|The Self and the Other: Sustainability and Self-Empowerment (WB, 1996, 76 p.)|
|Development and the self|
In the panel discussion chaired by Afaf Mahfouz, the focus fumed from exploration of external influences on the development of the self in relation to the other to a greater emphasis on the psychological factors affecting this development.
Providing a general framework for the discussion, Antoine Hani traced the development of the self from birth to adulthood and defined the crucial developmental milestones that determine the level and quality of relating between the self and the other. A mature level of relating confronts one's own prejudice or hatred, enhances the quality of giving, and is most likely to lead to sustainable development.
In her discussion of issues related to gender, Susan G. Lazar pointed out the effects of gender-role expectations and gender inequality on the development of societies. She drew a parallel between the perception that men are entitled to enjoy greater privilege than women at the level of the nuclear family and the assumption that certain cultures are superior to other cultures and are therefore entitled to dominate them.
Henri Parens emphasized the importance of parenting education in promoting the development of better-adjusted children. He called particular attention to the need for parents to understand and deal with aggression that their children exhibit to prevent them from engaging in violent behavior as they approach adulthood.
Betty Reardon focused on peace education. This kind of education not only teaches people to deal with conflict constructively but also nurtures a positive relationship between the self and the other and helps people understand that differences can be enriching in the presence of our common humanity. She pointed out the importance of parenting education in enhancing education for peace.
Gloria J. Davis explained the attempts of the Environment Department of the World Bank to formulate a social policy to frame its development projects, and she called on seminar participants to make suggestions concerning the best way to achieve such a policy. The policy envisioned fosters equity, including gender equality; enlists participation of a wide range of people in development planning, including the poor; and takes into account the institutional and cultural contexts of various societies when selecting and carrying out projects.
Antoine Hani, Washington Psychoanalytic Institute
What type of relationship between the self and the other is most likely to lead to a stable, sustainable outcome? To answer this question we have to define the self and trace its development from birth. The following is a general view of development in the first year and the preschool years; next latency between the ages of six and ten; and then preadolescence, adolescence, and adulthood.
At the 'beginning of life the infant is a biological entity. The dawning awareness of an environment outside the infant marks his or her psychological birth. The appearance of a smile at the age of two-anda-half or three months is the first expression of a pleasant social interaction between the infant and another person, whether it is the mother or someone else.
A crucial developmental milestone is a capacity to combine and integrate aggressive feelings and love feelings - Antoine Hani
In the first seven months of life the infant perceives the mother as two different people, the good mother when she gratifies the infant and the bad mother when she frustrates him or her. At eight months the infant begins to perceive the mother as a whole person and differentiates her from everyone else in the environment. This phase is referred to as eight-month stranger anxiety because being held by a stranger elicits a crying spell or other sign of distress.
Frustration tolerance increases very slowly in the first year of life. At birth it is nonexistent. When the infant is in the throes of hunger, he or she demands instant gratification. The infant reacts with rage toward the mother while waiting to be fed. She is then perceived as the bad mother who keeps the infant waiting. But when the mother gives the infant a bottle or her breast, the infant feels gratified and perceives her as the good mother and, instead of rage, experiences positive feelings.
The reliability and constancy of the mother and the regular repetition of such experiences with her, along with an advancing cognitive development, lead the child to realize that the good mother and the bad mother are the same person. The child therefore understands that the feelings of love and anger are directed at the same person. The child can no longer divide these feelings and is compelled to fuse them if he or she is to continue developing.
This is a crucial developmental milestone indicative of a capacity to combine and integrate aggressive feelings and love feelings. I am convinced that people who are prone to violence and violent outbursts are people who have not achieved the capacity to fuse aggressive feelings with love feelings. The achievement of this capacity depends on the availability of an adequate mother who provides the child with a degree of gratification that is greater than the degree of frustration he or she is inevitably subjected to by reality.
When the individual completes this phase, he or she possesses the basic requirements for the potential to complete his or her development. This phase is referred to as a symbiotic phase that, according to Renpitz, signifies the first love relationship of the child. This symbiosis represents the first psychic foundation of the personality. An adequate symbiotic relationship ensures the promise of the full development of the self. The absence of symbiosis or its interruption by a traumatic situation, such as the birth of a sibling between the ages of one and two, is likely to cause developmental arrest in severe cases or some interference with development in milder instances.
As a keystone in development the fusion of angry feelings with love feelings will constantly be challenged in the subsequent phase, namely, the individuation-separation phase, so called by Margaret Mahler. During this phase the child requires a growing capacity to deal with frustration, anxiety, sadness, and anger. These emotions are triggered whenever there is physical separation from the mother. The mother plays a decisive role at this stage. If she is mature, she can contain these emotions and help the child integrate them. She is so attuned to the child's readiness to begin to separate from her that she can anticipate it. She can sense the emergence of the next developmental step and can relate to the child in such a way as to facilitate it.
But if she has difficulty separating from the child and is fixated on the symbiotic phase, she is unable to facilitate her child's development and, instead, exerts a pull on him or her to remain fused with her. This is frequently the way a specific psychopathology is transmitted from one generation to another. But in normal instances the two-year-old child is pulled both by a strong developmental urge to separate and become autonomous and by the fear of losing the vital dependency that he or she still has on the mother.
During the child's long phase of continuous striving to become autonomous the mother plays a crucial role. A mature mother who has achieved autonomy from her own mother is empathically attuned to both the need of her child to separate and his or her fear of separating. She can accept the child's feelings of anger, distance, and fear. The mother is sensitive enough to let the child move away from her when he or she wants to and to be reliably available to the child when he or she needs to come back to her for refueling.
