Bernal, J. D. (1954), Science in History. C.A. Watts e
Co., Ltd. 1,039 pages. (Paperback in four-volume set: Penguin Books, 1969.) A
classic of systematic scholarship written by a man who was both an outstanding
natural scientist and a dedicated Marxist. This work analyses the development of
the various sciences from neolithic times until the middle of the present
century; for the most part attention is focused upon Europe. Useful as a general
introduction to the problems involved in the history of science, but more
precisely concerned with investigating the close bonds linking science and
Geymonat, L. (1977), Scienza e Realismo. Feltrinelli
Editore, Milano, 180 pages. A concise but powerful work on key problems of the
history and philosophy of science, also within the Marxist-Leninist tradition.
Deals especially with the relationships between modern, axiomized science and a
dialectical vision of reality and history.
Hessen, B. (1931), "The Social and Economic Roots of Newton's
Principia," in: N. I. Bukharin, et al., Science at the Crossroads: Papers from
the Second International Congress of the History of Science and Technology,
1931. Frank Cass e Co., Ltd., 1971 (reprint), pp. 147-203. This book as a
whole consists of the papers presented by the impressive Soviet delegation to
the 1931 Congress; these papers strongly influenced men like Bernal and Needham.
That of Hessen showed the great extent to which Newton's achievements and
limitations must be seen in the context of his times.
Lardreau, G. (1976), Le Singe d'Or. Mercure de France.
Cited solely as an example of present-day Eurocentrism.
Lu and Needham (1980, in press), Celestial Lancets: A History
and Rationale of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. CUP, 3 1 pages. Examines the
development of techniques and theoretical systems since their origins in the
first millennium B. C., and then proceeds to analyse in modern terms the
physiological processes now thought to be involved in therapeutic success, e.g.,
of acupuncture analgesia. Chinese characters included.
Nakayama and Sivin, editors (1973), Chinese Science:
Explorations of an Ancient Tradition. MIT Press, 334 pages. A collection of
readable specialist papers by leading Japanese and western historians of Chinese
science. The first three essays are especially dedicated to offering basic
insights into Joseph Needham's contribution to the field. The final entry is an
informative introductory bibliography designed for those who want to investigate
the history of Chinese science without knowing the language.
Needham, 3. et al. (1954 -), Science and Civilization in
China. CUP, in seven volumes. Vol. 1, 1954. Vol. II, 1956. Vol. III, 1959.
Vol. IV, Part 1, 1962. Vol. IV, Part 2, 1965. Vol. IV, Part 3, 1971. Vol. V,
Part 2, 1974. Vol. V, Part 3, 1976. A summary of the subjects treated is
included in the body of the paper; see infra. Each published book includes an
index and three extensive bibliographies which list works relevant to the
subject treated in the book: Bibliography A, Chinese and Japanese works
published before 1800; Bibliography B. Chinese and Japanese works published
since 1800; Bibliography C, works in other languages. All volumes include
Chinese and Japanese characters.
_______ (1958), The Development of Iron and Steel Technology in
China. (The Second Biennial Dickinson Memorial Lecture to the Newcomen
Society, 1956) (revised edition, 1964) Newcomen Society, 76 pages. Considers the
comparatively high Chinese level in the production of wrought iron, cast iron,
and steel between the fifth century B. C. and the eighteenth century A. D. Also
deals with traditional blast furnaces, and examines transmissions of techniques.
Includes Chinese characters.
________ (et al.) (1960), Heavenly Clockwork: The Great
Astronomical Clocks of Medieval China - A Missing Link in Horological
History. CUP, 254 pages. Deals especially with Su Sung's treatise of 1090,
which is placed in the context of the tradition of astronomical clock making in
China between the seventh and fourteenth centuries. Examines relations with the
Islamic world, India, and Europe. Includes Chinese characters.
_________ (1964), "Science and China's Influence on the World,'.
in: R. Dawson, The Legacy of China. Oxford Univ. press, pp. 234-308.
Demonstrates the importance of Chinese discoveries and innovations in seven
major fields, e.g., gunpowder, magnetic compass, stirrup, chain-drive,
deep-drilling and stern-post rudder. For Dutch translation, see appendix.
__________ (1967), "The Roles of Europe and China in the Evolution
of Oecumenical Science," in: Advancement of Science, Sept. 1967, pp.
83-98. The major arguments are summarized in the last section of the above
paper. Provides a crucial insight into Needham's understanding of the
significance of his own work in general.
___________ (1969), The Grand Titration: Science and Society in
East and West. Allen e Unwin Ltd., 350 pages. Contains eight readable
and typical essays on the topic indicated in the title. The first sums up the
strengths and weaknesses of Chinese traditional science. The second is a reprint
of Needham (1964). The seventh, on conceptions of time, will be included in
SCC Vol. Vll; the last is reprinted from Vol. II, and deals with human
law and laws of nature. For translations, see appendix.
