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close this bookSmall Scale Processing of Oilfruits and Oilseeds (GTZ, 1989, 100 p.)
close this folder5. Selected Equipment
close this folder5.2 Motorized equipment
View the document5.2.1 Motorized processing of oil palm fruit
View the document5.2.2 Motorized processing of oil seeds

5.2.1 Motorized processing of oil palm fruit

Local manufacturing

TCC, Kumasi, Ghana

To replace the hand pounding for digesting the fruit before pressing, TCC developed a motorized pounding machine (see Figure 10). The machine consists of a horizontal cylinder, equipped with an inlet funnel on one side and an outlet on the other. A helical screw rotates within the cylinder driven by an 8 HP diesel engine.

The pounder operates continuously at a rate of about 100 kg per hour. As a TCC press has a capacity of 50 kg per hour? the pounding machine has to be combined with two TCC presses. The pounding time is about 10 minutes (which seems relatively short), since no steam for heating is applied. Oil recovery from tenera fruit is reported to be reasonable: 26.51 or 25 kg from 100 kg fruit, which is about 17 % on bunches.

In 1985 the price of the pounder amounted to C (Cedis) 28 000 (US $ 535), excluding the diesel engine. Processing capacity and estimated investment for a complete unit is given in Chapter 4.3.

OPC, Douala, Cameroon

OPC manufactures the equipment as developed by APICA. APICA has developed the CALTECH continuous screw press in principle for hand-operation (see Figure 11 ). However, in practice the machine has to be motor-driven, as the effort required is too much to be continued longer than 30 minutes per day by the same men. When motor-driven, the press should be equipped with an electric motor or a petrol engine (2.3 HP = 1.7 kW; 2000 rpm).

When motor driven, its capacity is 200 kg cooked tenera palm fruit per hour with an extraction rate of 17 % for bunches. (see Table 8.). The machine is particularly suitable for processing of tenera palm fruit. The result with aura palm fruit is less impressive.

Prices (1987 ex- factory) are:

- Manually operated version (80-105 kg fruit/h): F CFA 1.080 000
- Motorized (petrol) version (150-200 kg fruit/h): F CFA 1.800 000

OPC manufactures also the screw press as originally built by the French firm Colin (now Speichim). This press is available in a manually operated and a motorized version, as well.

Prices (1987 ex-factory) are:

- Manually operated version (110-150 kg fruit/h): F CFA 3 000 000
- Motorized (petrol) version (275-375 kg fruit/h): F CFA 4 110 000

Major exporters

SPEICHIM, Bondy, France

The expeller press, as originally developed by COLIN (see 2.2.1) is at present offered by SPEICHIM. Two sizes are produced, the so-called “single screw press M-10" being the smallest.

This press consists of a perforated cage in which a screw with a special profile turns to realize two functions. After feeding and compacting, the mass is pressed by a counteracting effect of the screw. During the pressing stage, transport of the mass is continued until it reaches the end of the cage. Backpressure is controlled with a control valve at the end of the cage.

Figure 34: Speichim Expeller Press. Source: GRET, 1984, p. 18, after APICA

The cage is equipped with bars to prevent rotation of the cake. Cage and screw are both manufactured from wear- resistant steel. In case the screw becomes damaged by wear it can be reshaped by welding. The screw turns at 5-10 rpm, when driven by a petrol engine of 4.5 HP. The press is equipped with a gear reduction box with ratio 1/150. Empty weight of the press is 400 kg. Its processing capacity is about 300 kg cooked tenera palm fruit per hour. The price of the press (1983, c.i.f., West Africa), is about F.F. 70 000.

Oil recovery depends on rawmaterial and which process is followed.

5.2.2 Motorized processing of oil seeds

"CECOCO", Ibaraki City, Japan

CECOCO sells, as its smallest oil expeller, the “HANDER" New Type 52. The cage of the “HANDER" New Type 52 is built up lengthwise of bars. The backpressure can be varied by adjusting the axial position of the wormshaft against a stationary choke ring. The bore of the cage is 60 mm diameter. Drainage length is 150 mm. Capacity is 30-50 kg oil bearing material per hour. The standard power source is a 3.7 kW, three phase electric motor. The weight of expeller and motor is 235 kg. Its performance is comparable with the MINI 40 (see Table 11).

