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close this bookBasic Techiques of Blacksmithing: A Manual for Trainers (Peace Corps, 1982, 102 p.)
close this folderDay 3
View the documentSession: 9. Eye hook and link: technology transfer
View the documentSession: 10. Forging rings
View the documentSession: 11. Welding practices: forge brazing
View the documentSession: 12. Open workshop: mid-program review

Session: 9. Eye hook and link: technology transfer

Total Time: 3 hours


* To make an eye hook
* To make a lap joint link
* To practice techniques used in transferring blacksmithing skills to local blacksmiths


* Andrews, pages 54-57.

Materials: Newsprint, felt-tip pens, approximately 25-30' of 1/2" coil spring or round bar; 25-30' of 3/8"-5/16" round bar.

Trainer Notes

Steps 7-9 of this session involve having the participants role-play local blacksmiths. An effective option to this role-play situation would be to invite a few local blacksmiths to observe the demonstrations and ask questions, make comments, etc.


Step 1. (5 minutes)
Explain the session objectives and briefly outline the procedures.

Step 2. (20 minutes)
Have the participants form their work teams and uncoil and cut two 12" lengths of coil spring.

Trainer Notes

* Circulate among the teams and offer advice and assistance whenever necessary.

* It is important to allow participants to work as independently as possible so that they can practice and sharpen their skills.

Step 3. (20 minutes)
Reconvene the group and demonstrate the proper techniques and procedures for making an eye hook and lap link.

Trainer Notes

* Before beginning the demonstration, briefly explain the procedures to be followed and remind participants to observe carefully.

* During the demonstration, mention and point out the following important techniques:

- calculating materials necessary for eye hook and link
- forging a small eye by wrapping it around bar stock
- tapering the hook end
- bending of hook end to complete eye
- forging of lap joints on link stock
- bending of stock into link

* Following the demonstration, take a few minutes to ask participants to review and clarify the techniques which they observed.

Step 4. (5 minutes)
Divide the work teams into two groups and explain that Group #1 will make eye hooks while Group #2 will be making lap joint links.

Trainer Notes

Explain that each team in Group #1 should make one eye hook using one piece of straightened spring (or ½" round bar) and that each team in Group #2 should make one lap link using one piece of 3/8" or 5/16" round bar or spring.

Step 5. (40 minutes)
Have the teams work on their eye hooks or links.

Trainer Notes

Offer guidance whenever necessary and point out any potentially | I unsafe practices which may occur.

Step 6. (10 minutes)
Reconvene the group and ask participants to identify and discuss factors which should be considered when planning to communicate technical skills and new forging practices to local blacksmiths.

Trainer Notes

* Write their responses on posted newsprint

* Stimulate discussion and participation by asking:

- What kinds of communication aids would be appropriate for local blacksmiths (i.e., models, prototypes, pictures, etc.)

- What techniques could be used to stimulate the interest, cooperation, and participation of local blacksmiths?

- What techniques could be used to overcome cultural barriers which may exist between local blacksmiths and foreign development workers?

- How could local traders and farmers benefit from an availability of rings, hooks, or links?

Step 7. (5 minutes)
Explain the procedures and roles for the demonstration activity.

Trainer Notes

* Explain that Group #1 will present a demonstration of the proper procedures for making an eye hook while Group #2 observes and takes the role of local blacksmiths. Then, Group #2 will demonstrate the proper method of making an overlap link while Group #1 observes and role-plays local blacksmiths.

* Point out that each demonstration should last approximately 20 minutes and should include time for questions from the observers.

Step 8. (15 minutes) Have the participants form the two groups and prepare for their demonstrations.

Trainer Notes

As the groups are working, circulate among them and remind them | of the factors which they identified in Step 6.

Step 9. (45 minutes)
Have each group present their demonstration.

Trainer Notes

During each demonstration, it is important that the trainer take the role of a local blacksmith and that he/she set the climate and tone of the role-play situation by asking questions which relate to the list of factors discussed in Step 6.

Step 19. (15 minutes)
Ask the participants to discuss each demonstration and evaluate its effectiveness as a means of transferring skills to local blacksmiths.

Trainer Notes

Stimulate discussion by asking:

- What aspects of the demonstrations were particularly effective? Why?
- How could those aspects of the demonstrations which seemed ineffective be improved?
- Which techniques seemed easy to demonstrate? Why?
- Which techniques seemed difficult to demonstrate? Why?