___________ (1970a), Within the Four Seas: The Dialogue of East
and West. Allen s Unwin Ltd., 22 pages. A collection of essays, addresses,
and poetry. Useful for providing insight into Needham's eclectic personality and
general views on science, history, religion, and philosophy.
____________ (1970b), Clerks and Craftsmen in China and the
West: Lectures and Addresses on the History of Science and Technology. CUP,
470 pages. Consists of 19 specialist papers, each of which deals with a specific
example of traditional Chinese scientific or technological innovation. Most of
these papers sum up the arguments in the relevant sections of SCC. Papers
2 through 5 concern transmissions. Paper 10 is a revised version of Needham
(1958). Paper 18 examines the diffusion of state qualifying examinations in
medicine. Paper 19 is a reprint of Needham (1967). For Spanish translation, see
____________ (1973), "The Historian of Science as Ecumenical Man:
A Meditation in the Shingon Temple of Kongosammai-in on Koyasan," in: Nakayama 6
Sivin (1973), pp. 18. A non-technical illustration of Needham's general views on
the relationship between modern science, the traditional sciences, philosophy,
____________ (1976), "History and Human Values; A Chinese
Perspective for World Science and Technology," in: Centennial Review, 20,
pp. 1-35. Provides typical critiques both of "scientism'' and of contemporary
counter-cultural trends which negate the importance of scientific advance;
argues that the indigenous Asian philosophies and religions can play a great
role today in overcoming such trends. For German translation, see appendix.
Ronan and Need ham (1978-), The Shorter Science and
Civilization in China. Vol. I, 1978, 326 pages. Projected for five volumes.
An abridgement by C.A. Ronan of Needham's original. Useful for following the
main lines of argumentation, without having to attend to the scholarly detail.
Vol. I covers vols. I and II of SCC. Includes a selective bibliography; the
footnotes and Chinese characters of the original have been deleted.
Said, H. M. (1978), "Eastern Medicine in a Changing World," in:
Hamdard Medicus. Vol. XXI, nos. 7-12, pp. 58-74. An example of the work
of an eminent scholar exploring and up-dating the Graeco-Arab (Tibb) medical
tradition. Includes an impressive list of traditional remedies, their
characteristics, and their advantages.
Teich and Young, editors (1973), Changing Perspectives in the
History of Science: Essays in Honour of Joseph Needham. Heinemann, 90 pages.
A collection of specialist essays by a group of distinguished scholars now
working on the history of science and technology. The first paper is an
autobiographical piece by Needham (under the pseudonym of H. Holorenshaw). Pages
472-478 list works published by Needham until 1973 (excluding papers on
biochemistry and experimental embryology and morphology). See the appendix for
works since 1973.
APPENDIX: LIST OF WORKS PUBLISHED BY J. NEEDHAM SINCE 1973
A list of J. Needham's works published before 1973 can be found in
Teich and Young (1973), pp. 472-478.
Science and Civilization in China
Vol. V, Part 2, 1974.
Vol. V, Part 3, 1976.
Japanese translation: Shisakusha, Tokyo.
1. Kho Hsueh Chhu Pan She (Kexue Chubanshe) (Science Press,
2. Thai-Wan Shangwu Yin-Shu Kuan (Taiwan Shangwu Yinshuguan)
(Commercial Press, Taiwan)
La Science Chinoise et l'Occident. Seuil, Paris,
Translation of Needham (1969) by E. Simion.
Scienza e Societn Cina. Il Mulino, 1973.
of Needham (1969) by M. Baccianini.
La Tradition Scientifique Chinoise. Hermann (Collection
Collected essays by J. Needham.
Bunmei no Tekitei. Hosei University Press, Tokyo
Translation of Needham (1969) by Hashimoto Keizo.
La Cina e la Storia. Feltrinelli, Milano,
Translation of Needham (1970a) by G. Ascenso and M. Baccianini.
Dentro de los Cuatro Mares. Siglo XXI, Madrid,
Translation of Needham (1970a) by P. LopMz.
Moulds of Understanding: A Pattern of Natural
Allen and Unwin, 1976.
Collected essays by J. Needham.
Translation: Ciencia, Reliqion y Socialismo. Editorial
Crca S. A., Barcelona, 1976, by D. Bergad
La Gran TitulaciCienzia y Sociedad en Oriente y
Alianza Editorial, Madrid, 1977. Translation by R. Martz
Silvestre, M. T. de la Torre Casas, and L. GarcBallester.
Joseph Needham: Wissenschaftlicher Universalismus, Uber
Bedeutung und Besonderheit der Chinesischen Wissenschaft. Suhrkamp,
Collected essays by J. Needham, translated, edited, and with an
introduction by T. Spengler.
Higashi to Nishi no Kurakusha to Kosh> (2 vols.). Kawagochi
Shinsha, Tokyo, 1977.
Translation of Needham (1970b) by Yamada
Da la Cienza y la TecnologChinas. Siglo XXI, Mexico
Translation of Needham (1970b) by J. Almela.
The Shorter Science and Civilization in China.
Vol. I, 1978.