The price of the machine is (1987, c.i.f., Amsterdam): New Type 52 + electric motor on a common base: US $ 6120. The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5000 h) are estimated at:

Taper ring

12 pcs@$ 30= US $ 360

Worm shaft

6 pcs @$ 240= US $ 1440

Cage bars

(set) 6 pcs @$ 240= US $ 1440

Other (10%)

US $ 320

Total estimated spares

US $ 3560

Simon Rosedowns, Hull, England

Simon Rosedowns are the manufacturers of the small expeller press MINI 40. Its cage, which envelops the wormshaft is made up of separately cast cage rings, spaced apart by washers. By the use of washers of the required thickness, the cage can be prepared for the processing of a particular seed. The cage has 60 mm diameter bore and 150 mm drainage length. The backpressure can be varied by adjusting the axial position of the wormshaft against a stationary choke ring. The performance as given by the manufacturer is given in Table 11. The standard power source is a 2.2 kW, three phase, electric motor. Alternatively, a 5.0 kW diesel engine can be used. The weight of the press and the motor is 250 kg.

The price of the machine is (1987, f.o.b., UK):

- NINI 40 + electric motor = 3283
- MINI 40 + diesel engine = 4158.

The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5,000 h) are estimated at:

Choke ring

6 pcs @ 44 = £ 264


4 pcs @ 315 = £ 1260

Barrel rings (set)

3 pcs @ 217 = £ 651


£ 225

Total estimated spares

£ 2400

IBG Montforts + Reiners, Monchengladbach, Federal Republic of Germany

A small expeller, called KOMET, is being manufactured by IBG. Large sized material, such as copra or palmkernels, must to be crushed into pieces of about 5 mm diameter.

The design of this expeller is quite different from the design of most other small expellers, as the screw is not a tapered compression screw.

The screw turns in a cylindrical cage, halfway foreseen with drainage holes. At the end of the cage a nozzle is mounted with a hole in the centre, that restricts the flow. To adjust the backpressure, nozzles with holes of different sizes are available. The material is conveyed into a gap between the screw and the nozzle where the material is then crushed and squeezed, and heated by the hot press head. The oil flows backward and leaks out through the holes in the press cylinder. Depending on the rawmaterial the extraction rate can reach up to 90 % of the original oil content.

The most common version is the KOMET Twin Screw Oil Expeller DD/85. The capacity depends on the type of material and may vary from 20 kg/h to 100 kg/h. Capacity and oil extraction is controlled by the rate of rotation of the screw and by selection of the appropriate temperature of the press head.

Parts subject to normal wear-and-tear are press screws, press heads, press cylinders and electric heating elements.

The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5000 h) are estimated at:

- screw

4 pcs @ DM 470 = DM I 1880

- head

2 pcs @ DM 220 = DM 320

- cylinder

- @ DM 907 = DM

- heating element

2 pcs @DM 180 = DM 360

- other:

10% = DM 270

- total

= DM 2950

The weight of this machine is about 210 kg. The standard power source is a 3 kW electric motor with stepless variable gearbox. Alternatively the unit can be driven by a diesel engine (11 kW at 3000 rpm), equipped with dynamo and clutch.

¹only required when improperly used.

The price including accessories is (1987, ex-factory):
- KOMET Twin Screw Expeller DD 85 G + electric motor = DM 16 395

- KOMET Twin Screw Expeller DD 85 D + diesel engine = DM 22 470

For the crushing of big nuts, kernels or copra, a “Cutting Machine" is available. For smaller quantities the KOMET Single Screw Expeller CA 59 G with 1.1 kW flanged electric motor is available. Its capacity is 6-8 kg oil-containing material per hour. Its price is DM 4190.-. This press is not available with diesel or petrol engine. On an experimental basis, hand and pedal-driven versions are available.

Recently, a new Single Screw Expeller (type SS/87 G) has been developed. This machine has half the capacity of the twin Screw Expeller DD 85 G.

