Session: 11. Welding practices: forge brazing
Total Time: 1½ hours
* To identify and discuss various types of welding
* To discuss welding processes used by local blacksmiths
forge braze rings
Materials: Forged rings from Session 10, flux, brass rods, an
assortment of examples of various types of welds, electric arc, gas forge, flux
Prior to this session, it will be necessary to assemble and
prepare for distribution a collection of examples of various types of welds (see
Trainer Notes, Step 2).
Step 1. (5 minutes)
Briefly explain the session objectives
and ask participants to define welding.
* Point out that there are several ways to weld but that,
essentially, the process is one of bonding metal together using heat.
* Also, explain that brazing and soldering are welding methods
that require the use of a third metal as a binder.
Step 2. (15 minutes)
Distribute examples of various types of
welds and ask the participants to describe the methods used in each case and to
discuss why one method may be preferable to another.
* Among the examples distributed, be certain to include
demonstration samples of forge welding, gas and electric welding, brazing and
* In discussing each type of weld, ask participants who have had
experience with welding to:
- identify and name the type of weld
- describe the process
involved and the equipment necessary
- give examples of how and where each
type is most often used:
- discuss fluxes, bonding metals and
- explain why one type of weld may be preferable to another
Describe various kinds of joints (i.e., lap,, but, vee)
Step 3. (10 minutes)
Ask participants to describe forge
welding and brazing processes they have seen local blacksmiths use.
* Some questions to stimulate discussion include:
- What similarities/differences exist between processes used by
local blacksmiths and those discussed here?
- What cultural and/or economic
factors influence the welding practices of local blacksmiths?
Step 4. (10 minutes)
Explain that forge brazing is the type
of welding which will be practiced during this session and ask participants to
discuss its potential use by local blacksmiths.
* Remind participants of the discussion from the previous steps
and have them describe and explain why braze welding could be a viable technique
for local blacksmiths.
* Ask them to identify some local uses for braze welds (e.g.,
Step 5. (15 minutes)
Demonstrate the procedures involved in
braze welding a ring.
* During the demonstration, it is important to point out and
explain the following techniques:
- cleaning of joint with wire brush after heating and before
- proper control of heat
- placement of flux
- use of the flux
- placement and handling of brass rod
- testing the weld for
- determining when brazing heat has been reached
- results of
* Before proceeding to the next step, be certain that
participants understand the procedures and techniques involved.
Step 6. (25 minutes)
Have the participants go to their work
stations and forge braze the lap rings that they made in the previous session.
Provide assistance and suggestions whenever necessary.
Step 7. (10 minutes)
Reconvene the group and have them
discuss the brazing activity.
* Have work groups describe any difficulties which they
experienced and share ideas about ways to overcome them.
* Depending on the amount of time remaining in the session, it
may also be useful to demonstrate how forge brazing can be used to repair a
broken tool or implement.