The child becomes more and more confident that separation is not to be equated with the loss of the love of the mother or the dependency on her. This growing feeling of trust and confidence gradually leads the child to develop in his or her inner life the image of the caring mother, which sustains the child in the mother's absence. The concrete physical presence of the mother is no longer needed for reassurance and security.
In analytic parlance this phase is referred to as the state of object-constancy. In this case the word "object" refers to the attributes of an individual person. The consolidation of the object constancy stage at the age of three represents the second foundation of the self. It stabilizes the feelings of inner security, confidence, hopefulness, determination, sustenance, self-reliance, and sustainability. This foundation will constantly be tested and challenged by the vicissitudes of continued development. Because of it the individual is able to learn how to cope with new situations and, as the experiences with successful coping multiply, the development of the individual continues.
For example, the child's ability at age three to cope with separation from home for the first time to go to nursery school enables him or her to adapt to a new situation, play with new friends, and relate to a new teacher. Such experiences prepare the child gradually for the more complex world of kindergarten, elementary school, high school, and other environments.
When developmental tasks strain the child's coping capabilities, he or she can fall back on the foundation of object constancy to regroup and refuel. Development of the self does not proceed along a continuous ascending curve. It has peaks and valleys. In normal development the valleys provide a safe position to fall back on. Because of this safe position the individual has the capacity to spring forward to the previous level of functioning and, in most instances, then advances to a higher level.
Before age six the child's life is centered in the home and involved primarily with parents and siblings. In this phase, drives, fantasies, and the imagination are dominant: The child is in the midst of a passionate involvement with a parent of the opposite sex and a rivalry with the parent of the same sex. Because of the fear of retaliation by the parent of the same sex and the importance of the affectionate ties with this parent, the child identifies with him or her and internalizes the fear of punishment. This internalization becomes a new structure of the child's personality, referred to as the superego, or conscience. It enables the child to control and repress his or her drives while entering a new phase that Freud named latency, a phase free of turmoil during which the ego can expand.
The superego, or conscience, enables the child to control and repress his or her drives while entering a new phase, free of turmoil, during which the ego can expand. This is the beginning of the individual's life in society - Antoine Hani
A prejudiced individual typically is someone who has not achieved a clear identity and who has internal aspects that he or she hates and cannot acknowledge or integrate - Antoine Hani
This is the beginning of the individual's life in society. He or she is now more focused on the real world and is governed to a greater extent by external reality, rather than the internal world of drives and fantasies. The individual begins to attach importance to authority figures outside the home, who expect him or her to perform specific tasks and follow rules and regulations. The individual begins to cultivate what Erik Erikson calls a sense of industry. He or she also values getting along with classmates, as well as working and playing with them according to mutually accepted rules. The individual begins to realize the importance of making friends and having a particularly close friend.
If the individual's development before age six has been normal, he or she is equipped to adapt successfully to these new requirements, and the individual gains an increasing sense of inner confidence and self-esteem. If the individual fails to adapt to them, he or she suffers from a sense of inferiority that leads to alienation and a weak sense of identity. In this phase the child is still dependent on the parents and needs them to fall back on when met with difficulties and disappointments. This dependency, which is without conflict in latency, begins to be fraught with danger in preadolescence and adolescence because of an upsurge of very intense sexual and aggressive feelings, which tend to break through the repression barrier that held during latency.
The adolescent therefore transfers his or her dependency to the peer group, which begins to occupy the emotional space previously accorded to the parents. Because the adolescent can no longer repress emotional conflicts with the parents, he or she must resolve these conflicts in a different way and, if successful, he or she will be propelled to a higher level of development on the road toward adulthood.
True adulthood is characterized by the crystallization of a stable core identity and a definite character structure. The consolidation of new capacities to love and work in a sustained way leads to a readiness for commitment that represents the highest level of maturity. The adult continues to forge his or her identity and character from his or her own unique self-representations and patterns of relating and coping in all situations.
In analytic terms we might say that the individual has achieved a stable, cohesive self-organization. He or she has the capacity to relate to another person as a separate individual with a unique identity and character, which he or she can perceive, acknowledge, and respect. This capacity to relate to others is particularly challenged, however, when the individual has to deal with a member of a minority group or someone of a different socio-cultural milieu generally considered inferior to that of the individual.
Is the individual's attitude toward such a person going to be influenced by the rampant prejudice in his or her society toward minority or developing nations? The literature on prejudice and my findings on it-which have been presented at the discussion groups on prejudice led by Afaf Mahfouz at the annual meetings of the American Psychoanalytic Association in New York City-indicate that the individual who has attained object constancy and a cohesive self is not likely to be prejudiced. A prejudiced individual typically is someone who has not achieved a clear identity and who has internal aspects that he or she hates and cannot acknowledge or integrate. The individual deals with them by projecting them onto members of a group considered to be inferior.
Prejudice, whether acknowledged or denied, interferes seriously with the aim of sustainable development. The successful promotion of sustainability is based on respect for the capacity or potential of the other to make use of that which we make available to him or her in his or her own special, creative, individual way. This also applies to the relationship between parents and child at all levels of development from birth to adulthood.
