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close this bookSmall Scale Processing of Oilfruits and Oilseeds (GTZ, 1989, 100 p.)
close this folder5. Selected Equipment
Open this folder and view contents5.1 Hand-operated equipment
Open this folder and view contents5.2 Motorized equipment

5.1.1 Hand-operated processing of palm fruit

Local manufacturing:

ENDA, Dakar, Senegal
ENDA promotes the use of a locally manufactured press. This press is used to reprocess the fibre that remains after the traditional process to obtain the residual oil. In this way the oil recovery is improved by 40 %.

The same result can be obtained by using this press for the semi-traditional process (as described in 2.2.1). In this case the fibre is steam-heated before pressing. As the maximum attainable pressure is only 8 bar, the press is not suitable for pressing mixtures of nuts and fibre. (As the aura variety of the Casamance has a very low pulp-to-nut ratio, it is worthwhile applying the KIT process (see 2.2.1). This improves the traditional oil recovery by another 40 %, making the overall oil yield about 80 % of the oil originally present.

The ENDA press consists of a frame built from locally available materials such as wood, iron channel and strip, and equipped with a nut and spindle. In this frame a perforated cage is placed in a container, fitted with an outlet tube, as oil receiver. The press is to be manufactured by the local blacksmith. The spindle is supplied to him by others but the nut is cast from bronze by the blacksmith himself.

Figure 25: Oil Press, as disseminated by ENDA.

Source: ENDA, 1981, after Thierno Diedhiou

The cage content is 19 litres (1). This content is such, that all the fibres of a day's production can be reprocessed in less than an hour in a few pressings.

The involvement of the local blacksmiths has many positive aspects, e.g. ready availability of spare parts and repair service close at hand. The price of the press is F CFA 30 000 (20 000 for materials and 10 000 for the work). The costs of maintenance and repair are also estimated at F CFA 30.000 per year. This includes renewing of the nut, which is subject to wear and needs to be replaced every season.

To improve upon the quality of the press ENDA is designing a reinforced version. Also auxiliary equipment, such as sterilization and heating units, are being designed. A palmnut-cracker, to obtain the palmkernels, is under development as well.

TCC, Kumasi, Ghana

For the pressing of nuts and fibre, TCC developed a sturdy press to be manufactured by local craftsmen from locally available materials. Manufacturing takes place under the guidance of the Suame ITTU, Kumasi.

Figure 26: TCC Press.

Source: GRET, after Ph. Langley, 1984, p. 22

The TCC Press consists of a table, with a few perforations, 50 cm high. A 60 cm long spindle, welded on a bottom press plate is mounted in the centre of the table. A press cage (about 30 cm diameter and 30 cm high) made from 4 mm thick cylindrical waterpipe and consisting of two halves, is placed on the table around the bottom press plate and with the spindle in the centre. The two halves are hinged at one side and locked with a pin at the other, to allow for easy opening of the cage and removal of the pressed mass. Around the spindle, a top press plate is placed, which is fixed to a threaded compression tube. On the tube a turnbar is welded. The mass is compressed in the cage between the two press plates by turning the turnbar. The turnbar can be equipped with extension tubes to enable women processors to exert enough pressure. The oil is collected below the table and the pressed mass at the side. In 1985 the price of the press amounted to C (Cedis) 29 300 (US $ 560).

The advantages of the TCC press are:

- its sturdiness
- its relatively light construction
- the possibility to exert a maximum pressure of 40 bar on the mass to be pressed, making the press suitable to press mixtures of nuts and fibre.

However the construction of the press, with the spindle in the centre, makes the removal of the press cake difficult and the press unsuitable for the pressing of oil seeds.

Additional equipment, developed by TCC and manufactured under the guidance of the Suame ITTU are:

- a cooking kettle for steaming of loose fruit
- a clarification kettle of the same size as the cooking kettle.

Processing capacity and oil recovery depend on rawmaterial. The performance of a complete TCC unit, which includes a motorized pounder (see Chapter 5.2.1) is given in Chapter 4.3.

