic properties of specific classes of pesticide, and special precautions to avoid poisoning
View the document3.5.1. The large molecular organochlorine insecticides
View the document3.5.2. The cholinesterase-inhibiting organophosphate pesticides
View the document3.5.3. The cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate insecticides
View the document3.5.4. The nitrophenolic herbicides
View the document3.5.5. Pentachlorophenol
View the document3.5.6. Chlorophenoxy compounds
View the document3.5.7. Dipyridyl compounds (paraquat, diquat, morfamquat
View the document3.5.8. Dimethyldithiocarbamate fungicides
View the document3.5.9. Urea-, uracil- and triazine-based herbicides
View the document3.5.10. Liquid and gas fumigants
View the document3.5.11. Arsenicals
View the document3.5.12. Acetanilide-, acetamide-, carbanilate- and anilide-based herbicides
View the document3.5.13. Anticoagulant rodenticides
close this folder3.6. Other chemical substances in agriculture
close this folder3.6.1. Mineral fertilisers
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentNitrogenous fertilisers
View the documentPhosphatic fertilisers
close this folder3.6.2. Toxic properties of the salts of phosphoric acid and of commercial products containing them
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentBasic slag
View the document3.6.3. Calcium cyanamide
View the document3.6.4. Fuels, lubricating oils and products of the incomplete combustion of fuel
close this folder3.6.5. Products of the incomplete combustion of fuel in motor engines
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCarbon monoxide
close this folder4. Occupational diseases in agriculture
close this folder4.1. Diseases due to climate
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder4.1.1. Hot climates
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHeat cramps
View the documentAnhydrotic exhaustion due to heat
View the documentDermatoses caused by heat
View the documentHeat exhaustion
View the documentHeat stroke
View the documentSunburn
close this folder4.1.2. Cold climates
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentGeneral disorders due to cold
View the documentLocal disorders
View the documentChilblains
View the documentFrostbite
close this folder4.2. Commonest lung diseases due to vegetable dusts
View the document4.2.1. Byssinosis
View the document4.2.2. Bagassosis
View the document4.2.3. Farmer's lung
close this folder4.3. Dermatosis due to contact with plants
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.3.1. Irritant dermatitis of plants
View the document4.3.2. Eczematous contact dermatitis
View the document4.3.3. Phytophoto dermatitis (dermatitis bullosa striata pratensis)
View the document4.3.4. Diagnosis
View the document4.3.5. Prognosis
View the document4.3.6. Prevention
View the document4.3.7. Treatment
close this folder4.4. Pathology due to snake bites and insect, spider and scorpion stings
View the document4.4.1. Snake bites
View the document4.4.2. Insect stings
View the document4.4.3. Spider bites
View the document4.4.4. Scorpion stings
close this folder5. Diseases particularly related to agricultural work: Zoonoses, infectious and parasitic diseases
View the document5.1. Introduction
close this folder5.2. Viral and rickettsial diseases
View the document5.2.1. Classification and geographical distribution of diseases caused by Russian tick-borne complex
View the document5.2.2. Q fever
close this folder5.3. Bacterial diseases
View the document5.3.1. Anthrax
View the document5.3.2. Brucellosis
View the document5.3.3. Leptospirosis
View the document5.3.4. Tetanus
View the document5.3.5. Tuberculosis as an occupational health problem in agriculture
View the document5.3.6. Tularaemia
View the document5.3.7. Glanders
View the document5.3.8. Melioidosis
View the document5.3.9. Erysipeloid
close this folder5.4. Parasitic diseases
View the document5.4.1. Ancylostomiasis
View the document5.4.2. Schistosomiasis
View the document5.4.3. Leishmaniasis
View the document5.4.4. Contagious ecthyma (orf)
View the document5.4.5. Milkers' nodules
View the document5.4.6. Psittacosis
close this folder5.5. Other infectious diseases affecting agricultural workers
View the document(introduction...)
View the document5.5.1. Rabies
View the document5.5.2. Viral encephalomyelitis
View the document5.5.3. Yellow fever
View the document5.5.4. Dengue
View the document5.5.5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever
View the document5.5.6. Scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi fever)
View the document5.5.7. Plague
View the document5.5.8. Dermatoses
View the document5.5.9. Actinomycosis
View the document5.5.10. Echinococcosis (hydatidosis)
View the document5.5.11. Other diseases of potential occupational significance to agricultural workers
close this folder6. Organisation of occupational health services and medical inspection of labour in agriculture
View the document6.1. Introduction
close this folder6.2. Practical organisation of agricultural health services
View the document(introduction...)
View the document6.2.1. Preliminary investigation
View the document6.2.2. Implementation
View the document6.3. Medical inspection of agricultural work1
close this folder6.4. Problems of education and training in occupational health and hygiene in agriculture
View the document(introduction...)
View the document6.4.1. Education
View the document6.4.2. Training
View the document6.4.3. How to train
View the document6.4.4. Where to train
View the document6.4.5. Provision of training
close this folder6.5. Organisation of first aid
View the document(introduction...)
View the document6.5.1. First-aid training
View the document6.5.2. The treatment centre
View the document6.5.3. Poisoning prevention centres
View the documentGuide to further reading
View the documentSome other ILO publications on occupational safety and health
View the documentBack cover

6.4.5. Provision of training

The university

The teaching staffs of universities are particularly well qualified to conduct training courses. Their experience in research and teaching enables them to master the subjects, express them with the maximum of clarity, keep abreast of changes and (provided that they have the necessary resources at their disposal) undertake research into practical needs.

The medical inspectorate

The medical inspectorate plays an important role in providing agricultural health education in undertakings. It should therefore also co-operate with the universities in the provision of training in occupational health and hygiene. On the practical side, the inspectorate can arrange visits and participate actively in investigations and research projects.


Rural practitioners' experience of specific everyday problems enables them to make a positive contribution to training. They can also participate in education and research through the work of their learned societies and in collaboration with the inspectorate and the universities.


Effective collaboration between the various persons and establishments concerned with training in occupational health and hygiene can most often best be achieved within the framework of institutes. Depending on needs and resources, these institutes may be national or regional in scope.

The institutes discussed here may specialise in agricultural medicine or form part of a health institute or an occupational medical institute.

Their personnel should include not only teachers, medical inspectors and practitioners but also all who can contribute to the declared educational and research goals. Some of the staff would be directly concerned with agricultural medicine (veterinary surgeons, toxicologists, bacteriologists and virologists, physiologists, agricultural engineers), while others, indirectly concerned, would make useful contributions of a statistical, psychological or sociological character.

The function of these institutes would be to harmonise education and research. Their three fields of action would be education, research and evaluation.

The importance of evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. It is poor practice to undertake research without knowing whether earlier work has been undertaken on the same subject and, if so, what its results were.

Such an institute, serving simultaneously as a centre of agricultural medicine, a documentation centre and a statistical office for the rational processing of information, should be supplemented by a centre for conditions of employment, which would be concerned with job analysis, rationalisation, ergonomics, and so forth. There should also be a centre for occupational pathology, which would study toxicology, epidemiology and various advanced medical and technical subjects as the need arose, and a centre for psycho-sociology.

The need for collaboration between the different disciplines must be especially stressed.