It stands to reason that the optimal relationship between giving and receiving is achieved when both giver and receiver are mature individuals. When the situation is less than optimal, the responsibility for ensuring a sustainable outcome must be assumed by the giver. It is up to the giver to assess the characteristics of a situation, to adapt to them sensitively and creatively, and to make available the ingredients deemed useful for that situation. The choice is then left to the receiver, who will take the initiative to select what he or she wants to make use of according to his or her own predilection, style, or aesthetic sense.
In the absence of feelings of intrusion, dominance, or prejudice the receiver feels empowered and free. He or she trusts the giver enough to ask for additional guidance. A state of reliance and mutual cooperation may then exist between the self and the other. The one that commands should always act in such a way as to enhance the identities of both the giver and the receiver.
Gender Inequality: Self-Image and Sustainable Development Susan G. Lazar, Washington Psychoanalytic Institute
How do we empower nations to achieve self-sufficiency and ongoing development? From a psychoanalyst's point of view the moment we begin to look beneath the surface of any human endeavor, we encounter the inner strengths and weaknesses of the individual human beings involved. Considering the underlying psychological issues at work, entrenched discrimination within a society against any of its members has a negative impact on growth and development. Ismail Serageldin spoke earlier today about the damage caused by ideas of exclusivity and an unwillingness to acknowledge the universality of our humanity. The gross and subtle barriers to the full equality of women constitute the most entrenched and widely accepted kind of discrimination within the human family. To illustrate the subtle, pervasive nature of this discrimination, I would like to quote a few examples of statements made today at this seminar, which is explicitly designed to explore and combat prejudice. They were made in the presentations and in one of the videos we saw: "pressed to serve in another man's war," "we need new leaders, a governing father figure," "the father of a nation who requires obedience," "when a wife earns more money than her husband, that difference is, of course, a problem," "the problem of forgotten brotherhood,', "in all people there is a need for a sense of one's paternity," and "for the sake of brevity I may use only the pronoun referring to the masculine gender."
The optimal relationship between giving and receiving is achieved when both giver and receiver are mature individuals -Antoine Hani
At the heart of the way we perpetuate sexism is the fact that a girl's aggression is considered shameful and is inhibited by punishment and withdrawal, while a boy's aggression is not inhibited and may even be actively encouraged - Susan G. Lazar
For children of both genders women are central to the development of self-image, self-esteem, and a sense of the possibilities in one's future. If women are second-class citizens in their own cultures, what impact does this have on the messages concerning dignity and self-sufficiency that they convey to their male and female children? Fathers also convey their ideas about different gender roles to their children, along with their views on whether men have more or less value than women.
From infancy parents raise boys and girls to assume different gender roles. In the first two years of life parents reinforce behavior they consider appropriate to each sex role. Sociocultural norms are mediated by the family and others to the infant and young child, and they become incorporated into the young child's growing sense of self.
There are innate physiological differences between boys and girls. Girls have better organized sensory responsiveness. Mothers handle girl babies more gently, but boys seem to respond better to more vigorous handling. Mothers talk to girls more than they do to boys, and at six months girls have more physical closeness with their mothers than do boy babies, who wander away from their mothers more frequently.
Infant research shows that mothers favor and reward autonomy in a boy but stifle it in a girl, causing girls to value themselves and their autonomy differently and often less. By age two boys distance themselves from a negative mother, while girls remain engaged in the relationship with her. Girls are rewarded for remaining controlled and involved and for their sensitivity and inter-relatedness. Further, they are trained to suppress feelings of protest, as well as pride in their accomplishments, and to attribute their successes to others while blaming themselves for failure and responding to it with shame.
In contrast boys are encouraged to take pride in their successes and to blame others for failure. Boys are encouraged to be dominant and express anger and are rewarded for separateness and assertiveness. At the heart of the way we perpetuate sexism is the fact that a girl's aggression is considered shameful and is inhibited by punishment and withdrawal, while a boy's aggression is not inhibited and may even be actively encouraged. Because of our gender role expectations, these are some of the ways we acculturate men and women and perpetuate the worldwide notion that men are the primary actors and that women serve in supporting roles as the objects or recipients of men's actions rather than being the initiators of action.
What are some of the familiar cultural manifestations of sexism? We are all aware of the reputed killing of female infants in China. Last week a newspaper reported that wife beating in Russia can be considered a crime of hooliganism only if there is a witness or documentable physical injury to the woman. A colleague of mine, a pediatrician, serves as a medical missionary in the Punjab. She told me that most of her hospitalized patients are boys because medical care is expensive and is not wasted on girls. She showed me a slide of an Indian mother and her extremely thin daughter and chubby son. The more valuable male child is fed at the expense of the females. This practice is so ingrained and taken for granted that the mother had no idea why my friend was taking the picture. The woman posed proudly and unselfconsciously with her children.
What are the underlying assumptions behind these practices? We must conclude that female children are often seen as possessions of their families who may be underfed or even disposed of or that women are expected to serve as possessions of their husbands. What kind of thinking underlies the genital mutilation of females in many parts of the world? It is painful and disfiguring, can be life-threatening, and is meant to limit a woman's sexual activity and pleasure in the interest of ensuring her fidelity to her husband. Here, again, women are not viewed as belonging to themselves but are seen primarily in terms of their service to men.