Major Exporters:

UNATA, Ramsel, Belgium

UNATA manufactures a sturdy press, developed in cooperation with KIT. The press UNATA 4202 consists of a frame of channel iron in which a cast iron nut is mounted at the top and a flat oil receiver/ filling table at the bottom. The press should be mounted on a concrete foundation. A small frame, holding the bolts to fix the press, should be embedded in the concrete.

In the cast iron nut, a steel spindle turns, equipped with a top press plate. A perforated cage (contents 171) is filled on the table and placed in the centre of the press just below the top press plate. Pressure can be exerted on the top press plate by rotating the spindle with turnbars that can also be extended with additional bars. The oil flows on the table and is collected at both sides of the table. The press is particularly suitable to press mixtures of nuts and fibre.

The advantages of this press are:

- its sturdiness
- the easy way of emending the turnbars to make it possible to exert a maximum pressure of 40 bar
- the easy way the press cage can be removed, so that pressing can be continued with a second one
- its suitability for pressing oil seeds (with a slightly adapted press cage).

The only part that shows a little wear when the press is used continuously at maximum pressure, is the thrust bearing, where the spindle turns in the top press plate. Frequent greasing is required at this spot.

The price of the press ( 1987, ex factory) is BF (Belgian Francs) 30 600,-. Local manufacturing is quite possible as this press is presently being manufactured for sunflowerseed processing in Zambia.

Other equipment to be obtained from UNATA includes:

- parts for cooking and reheating drums - cooking kettles (up to 2 m³)
- reheating kettle.

Processing capacity and oil recovery depend on rawmaterial. The performance of a complete UNATA/KIT Unit is given in Chapters 3.3 and 4.3.

Usine de Wecker, Wecker, Luxemburg

A hand-operated vertical hydraulic press is manufactured by Usine de Wecker, referred to as type PM 50-83.

The press consists of a frame with a hydraulic ram at the bottom and a press cage hanging on one of the stands of the frame and swinging around it. The cage can be put in three positions: filling, pressing and discharge position.

In the pressing position, the cage hangs above the hydraulic press ram which is equipped with a low and a high pressure hand-operated pump. The filling capacity of the press is 501. Its weight is 660 kg.

The price (1987) amounts to DM 14 200 (f.o.b. Antwerp). For the cracking of palm nuts, for obtaining the palm kernels, a hand-operated cracker is available as well.

Processing capacity is in principle three times the UNATA press. However, to attain this capacity the auxiliary equipment, such as cooking kettles, pounder and/or reheating and clarification kettles, should have a comparable capacity. Oil recovery is dependent on the raw- material and which process is followed.

Tool Foundation, Amsterdam, Netherlands

This organization co-ordinates the manufacturing and sale of the 8 L spindle press, designed by KIT. This press is equipped with a steel spindle that turns in a castiron nut. The frame is constructed from sheet metal. The weight of this press is only 60 kg. Maximum attainable pressure is 40 kg/cm².

This press is particularly suitable for the so-called “semi-traditional" process for the processing of oil palm fruit. In this process the nuts and fibre are separated in water and the fibre is subsequently reheated for pressing. This press can best be used in combination with cooking and reheating kettles made from oildrums. The price of the press is ( 1986) FL (Dutch Gulden) 1273.

Figure 28: 8 L Spindle Press, KIT/TOOL and Kettles

Its capacity is half the UNATA press. Oil recovery depends on the rawmaterial and which process is followed.

5.1.2 Hand-operated processing of oil seeds

Local manufacturing

"Presse Garango", Senegal and Burkina Faso

The "Presse Garango" is a press mainly in use for processing groundnuts. These presses are manufactured by local blacksmiths from locally available materials.