Maschinenfabrik Reinartz, Neuss, Federal Republic of Germany

MRN manufactures the Screw Press AP VII as a small version of their range of large expellers designed for deep pressing. This machine combines a sturdy construction with universal usability.

The cage is built up with bars. The distance between these bars is determined by small steel distance plates. To meet the specific requirements of different oil seeds, plates of different thickness can be used. The inside diameter of the cage is 100 mm and total drainage length is 525 mm. The cage is divided into 4 sections, two with bars of 87.5 mm length and two each with a length of 175 mm. The worm consists of a typical stuffing part and a typical pressing part. The backpressure may be varied, as with larger machines, with an adjustable cone. The performance of this oil expeller, as claimed by the manufacturer, is given in Table 12.

The press can be supplied complete with a three phase electric motor of 7.5 kW or a 10 kW diesel engine. Its net weight is approximately 800 kg.

The price of the machine is (1987, ex-factory):
- Screw Press AP VII + electric motor = DM 29 450
- Screw Press AP VII + diesel engine = DM 36 050

The required spare parts for two years operation (or 5000 h) and on the basis of the use of clean seed and regular rewelding of the worm, are estimated at:

- Cone 1 pc @ 696 = DM696

- Discharge ring 1 pc @ 467 = DM467
- Scrapers 12 pcs @189 = DM 2 268

- Worm:
stuffing part 1 pc @ 1 550 = DM 1550
pressing part 2 pc @ 1 960 = DM 3 920
- Cage bars (set) 1 pc @2 596 = DM 2 596
- Other (fixing bars + 10 %) = DM 2 003
Total estimated spares =DM 13500

A cutter for crushing large nuts, kernels and copra is available as well. Also a heating unit is available, however it requires considerable investment, including investment in a boiler unit. A smaller capacity expeller is under development.

Manufacturers in Developing Countries

In Asia and Latin America quite a number of manufacturers of oil processing machinery exist, e.g. China, India, Pakistan and Brasil. This equipment can be very appropriate to the circumstances prevailing in these countries. For example, the operation of Indian equipment in India appears not to cause difficulties, despite the fact that Indian equipment requires generally considerable operational skills as well as maintenance and repair. In other countries, however this might cause considerable problems. It has therefore to be kept in mind, that this type of equipment might not be appropriate in countries were the required skills are not as easily available as in the country of origin.

In case Indian equipment is taken into consideration, the following addresses might be useful:

Power Gahnis and Rotary Oil Mills (Capacity 6-30 kg/h)

- Amritsar Kolhu Factory, Queens Road, Amritsar.

- Bharat Industrial Corporation. Petit Compound, Nana Chowk, Grant Road, Bombay-400-007.

- Khadi & Village Industries Commission, Sector-2, Chandigarh.

- The REX Trading Co. P.B. 5049, Madras 600 001.

- Bhakshi Ram & Co., Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- Bharat Industrial Corporation. Petit Compound, Nana Chowk, Grant Road, Bombay 400 007.

- Durga Dass Aggarwal & Co., Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- Laxmi Vijay Brass & Iron Works, Pratap Nagar, Factory Area, Baroda 390 004.

- Ludhiana Expeller Industries, 471, Industrial Area-B, Ludhiana 141 .003.

- Manjeet Brothers, Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- Prashar Industries, 27 Great Nag. Road, Nagpur 9.

- The Punjab Engg. Co., Miller Ganj, G.T. Road, Ludhiana.

- The Punjab Oil Expeller Co., P.B. 8, Patel Marg., Ghaziabad.

- S.P. Eng. Corporation, 39 Factory Area, Kanpur 202 012.

- S.P. Foundries, P.B. 450, Factory Area, Kanpur 208 012.

- Sundarshan Engg. Works, G.T. Road, Miller Ganj, Ludhiana.

- Tekma Machinery Mfg. Co., P.B. 8931, Bombay 400 072.

- Tinytech Plants Pvt. Ltd., Gondal Rd., Rajkot 360 002.

- United Oil Mill Machinery & Spares Pvt. Ltd., Mathura Road, Ballabdgarh (Haryana).