In the United States gender discrimination is less blatant than it is in the rest of the world but nonetheless pervasive. While afforded more educational opportunities in the United States than elsewhere, women hold only a fraction of the leadership positions in academia, business, the professions, and government. There are powerful forces at work to keep the established unequal power relationships between men and women in place. How does a woman feel about herself and her relationship to men- who have potentially greater political, social, and economic power than she does even if men as individuals might be perfectly egalitarian and respectful of her as a person? Discrimination toward women can lead to the distortion of women's attitudes toward men, just as other groups that experience entrenched discrimination can be prejudiced against members of the cultural majority.
Gender inequality stimulates intense unconscious feelings in both sexes, which have a significant impact on the family and on society at large. People react to the way they are treated, even if they are not consciously aware that they are doing so. A woman who has to limit her ambitions, who is assigned second-class citizenship, and who is not allowed to chart her own course as an adult will harbor anger and mistrust toward men and toward her own culture, even if she seems to be accepting, passive, and compliant externally.
Worldwide across cultures women have two to three times as much major depression as men, which many mental health practitioners link to the compromised autonomy and lower socioeconomic status of women. Women suffer even more disproportionately from such eating disorders as anorexia nervosa, which is a desperate attempt to exert power and have control over a life that is controlled by others.
I have observed the effects of sexism on the lives of both my female and male patients in America. One woman, an accomplished scientist, has been denied both support and promotion because of her gender. It has been difficult for her to fight for herself because she was raised to put others first, including a disabled sibling she was expected to mother In addition her parents enabled her older brother to attend college and graduate but did absolutely no planning for her higher education, which she achieved through her own efforts. This patient suffers from chronic depression and low self-esteem, which have seriously compromised her efforts to promote her own career. She is also at a disadvantage because it is a matter of public record that women are discriminated against at the prestigious institution where she works. I view this patient as suffering from the effects of sexism from an external source currently in her life, but she is suffering even more from the effects of sexism internally, which have been ingrained in her sense of self, as a female and therefore as a second class citizen, since infancy. She deeply resents the abuses of male privilege.
Worldwide across cultures women have two to three times as much major depression as men, which many mental health practitioners link to the[ir] compromised autonomy and lower socioeconomic status -Susan G Lazar
If the nuclear family considers some of its members-men- to be superior at the expense of others- women-it is not inconsistent that some cultures, societies, and races consider themselves to be superior and entitled to dominate other supposedly inferior cultures, societies, and races - Susan G Lazar
A second woman patient was born into an educated family, but she was seriously disadvantaged in comparison to her older brother, who was sent to the best private school, college, and graduate school. It was explicit in her family that similar expenditures would not be made on behalf of the daughters. Although she and her accomplished older brother are equally well endowed intellectually, this patient has a very different life from that of her brother. A respected elementary school teacher, she is not well paid, as is true of all predominantly female occupations. This woman considers herself to be intellectually inferior to men and is resentful of their advantages.
Both of these patients are well educated, respected, and well liked and are well-integrated, contributing members of American society. In fact we could describe them as being among the pillars of society and at the upper end of a global scale in terms of their levels of education and functioning. Yet they are also women who have been damaged by pervasive sexism, both in their upbringing and in society, limited in their achievement of their innate potential, and made to feel deeply resentful of the power denied to them.
How do these privileged women compare to other women in this country and throughout the world whose lives have been even more limited by sexism and the dominance of men' How do less fortunate women view themselves and the men in their lives, consciously or unconsciously?
A male patient of mine was the only son and the youngest child of older parents. His uneducated immigrant mother doted on him and lived vicariously through him. She considered him to be special by virtue of his maleness in a way she and her daughters could never hope to be. This mother pushed and supported her son but was also intrusive in her over involvement in everything he did and in her overvaluing of him. This man is now highly accomplished and well regarded. He is also secretly highly ambivalent toward women and is abusive of them. He considers himself superior to women and believes he is entitled to be served by them in the manner he was taught to expect from his mother. Yet, because he has never outgrown his intense dependency on women, he both fears and idealizes them and tries to control these feelings through marital infidelity, promiscuity, abusive dominance, and sadomasochistic sexual perversion. He is in awe of women and experiences love and hatred toward them as a group. If his mother had not been raised in a culture saturated with sexism and if she had viewed herself and her daughters as being as worthy as men, this patient would be less overvalued and less intruded upon. He would therefore have become less dominating, less arrogantly superior and perverse, and more respectful and matter of-fact toward women as his equals.
In social, cultural, and family systems in which women are second-class citizens, how do we regard and measure the waste of female potential, ambition, and self esteem? If tension concerning our inferiority or superiority is incorporated into the conscious and unconscious fate ric of family life along gender lines, how do we teach young people to feel as entitled as other human beings on the planet to the opportunity for full, productive lives, regardless of their nationalities, cultures, religions, races, or genders?
Because a woman's inner sense of entitlement to opportunity is stifled in her earliest years and a man's conflicted, defensive insistence on his superiority is nurtured from infancy, the perpetuation of ideas of human inferiority and superiority are deeply ingrained in even the closest nuclear families. If the nuclear family considers some of its members- men-to be superior in wisdom and entitled to dominate and enjoy greater power and privilege at the expense of others-women-it is not inconsistent that some cultures, societies, and races consider themselves to be superior and entitled to dominate and have more at the expense of other-supposedly inferior-cultures, societies, and races.
Sexism is a ubiquitous cancer in the body of human society. It erodes the self-esteem and empowerment of most of the world's women, wastes most of their potential to contribute to the world's cultures, and breeds resentment and conflict between the sexes. Sexism weakens the vitality and cohesiveness of society and diminishes its capacity for further growth and development.