They can be found on markets in Senegal and Burkina Faso. Its construction is, in principle, the same as the press disseminated by ENDA in the Casamance for processing oil palm fruit, which is also based on the Garango" press. Its use for processing groundnuts compared with the traditional way of preparing oil and "kuli-kuli" is described by Corbett. As "kuli-kuli" fetches a good price and the sale of the press cake from the press is uncertain, the traditional process is still financially more attractive.

Project GTZ/GATE, Bamako, Mali

For the processing of shea nuts (Karite), a press based on a hydraulic jack has been, developed by KIT. This press consists of a frame in which a table can be moved up by a hydraulic jack. A perforated cage is placed on the table and the mass in the cage is put under pressure against a press block by moving the table upward. The cage content is 8 1 and the maximum pressure is 125 kg/m². For,expelling the cake from the cage an expel-stand is made as well.

To provide the required pressure a 30 ton lorry jack is applied (make NIKE, from Sweden). Recently it has been decided to equip the jack with an improved pump, which can withstand the forces exerted on it. This pump is based on parts of the 50 ton jack made by NIKE and a specially made pump-cylinder and pump-plunger. To facilitate the cooking process, an oven is required. Press, expel-stand and oven parts are manufactured by a workshop in Bamako, Mali. The price 1987 for a press and expel-stand is F CFA 400 000, for the oven F CFA 40 000. Recently, its manufacture has also been taken up by the IBE (Institut Burkinabe d'Energie), Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Figure 29: Shea Nut Press, GTZ/GATE.

Source: GTZ/GATE

Processing capacity and oil recovery are given in Chapters 3.1 and 4.1.

IPI, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

IPI has developed a complete line of equipment for the processing of sunflowerseed, according to the dry process. At first only decorticating, heating and pressing at high pressures were applied but with disappointing results. Later a rollermill and an improved “cooking method" were introduced. The results with this equipment seem to be comparable to those obtained with the equipment available from UNATA.


The heart of the equipment, the press, is based on a shear jack system. The press can process 21 kg decorticated, rolled and “cooked" sunflowerseed per batch in a one-hour cycle.

Figure 33: IPI Oil Press

Weight and capacity of the IPI equipment are given in Table 16.

Table 16: Weight and Capacity of IPI Equipment

weight (kg)

capacity (kg/h)


(Fig. 30)


40 (seed)

Seed crusher

(Fig. 31)


32 (dec. seed)

Seed scorcher

(Fig. 32)


21 (dec. seed)

Oil press

(Fig. 33)


21 (dec. seed)

The press is 3.65 m high and requires a sturdy foundation and quite some space. IPI reports (Chungu A.S.) a daily capacity with 7 operators of 210 kg seed (140 kg decorticated seed), giving 42 kg oil. The price of a complete IPI sunflowerseed processing unit is (1987) T. Sh 250000 (about US $ 4000).

Major exporters

UNATA, Ramsel, Belgium

UNATA manufactures a nearly complete line of equipment for the processing of oil palm fruit and oil seeds. The central piece is the UNATA spindle press, with a cage content of 17 1, and a capacity of about 10 kg per batch in a 30-minute cycle.

Processing capacity and oil recovery are given in Table 9 and for sunflowerseed in detail in Chapters 3.2 and 4.2.

Weight and capacity of the UNATA equipment for sunflowerseed processing are given in Table 17.

Table 17: Weight and Capacity of UNATA Equipment

KIT has reported a daily capacity with 6 operators of 150 kg sunflowerseed ( 100 kg decorticated seed), giving 29 kg oil and with 15 operators of 300 kg seed (200 kg decorticated seed) giving 58 kg oil.

Prices of these machines are (1987, exfactory, packed):


BF 68 540


BF 19 990


BF 57 800

Oil press

BF 30 300

Tool Foundation, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Tool Foundation co-ordinates the manufacture and sale of the sunflowerseed decorticator/palmnut cracker from the Netherlands (see Figure 14). Its price (1987) is about FL (Dutch Gulden) 3000.

