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close this bookEducation for Health (WHO, 1988, 274 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderAcknowledgements
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View the documentA message from the Director-General of the World Health Organization'
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe concept of primary health care
close this folderChapter 1: Health behavior and health education
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View the documentHealth, illness, and behavior
View the documentUnderstanding behavior
View the documentChanges in behavior
View the documentHelping people to lead healthier lives
View the documentThe role of health education
View the documentWho is a health educator?
close this folderChapter 2: People working with people
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View the documentEstablishing good relationships
View the documentCommunicating clearly
View the documentEncouraging participation
View the documentAvoiding prejudice and bias
close this folderChapter 3: Planning for health education in primary health care
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View the documentCollecting information
View the documentUnderstanding problems
View the documentDeciding on priorities, objectives, and action
View the documentIdentifying and obtaining resources
View the documentEncouraging action and follow-through
View the documentSelecting appropriate methods
View the documentEvaluating results
View the documentReviewing the process of planning
close this folderChapter 4: Health education with individuals
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View the documentThe purpose of counselling
View the documentRules for counselling
View the documentDifferent types of counselling
View the documentFacilitating decisions and follow-through
View the documentA sample counselling session
View the documentMore practice in counselling
close this folderChapter 5: Health education with groups
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View the documentWhat is a group?
View the documentFormal groups and informal gatherings
View the documentBehavior in formal groups
View the documentThe value of group education
View the documentEducation with informal gatherings
View the documentEducation with formal groups
View the documentDiscussion groups
View the documentSelf-help groups
View the documentThe school classroom
View the documentHealth education at the work-site
View the documentDemonstrations
View the documentCase studies
View the documentRole-playing
View the documentA group training session
View the documentThe health team
View the documentMeetings
close this folderChapter 6: Health education with communities
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View the documentWhat is a community?
View the documentWhen is community health education needed?
View the documentGetting opinion leaders involved
View the documentThe role of local organizations
View the documentThe community health committee
View the documentAdvisory and planning boards
View the documentIntersectoral coordination groups
View the documentOrganizing a health campaign
View the documentSpecial community events
View the documentMobilizing community resources for a project
View the documentDeveloping a partnership with people
View the documentThe role of the community health worker
close this folderChapter 7: Communicating the health message: methods and media
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCommunicating the health message
View the documentMethods and media
View the documentSummary
View the documentReading List

More practice in counselling

Like any skill, counselling improves with practice. Gather some other health or community workers and do a role-play. One of you will be a counsellor. The other will be a mother whose child has an infected ear. The remaining people will be the audience. They have an important job: they should watch the role-play carefully and at the end they can give the players suggestions for improving their counselling skills.

Suggestions for the person who plays the role of the mother

You should behave just like a normal mother in your community. What might a mother believe is the cause of the illness? What local treatments might she have been using before coming to the clinic? The counsellor may be interested in the mother's family, living conditions, and occupation. Make up a story about yourself, so you can give realistic answers to the counsellor. You have watched mothers come to the clinic many times. Sometimes they are worried and afraid. Behave just like the mothers you have seen. That will make the role-play better.

Suggestions for the counsellor

Remember the simple counselling steps. Think of what educational tools you can use. Can you demonstrate a skill that needs to be learned by the mother? Could you use posters or pictures? You may not have these with you, but in a role-play you can pretend that you have them. Can you make up a story, proverb, or fable? Will you need to help the mother get support from family members?

Do not rush the counselling

It is natural for the session to go slowly at first. After you have had a lot of practice and real sessions, your skills will increase. You will be able to understand problems more quickly and select educational methods more easily.

For further practice, use the case of the mother with twins (see page 90) as the basis for a role-play. People could take the roles of health worker, mother, brother-in-law, and possibly other relatives. Also you should make up your own role-plays based on actual problem situations you have seen in the clinic, school, and community. Always have a few other people watch the plays so that they can suggest improvements.

Whatever the situation may be, remember that counselling implies the following four steps:

1. Helping the client identify what is the problem.
2. Helping the client discover why it is a problem.
3. Encouraging the client to look at many possible solutions to the problem.
4. Having the client choose the most appropriate solution.