As a psychoanalyst I feel privileged to be at this seminar with people from other disciplines who are asking questions that are relevant to psychoanalysis. I think we analysts have something to say that might be useful. I would like to discuss material covered in three publications I have co-authored: Aggression in Our Children: Coping with It Constructively; Prevention/Early Intervention Parent-Child Groups-Followed Study: Preliminary Report; and Parenting Education for Emotional Growth: A Curriculum for Students in Grades Kindergarten through Twelve.
One of the major problems we face is discovering ways to bridge what we find in the individual to what we find in society as a whole. I would like to link my comments to the remarks Mohamed Arkoun made earlier today.
The better an individual's self-adaptive functions are, the greater the chance that he or she will control his or her aggressive energies. If an individual can establish socially responsible relationships, he or she will be able to take charge of his or her destiny, be efficient, and adapt constructively to unpredictability. An ability to establish such relationships can be achieved most successfully by encouraging a child's optimum physical and emotional development. The best way to promote such development is to ensure a child receives the best parenting. Through formal educational training programs, child rearing can be significantly improved to promote growth. We do our parenting in a haphazard manner, and it is time that we recognized how complex an undertaking it is. In the past one hundred years psychoanalysts have learned a great deal about the basic emotional needs of children and what can promote or hinder their development.
Sexism weakens the vitality and cohesiveness of society -Susan G. Lazar
Through formal educational training programs, child rearing can be significantly improved to promote growth. We do our parenting in a haphazard manner; and it is time that we recognized how complex an undertaking it is - Henri Parens
I was part of a team of mental health professionals who worked together for twenty years at the Medical College of Pennsylvania to develop parenting programs. These programs are based on theories as well as research and clinical work from psychoanalytic psychiatry and are aimed at preventing what I call experience-derived emotional disorders. Our work also focuses on preventing violence, using two methods we have developed: early intervention through parent-child groups and a curriculum for students from grades kindergarten through twelve, which includes a textbook and lesson plans.
In parenting education we do not dictate child rearing measures. If the parents comprehend their child's basic emotional needs, they will have a better understanding of the child's average, expectable, ageadequate capabilities. In addition they will be aware of the tasks of normal development that each child faces and has to master in the course of growing up. As a result parents will be better prepared to tailor their rearing strategies to the specific needs of their child at any given moment.
Our child rearing recommendations are based on principles of making the most of the child's development and inborn endowments. These recommendations are highly adaptive to parental preferences and philosophies. They apply to the rearing of all children, regardless of race, religion, or socioeconomic status.
Prevention/Early Intervention Parent - Child Groups Follow - up Study. Preliminary Report contains the findings of a nineteen-year study, which was conducted as follow-up to a 1970-77 parenting education project involving a parent-child group. During this period we saw children with their mothers in an educational group setting rather than a treatment setting from the time the children were born until they reached age four or five. The two-hour meetings took place twice a week.
Nineteen years after the project started, we collected data about the children and the mothers through mother and child questionnaires, interviews with the mothers and children, and the administration of the Fitzgibbons Anger Inventory to the children. We have broken down the results of the data to address questions such as: How frequently did our population get into trouble with the law? How much drug abuse was there? What was the rate of dropout from school? How many of the children went to college? How much pregnancy and parenthood was there?
We have compared the figures on our population with those on the community from which they came. Employing the Fitzgibbons Anger Inventory on four measures of anger, three categories of anger-mild, moderate, and severe- were used to assess the degree of anger expressed by our population when they were adolescents. They scored in the mild category on all measures, in contrast with the adolescents in the community, who scored in the moderate category.
In the report we have also discussed the changes that occurred in the quality of parenting as a result of the parent-child group. We asked the mothers to rate themselves as parents twelve years after the parent-child group had been completed. We also asked staff who worked with the group but had not seen the mothers' self-ratings to evaluate the parenting of the mothers using a ten-point scale. Using this scale, we discerned that the mothers had shifted from the category of growth-disturbing parenting to that of growth-promoting parenting. Based on the mothers' impressions and the staff's activities and impressions we are led to assume that our work contributed to this shift.
Following many years of research, we have also reformulated the psychoanalytic theory of aggression. Putting this reformulation to work for society, we published Aggression in Our Children: Coping with It Constructively, written for parents and teachers as well as other groups.
Parents can cope with aggression in their children more successfully if they understand what it is. What is troublesome or positive about it? What should parents encourage in a child that is aggressive, and what should they try to contain? What Susan G. Lazar said is applicable here.
There are at least nine valid models of aggression that address the kinds of issues with which we are dealing. Although these models differ significantly in their parameters, descriptions, and definitions, there is general agreement among them that an experience of "excessive unpleasure" generates hostility in human beings. Excessive unpleasure refers to our reaction to an experience that leads us to say, "I have had it. I cannot take any more." The source of that which we can no longer tolerate may be an insult, a narcissistic injury, significant deprivation, or physical pain. l have defined three categories of aggression: nondestructive aggression; noneffective destructiveness, which is prey aggression; and hostile destructiveness, which includes anger, hostility, hate, and violence. We assume that hostility is not inborn but generated. What are inborn and need to be protected are nondestructive aggression and prey aggression. Prey aggression results in destructiveness stemming from the pleasure of having found the prey we need for survival, rather than from hostility.