5.2.1 Motorized processing of oil palm fruit

Local manufacturing

TCC, Kumasi, Ghana

To replace the hand pounding for digesting the fruit before pressing, TCC developed a motorized pounding machine (see Figure 10). The machine consists of a horizontal cylinder, equipped with an inlet funnel on one side and an outlet on the other. A helical screw rotates within the cylinder driven by an 8 HP diesel engine.

The pounder operates continuously at a rate of about 100 kg per hour. As a TCC press has a capacity of 50 kg per hour? the pounding machine has to be combined with two TCC presses. The pounding time is about 10 minutes (which seems relatively short), since no steam for heating is applied. Oil recovery from tenera fruit is reported to be reasonable: 26.51 or 25 kg from 100 kg fruit, which is about 17 % on bunches.

In 1985 the price of the pounder amounted to C (Cedis) 28 000 (US $ 535), excluding the diesel engine. Processing capacity and estimated investment for a complete unit is given in Chapter 4.3.

OPC, Douala, Cameroon

OPC manufactures the equipment as developed by APICA. APICA has developed the CALTECH continuous screw press in principle for hand-operation (see Figure 11 ). However, in practice the machine has to be motor-driven, as the effort required is too much to be continued longer than 30 minutes per day by the same men. When motor-driven, the press should be equipped with an electric motor or a petrol engine (2.3 HP = 1.7 kW; 2000 rpm).

When motor driven, its capacity is 200 kg cooked tenera palm fruit per hour with an extraction rate of 17 % for bunches. (see Table 8.). The machine is particularly suitable for processing of tenera palm fruit. The result with aura palm fruit is less impressive.

Prices (1987 ex- factory) are:

- Manually operated version (80-105 kg fruit/h): F CFA 1.080 000
- Motorized (petrol) version (150-200 kg fruit/h): F CFA 1.800 000

OPC manufactures also the screw press as originally built by the French firm Colin (now Speichim). This press is available in a manually operated and a motorized version, as well.

Prices (1987 ex-factory) are:

- Manually operated version (110-150 kg fruit/h): F CFA 3 000 000
- Motorized (petrol) version (275-375 kg fruit/h): F CFA 4 110 000

Major exporters

SPEICHIM, Bondy, France

The expeller press, as originally developed by COLIN (see 2.2.1) is at present offered by SPEICHIM. Two sizes are produced, the so-called “single screw press M-10" being the smallest.

This press consists of a perforated cage in which a screw with a special profile turns to realize two functions. After feeding and compacting, the mass is pressed by a counteracting effect of the screw. During the pressing stage, transport of the mass is continued until it reaches the end of the cage. Backpressure is controlled with a control valve at the end of the cage.

Figure 34: Speichim Expeller Press. Source: GRET, 1984, p. 18, after APICA

The cage is equipped with bars to prevent rotation of the cake. Cage and screw are both manufactured from wear- resistant steel. In case the screw becomes damaged by wear it can be reshaped by welding. The screw turns at 5-10 rpm, when driven by a petrol engine of 4.5 HP. The press is equipped with a gear reduction box with ratio 1/150. Empty weight of the press is 400 kg. Its processing capacity is about 300 kg cooked tenera palm fruit per hour. The price of the press (1983, c.i.f., West Africa), is about F.F. 70 000.

Oil recovery depends on rawmaterial and which process is followed.

5.2.2 Motorized processing of oil seeds

"CECOCO", Ibaraki City, Japan

CECOCO sells, as its smallest oil expeller, the “HANDER" New Type 52. The cage of the “HANDER" New Type 52 is built up lengthwise of bars. The backpressure can be varied by adjusting the axial position of the wormshaft against a stationary choke ring. The bore of the cage is 60 mm diameter. Drainage length is 150 mm. Capacity is 30-50 kg oil bearing material per hour. The standard power source is a 3.7 kW, three phase electric motor. The weight of expeller and motor is 235 kg. Its performance is comparable with the MINI 40 (see Table 11).