An abridgement of SCC, by C. Ronan with the
Seikagaku no Rekishi. Nisuzu Shobo, Tokyo,
Translation of Needham (1973) by Kihara Hirojl.
Celestial Lancets: A History and Rationale of Acupuncture and
Moxibustion. CUP, 1980, to be released.
Lu G.-D. and J. Needham.
2. Articles, Papers, Reviews, and Interviews
"The Historian of Science as Oecumenical Man." In: Nakayama e
"The Making of an Honorary Taoist" (under pseudonym of Henry
Holorenshaw). In: Teich s Young, Changinq Perspective in the History of
Science. Heinemann, 1973, pp. 1-20.
"De Natuurwetenschappen en de Invloed van China op de
Translation of Needham (1964).
In: De Chinese Traditie.
Arbeiderspers, Amsterdam, 1973, pp. 258-334.
Address of acceptance of degree of D. Letters from the University
of Hong Kong. In: University of Hong Kong Gazette, Vol. XXI, No. 5, Part
1, pp. 69-74.
"Astronomy in Ancient and Medieval China." In: Phil. Trans. R.
Soc. London, 276: 67-82, 1974.
"Chu K'o-chen" (biography). In: Nature, Vol. CCL, 16 August
"The Elixir Concept and Chemical Medicine East and West." In:
Journal of the Chinese University of Honq Kong, Vol. II, 1,
(Reprint in: Urganon, lI, 1975;
Italian translation in:
Acta Medicae Historiae Patavina, Vol. XIX.)
"The Jesuits in China" (book review of N. Sivin: Copernicus in
China). In: J. H. A., V, 1974, pp. 204-205.
The Nature of Chinese Society - A Technical Interpretation" (with
R. Huang). In: Journal of Oriental Studies, Vol. Xll, Nos. 1 e 2,
1974, pp. 1-16.
"L'Alchimie en Chine, Pratique et Thie." In: Annales,
No. 5, 1975.
Foreword to R. A. Salaman, Dictionary of Tools, Allen
e Unwin, 1975, pp. 9-10.
"Dilemmes de la Science et de la Mcine Modernes - le rem
est-il chinois?" In: Impact: Science et Soc, Vol. XXV, No. 1, 1975,
Interview in Oriente y Occidente, Salvat Editores, S.A.,
Barcelona, 1975, pp. 8-17, 62-71.
"Problems of Translation and Modernization of Ancient Chinese
Technical Terms: Manfred Porkerts' interpretations of terms in ancient and
medieval Chinese natural and medical philosophy" (with Lu Gwei-Djen). In:
Annals of Science, Vol. 32, No. 5, September 1975, pp. 491-502.
"China's Trebuchets, Manned and Counterweighted." In: Humana
Civilitas, 1976 (Lynn White Festschrift No. 1).
"Review of Ho Ping-ti: The Cradle of the East (with F.
Bray). In: Pacific Affairs, Vol. 49, No. 4, 1976-1977 - Winter.
"History and Human Values; A Chinese Perspective for World Science
and Technology." In: Centennial Review, 20, 1976. German translation in:
Heft 1 der Schriftenrethe der Deutschen China-Gesellschaft, K
"Metals and Alchemists in Ancient China." In: To Illustrate the
Monuments (J. V. S. Megaco, editor) (Pigott Festschrift), 1976, Thames
e Hudson, pp. 284-294.
"Oecumenical Science." Reprint in: Interdisciplinary Science
''On the Death of Mao: A Personal Reflection." In: New
Scientist, Vol. 71, 16 September 1976, No. 1,018, p.584.
"Contributions of China, India and the Hellenistic World to Arabic
Alchemy." In: Prismata: Naturwissenschaftsueschichtliche Studien
(Festschrift fHartner), Franz Steiner Verlag, Gmb H. Wiesbaden, 1977, pp.
"Love Sacred and Profane." In: Theology, No. 80, 1977.
"Science: East and West; Kurt Mendelsohn's Secret of Western
Domination explored." In: The Sciences, March/April 1977, Vol. 17,
No. 2, pp. 20-21.
Foreword and Postscript to: J. Chang, The Tao of Love and
Sex, Wildwood House, London, 1977, pp. 9-10, 121-130.
"Address to the Opening Conference of the Fifteenth International
Congress of the History of Science, Edinburgh, August 1978." In: British
Journal for the History of Science, Vol. II, No. 38, 1978, pp. 103- 113.
"Alchemy and Early Chemistry in China." In: Frontiers of
Knowledge, Uppsala, 1978.
"Entretien avec Joseph Needham." Interview in Le Monde, 6 and 7
"Science Reborn in China." In: Nature, Vol. 274, No. 5674,
pp. 832-834, 31 August 1978.
"A Scientific Basis for Acupuncture." In: The Sciences, 19, 5,
1979, pp. 6 ff.
"Wetenschap en Beschaving in China." Interview by F. Boenders, in:
Streven, March 1979.
"Why Didn't China Develop Modern Science?" Interview in: The
International Harold Tribune, 24 October