If the hypothesis concerning excessive unpleasure is correct, and there seems to be a consensus among researchers and theorists that excessive unpleasure does generate hostility, then I argue that hostility can be mitigated or intensified. Because of the way children are reared and the way pain is created in them by the manner in which they are handled-given their particular biological endowment-hostility is going to be generated within them. It is no surprise to me that we have so much violence in the streets. The motivation for this violence is different from that which incited the violence we saw in "The South Slope of Liberty."
I understand what Mohamed Arkoun means when he says that violence begets truth. The truth he is referring to is the truth of a particular perpetrator. But this truth, perpetuated by violence, is not instigated within every human being in a particular society. We need to look at the beginnings and early experiences of individuals who perpetuate the truth by means of violence. The backgrounds of both Adolf Hitler end Joseph Stalin account for certain aspects of their personalities and what they eventually achieved. Stalin was enraged at his father because his father beat Stalin's mother. At one point in adolescence he told his father he would kill him if he touched his mother again. Instead he killed more than 15 million people.
What are inborn and need to be protected are nondestructive aggression and prey aggression. Prey aggression results in destructiveness stemming from the pleasure of having found the prey we need for survival, rather than from hostility - Henri Parens
Negative peace is essentially the overcoming of violence, and positive peace is the creation of mutually enhancing relationships with others - Betty Reardon
Betty Reardon, Columbia University
On September 10,1813, during the Battle of Lake Erie, U.S. Naval Officer Oliver Hazard Perry reported, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours." The adaptation of this quote by the cartoon character Pogo during the Vietnam War sums up the purpose and goals of peace education: "We have met the enemy, and he is us." The application of this interpretation of the quote to peace education is: "We have encountered the others, and we are they." In other words we seek to promote an understanding and appreciation of the universal elements of the human family.
Through peace education we are trying to demonstrate the positive, necessary relationship between the self- whether it refers to the individual, the ethnic group, or the nation-and the other. Peace education is an attempt to prepare people to function constructively in a rapidly changing, highly conflictual, inordinately violent world.
Peace is characterized by positive relations with others. In peace research we talk about negative peace and positive peace. Negative peace is essentially the overcoming of violence, and positive peace is the creation of mutually enhancing relationships with others. A central purpose of peace education is to enable people to imbue change with humane values, to conduct conflict con structively, and to devise alternatives to violence, thus renouncing it as a means of achieving personal and social goals.
As a peace educator I would argue that formal education needs to be drastically overhauled and that education for sustainable humane development is especially in need of such an overhaul. We must realize that the focus of education today is on the process of instructing, rather than on the process of learning. Instead of discovering a person's capacities and applying them to social purposes, we are still filling learners' minds with our own predetermined purposes, which in itself is a form of violence, as is the restrictive predetermination of gender roles.
Learning should be interactive. It is not a one-way process, just as development is not a one-way process. Learning is essentially a social process. It might be received, reflected, and experienced through the individual, but the individual learns only in association with others. The essence of learning is developing the capacities to interpret, relate to, and interact with all of our environments-the natural, social, and personal. It is paradigmatic of self-other processes. Learning is life-long and continuous and for this reason social processes, especially parenting or the provision of child care, have to be integrated to a greater extent into formal education. Formal education is increasingly having to provide the kind of care we expect from families.
The tragedy is that many children go without parenting, even though some are cared for. Thus their learning of ways to relate to others is limited. This factor has to be taken into consideration in incorporating the issues we are talking about today into our ideas about development and into education for develop meet. Failure to relate to the humanity of the other is one source of violence.
The core problem in peace education is confronting violence in various forms. To a large extent violence is an attempt to control, change, or do away with the other. If we cannot achieve this goal, we make the other resemble us. This is very much the way we educate our children. We make them resemble us rather than letting them become themselves. Our attempt to do this has resulted in a terrible distortion of the nature of conflict. Peace education is concerned not only with conflict resolution but also with managing the conflict process so that it can be a means to constructive change rather than a means to destruction. For my purposes as an educator I have found the conceptual apparatus concerning aggression put forward here today to be very useful.
In educating, we have to prepare people to deal with conflict and to be able to differ with the other without denying the value of the other. Violence has been possible because we have tended to separate and differentiate on the basis of different worth, starting with males being more valuable than females. This transposes to race and nation and other human identities.
How many of you remember the old days of the "backward" nations? In elementary school I was taught that there was an innate barrier to progress in certain countries. We have used this concept as an excuse to control the other because of our perception that the other has less worth. One goal of peace education is to help people understand that, although we are distinct and different, these differences can enrich us, and there is a common human value. Its purpose is to build mutually enhancing reciprocal relationships both on an intimate, personal level and on the level of the relationship between the human species and the environment.
The quality of parenting we receive is important because it is our introduction to learning about interdependence, relating to others in a constructive way, adjusting to schooling, and dealing with our associates in a social and political context. There are specific realms of learning that we need to focus on. One is what I would call perspective-sensitive communication, that is, being sensitive to the fact that such influences as our experience, gender, and religious backgrounds are going to give us certain perspectives and that there are many perspectives in any conversation or interaction. We have to integrate the capacity to discern and respect varying perspectives into formal education. It is a capacity that is essential for the development of positive relationships.
Our goal in education should be to promote the full development of the self to enhance the relationship between the self and the other. Thus we have to educate people to understand that appropriate limits should be applied to certain types of behavior. One way of accomplishing this is to incorporate the concept of human rights into peace education because establishing human rights involves setting certain limits on negative behavior of the state or other entities toward others.