The price of the machine is (1987, c.i.f., Amsterdam): New Type 52 + electric motor on a common base: US $ 6120. The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5000 h) are estimated at:

Taper ring

12 pcs@$ 30= US $ 360

Worm shaft

6 pcs @$ 240= US $ 1440

Cage bars

(set) 6 pcs @$ 240= US $ 1440

Other (10%)

US $ 320

Total estimated spares

US $ 3560

Simon Rosedowns, Hull, England

Simon Rosedowns are the manufacturers of the small expeller press MINI 40. Its cage, which envelops the wormshaft is made up of separately cast cage rings, spaced apart by washers. By the use of washers of the required thickness, the cage can be prepared for the processing of a particular seed. The cage has 60 mm diameter bore and 150 mm drainage length. The backpressure can be varied by adjusting the axial position of the wormshaft against a stationary choke ring. The performance as given by the manufacturer is given in Table 11. The standard power source is a 2.2 kW, three phase, electric motor. Alternatively, a 5.0 kW diesel engine can be used. The weight of the press and the motor is 250 kg.

The price of the machine is (1987, f.o.b., UK):

- NINI 40 + electric motor = 3283
- MINI 40 + diesel engine = 4158.

The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5,000 h) are estimated at:

Choke ring

6 pcs @ 44 = £ 264


4 pcs @ 315 = £ 1260

Barrel rings (set)

3 pcs @ 217 = £ 651


£ 225

Total estimated spares

£ 2400

IBG Montforts + Reiners, Monchengladbach, Federal Republic of Germany

A small expeller, called KOMET, is being manufactured by IBG. Large sized material, such as copra or palmkernels, must to be crushed into pieces of about 5 mm diameter.

The design of this expeller is quite different from the design of most other small expellers, as the screw is not a tapered compression screw.

The screw turns in a cylindrical cage, halfway foreseen with drainage holes. At the end of the cage a nozzle is mounted with a hole in the centre, that restricts the flow. To adjust the backpressure, nozzles with holes of different sizes are available. The material is conveyed into a gap between the screw and the nozzle where the material is then crushed and squeezed, and heated by the hot press head. The oil flows backward and leaks out through the holes in the press cylinder. Depending on the rawmaterial the extraction rate can reach up to 90 % of the original oil content.

The most common version is the KOMET Twin Screw Oil Expeller DD/85. The capacity depends on the type of material and may vary from 20 kg/h to 100 kg/h. Capacity and oil extraction is controlled by the rate of rotation of the screw and by selection of the appropriate temperature of the press head.

Parts subject to normal wear-and-tear are press screws, press heads, press cylinders and electric heating elements.

The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5000 h) are estimated at:

- screw

4 pcs @ DM 470 = DM I 1880

- head

2 pcs @ DM 220 = DM 320

- cylinder

- @ DM 907 = DM

- heating element

2 pcs @DM 180 = DM 360

- other:

10% = DM 270

- total

= DM 2950

The weight of this machine is about 210 kg. The standard power source is a 3 kW electric motor with stepless variable gearbox. Alternatively the unit can be driven by a diesel engine (11 kW at 3000 rpm), equipped with dynamo and clutch.

¹only required when improperly used.

The price including accessories is (1987, ex-factory):
- KOMET Twin Screw Expeller DD 85 G + electric motor = DM 16 395

- KOMET Twin Screw Expeller DD 85 D + diesel engine = DM 22 470

For the crushing of big nuts, kernels or copra, a “Cutting Machine" is available. For smaller quantities the KOMET Single Screw Expeller CA 59 G with 1.1 kW flanged electric motor is available. Its capacity is 6-8 kg oil-containing material per hour. Its price is DM 4190.-. This press is not available with diesel or petrol engine. On an experimental basis, hand and pedal-driven versions are available.

Recently, a new Single Screw Expeller (type SS/87 G) has been developed. This machine has half the capacity of the twin Screw Expeller DD 85 G.