Finally, we need to develop "ecological thinking" in learning objectives. In my first conversation with Afaf Mahfouz about this seminar we talked about the need for an integrative, holistic approach to the kinds of changes in thought that we must pursue. Developments in environmental education that have brought forth thinking about ecology and living systems are a very important part of peace education, and they have helped illuminate the nature of this approach. It is through this kind of thinking that we begin to understand the relationship between individuals and larger living systems, both natural and devised, and to realize that we are part of a whole, that "we" are "they."
To a large extent violence is an attempt to control, change, or do away with the other. If we cannot achieve this goal, we make the other resemble us. This is very much the way we educate our children - Betty Reardon
The quality of parenting we receive is our introduction to interdependence, relating to others, adjusting to schooling, and dealing with our associates in a social end political contex - Betty Reardon
The pursuit of this kind of learning cannot be confined to schools. Both schools and society at large must undertake it to prepare people at each stage of development to deal with the unprecedented and unanticipated problems that arise in our rapidly changing world.
Gloria J. Davis
I want to explain what we are doing in the Environment Department of the World Bank. I encourage you to offer your insights on how we might accomplish our goals differently and how we might incorporate your perspectives into our work.
I started my career as a psychologist but became an anthropologist to focus on culture. Coming from the Midwest and growing up in a behaviorist tradition, it occurred to me early in my undergraduate career that I would not be able to understand why people behaved as they did if I did not understand something about their cultures.
The questions that perplex me now are the ones that drove me forward when I went to Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, in the early 1970s to observe changes in the culture of a group of Balinese people. I was interested in the fact that they were the descendants of Balinese Hindus who had come to the region in 1905 when they were thrown out of Bali because of miscast marriages. The people I stayed with lived three days from the provincial capital and about thirty kilometers from a road. Islam was strongly entrenched among these people living in Central Sulawesi when the Balinese arrived, and the Muslims despised the Hindus because they considered Hinduism to be pagan. One of the rumors that Muslims told me about Hindu beliefs was that Hindus bury and cremate people alive.
What did this group of Hindu exiles do? They became Christians, the religion of the colonial elite of the country. Their identification with the colonial elite provided them with protection from intolerant local people and gave them status. For forty years these Balinese and their descendants lived happily in Central Sulawesi as Christians.
In the mid-1960s, about a decade before I arrived, this group of Balinese started returning to Bali to recruit people to join them in Central Sulawesi. At first Hindus did not want to leave Bali to live in a community of Christians in Central Sulawesi. The only people in Bali who would agree to go to the region were from a very small population of Christians, and for about a decade mainly Christians moved to Central Sulawesi as a result of the recruiting efforts of the Balinese Christians. A few Hindus also moved to Central Sulawesi during the 1960s, but after two or three weeks most of them became Christians.
Then the Indonesian government placed two hundred families, or about a thousand people, in Central Sulawesi. One-quarter of the people were Christians and three-quarters were Hindus. All of the Christians remained Christians, and the number of Hindus was large enough so that none of them converted to Christianity.
During the period that I was in Central Sulawesi, 1972 to 1974, an additional ten thousand people moved into the area, and virtually all of them were Hindus. By the end of that period most of the Christians had converted to Hinduism. This happened in part because Hindus in that particular context had gained a reputation for being outstanding farmers and for having a rich, vibrant culture, which the local people came to admire. The Hindus looked down on the local people and the Balinese Christians and thought that both their cultivation techniques and their cultures were inferior. There was therefore considerable pressure for Christians to convert to Hinduism.
I came out of this experience with a sense that people and their institutions are quite resilient and flexible so long as the people involved are working in a situation in which they perceive their actions as voluntary. All of the people who converted from one religion to another had a good reason for doing so. They might have felt pressure to convert, but a lot of them would have said they were doing it voluntarily because, by doing so, they were able to meet their basic material, social, and psychological needs-needs having to do with their identity, social organization, and means of production. The group of Balinese exiles and their descendants now constitutes one of the most prosperous communities in Sulawesi. They have overcome considerable obstacles and have managed to succeed.
This story anchors me in what Shelton H. Davis called the culture of hope. I have consistently thought it to be extremely important to look at the context within which people find themselves. I consider myself a development practitioner who is trying to maximize opportunities and self-empowerment, minimize adverse social effects, and provide the best possible social and cultural context for development.
As development practitioners we rarely have the opportunity to influence the development of some of the things you psychoanalysts care deeply about, such as child rearing practices and norms and values within the household, and you probably would not want us to. However, I would like you to show me how we can incorporate your views in our work at the World Bank.
I am head of the World Bank's Social Policy and Resettlement Division, which is in the Environment Department and the Environmentally Sustainable Development Vice Presidency, under the direction of Ismail Serageldin. We are trying to make our approach to development holistic by incorporating various elements of the development process in a reasonable social policy. In this policy we want to include the procedures we have developed in the past for systematic client consultation and beneficiary assessment. Beneficiary assessment refers to the process of seeing that the voices of the poor reach development planners so that these planners know what is happening in the lives of the people they affect. My colleague, Lawrence F. Salmen, has been working for more than a decade on listening to people and improving beneficiary assessment.
At this point the World Bank's social policy makes a number of straightforward recommendations. First, it recommends fostering equity to achieve both economic and social objectives. In the video "The South Slope of Liberty" it does not surprise me that the places where civil violence was depicted were places where inequity became perceptible to the population.