Maschinenfabrik Reinartz, Neuss, Federal Republic of Germany

MRN manufactures the Screw Press AP VII as a small version of their range of large expellers designed for deep pressing. This machine combines a sturdy construction with universal usability.

The cage is built up with bars. The distance between these bars is determined by small steel distance plates. To meet the specific requirements of different oil seeds, plates of different thickness can be used. The inside diameter of the cage is 100 mm and total drainage length is 525 mm. The cage is divided into 4 sections, two with bars of 87.5 mm length and two each with a length of 175 mm. The worm consists of a typical stuffing part and a typical pressing part. The backpressure may be varied, as with larger machines, with an adjustable cone. The performance of this oil expeller, as claimed by the manufacturer, is given in Table 12.

The press can be supplied complete with a three phase electric motor of 7.5 kW or a 10 kW diesel engine. Its net weight is approximately 800 kg.

The price of the machine is (1987, ex-factory):
- Screw Press AP VII + electric motor = DM 29 450
- Screw Press AP VII + diesel engine = DM 36 050

The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5000 h) and on the basis of the use of clean seed and regular rewelding of the worm, are estimated at:

- Cone 1 pc @ 696 = DM696

- Discharge ring 1 pc @ 467 = DM467
- Scrapers 12 pcs @189 = DM 2 268

- Worm:
stuffing part 1 pc @ 1 550 = DM 1550
pressing part 2 pc @ 1 960 = DM 3 920
- Cage bars (set) 1 pc @2 596 = DM 2 596
- Other (fixing bars + 10 %) = DM 2 003
Total estimated spares =DM 13500

A cutter for crushing large nuts, kernels and copra is available as well. Also a heating unit is available, however it requires considerable investment, including investment in a boiler unit. A smaller capacity expeller is under development.

Manufacturers in Developing Countries

In Asia and Latin America quite a number of manufacturers of oil processing machinery exist, e.g. China, India, Pakistan and Brasil. This equipment can be very appropriate to the circumstances prevailing in these countries. For example, the operation of Indian equipment in India appears not to cause difficulties, despite the fact that Indian equipment requires generally considerable operational skills as well as maintenance and repair. In other countries, however this might cause considerable problems. It has therefore to be kept in mind, that this type of equipment might not be appropriate in countries were the required skills are not as easily available as in the country of origin.

In case Indian equipment is taken into consideration, the following addresses might be useful:

Power Gahnis and Rotary Oil Mills (Capacity 6-30 kg/h)

- Amritsar Kolhu Factory, Queens Road, Amritsar.

- Bharat Industrial Corporation. Petit Compound, Nana Chowk, Grant Road, Bombay-400-007.

- Khadi & Village Industries Commission, Sector-2, Chandigarh.

- The REX Trading Co. P.B. 5049, Madras 600 001.

- Bhakshi Ram & Co., Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- Bharat Industrial Corporation. Petit Compound, Nana Chowk, Grant Road, Bombay 400 007.

- Durga Dass Aggarwal & Co., Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- Laxmi Vijay Brass & Iron Works, Pratap Nagar, Factory Area, Baroda 390 004.

- Ludhiana Expeller Industries, 471, Industrial Area-B, Ludhiana 141 .003.

- Manjeet Brothers, Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- Prashar Industries, 27 Great Nag. Road, Nagpur 9.

- The Punjab Engg. Co., Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- The Punjab Oil Expeller Co., P.B. 8, Patel Marg., Ghaziabad.

- S.P. Eng. Corporation, 39 Factory Area, Kanpur 202 012.

- S.P. Foundries, P.B. 450, Factory Area, Kanpur 208 012.

- Sundarshan Engg. Works, G.T. Road, Miller Ganj, Ludhiana.

- Tekma Machinery Mfg. Co., P.B. 8931, Bombay 400 072.

- Tinytech Plants Pvt. Ltd., Gondal Rd., Rajkot 360 002.

- United Oil Mill Machinery & Spares Pvt. Ltd., Mathura Road, Ballabdgarh (Haryana).