People and their institutions are quite resilient and flexible so long as the people involved are working in a situation in which they perceive their actions as voluntary - Gloria J. Davis
To foster change, we must have a clear understanding of the traditions and the social, institutional, and cultural contexts of the countries in which we are working - Gloria J. Davis
In many areas of East Asia, where fundamental land reform was carried out and governments intervened early to provide social infrastructures and develop the human resources needed to make development equitable, economic development has been quite consistent and uniform over the past twenty or thirty years. One exception is the Philippines. Although the World Bank initially predicted that the Philippines had the most economic promise of any country in the region, it began with a highly inequitable distribution of land and other resources between the poor and the wealthy. This inequity was exacerbated by economic growth, and both economic and social development faltered.
The World Bank is striving to foster equity, including gender equality. To do so, we are first trying to identify vulnerable people and disenfranchised populations to the extent we can. Lately we have been working with post-conflict refugees who have no states to represent them in the political process and who are therefore among the poorest and least powerful of all people.
In addition the World Bank has been advocating support for participatory processes. The Bank recommends that as development practitioners we move away from an expert stance and adopt a participatory stance, in which we learn from people and they learn from us. In our work we often create situations in which only we and, say, a country's ministry of finance work through a problem and study the issues involved. As a result there is no broad-based consensus, and the knowledge and understanding gained is not shared by others. If we include other people in the process, we might come to very different conclusions, and there will be more decisions made.
Supporting participation means that both the World Bank and its borrowers need methods and tools that level, or at least recognize, power differences. We cannot expect poor people to participate in workshops unless they have been prepared in advance or have good representation by articulate supporters. We may also want to work with local people in their local contexts to understand what is going on from their perspectives.
Another point we have included in our social policy is a recognition that, to foster change, we must have a clear understanding of the traditions and the social, institutional, and cultural contexts of the countries in which we are working. I am an evolutionary, not a revolutionary, development practitioner, and I have a strong belief in context.
The last and most important point included in our social policy is the need to create capacity. We understand a lot more about capacity now than we did in the past. Fifteen years ago the World Bank's knowledge of institutions and associations was confined to its understanding of the public sector. We still believe that the public sector has a role to play in development. We have found, however, that the public sector is not very good at delivering all the goods and services required, nor is it very good at promoting accountability. Both are often better promoted by civil society and the private sector.
Ismail Serageldin and his colleagues have recently written a book called Sustainability and the Wealth of Nations: First Steps in an Ongoing Journey that discusses four kinds of wealth:
1. Physical assets, or goods made by men and women
2. Natural capital, or natural resources
3. Human resources
4. Social capital.
In the World Bank's Environment Department we are concerned with natural capital. We have proven, to ourselves at least, that we cannot deplete natural resources and count that depletion as profit. We have to subtract the loss from the balance sheet.
The new frontier for us is social capital. The associations and institutions through which development and change occur constitute one of the most important aspects of development and certainly the most underrated. Social capital involves attitudes and norms as well as formal and informal institutions-both traditional and modern-at local, community, regional, national, and global levels. Understanding social capital and helping to craft it is an important development objective, and it is something we want to look into more thoroughly. Investing in human resources also will enhance the development process.
Following the presentations of the panel members, Afaf Mahfouz opened and chaired a discussion in which she asked seminar participants to link the ideas that had been presented. She also asked them to suggest ways of working together to put these ideas in place, recognizing the many goals they have in common.
Ms. Mahfouz noted that some speakers were not familiar with other speakers' fields, which had caused them to hesitate when they began to speak. She said this gathering was only the beginning of a dialogue and that more time will be needed to fully explore the ideas proposed by people from such a variety of fields.
Virginia Straus, Boston Research Center for the Twenty-First Century
Henri Parens asked how we can link what we know about the individual with society. A Buddhist concept that might be helpful in this regard is esho fund, which means that the self and the environment appear to be two, but in reality are not two. On a deeper level they are one. The relationship between the self and the environment-including not just the physical environment but all of the relationships we have with others-is thought of as analogous to the body's relationship with its shadow. This concept has implications for how change occurs. If our "shadows," that is, our environments, are crumpled and we work hard trying to straighten them, we will never succeed. In the same way we have to address our own situations by first looking within and straightening our "bodies"-our inner selves. Then our shadows, or our environment and our relations with others, will change.
In Buddhist thought the three poisons inherent in human life are greed, anger, and ignorance. The purpose of life is to work from within to bring out our enlightened selves and rid ourselves of our illusions and the three poisons. Our enlightenment will manifest itself in our environment, but so will our three poisons. If human beings' lives are poisoned by greed, it is reflected in the broader environment by famine and inequality. Some people, motivated by greed, hoard resources, while others have nothing.
We are concerned with natural capital. We cannot deplete natural resources and count that depletion as profit We have to subtract the loss from the balance sheet -Gloria J. Davis
If as a people we need to prove that we are superior to others, constant conflict and warfare will ensue -Virginia Straus
If as a people we need to prove that we are superior to others, which derives from the poison of anger, constant conflict and warfare will ensue.
If we live in ignorance, we will be subject to illnesses and plagues.
These concepts might be useful in a discussion relating the individual processes described today to the broader social processes.
Dennis Frado, Lutheran Office for the World Community, Lutheran World Federation
We who work at the United Nations are thinking about the implications of this discussion. How can we confront military leaders, those in Europe and Africa in particular, who exploit ethnicity and are ruthless in the way they pursue their objectives?
At this seminar economists are asking social scientists and analysts for help. However, it seems that events are moved by economic interests and that our emphasis on subtle psychological and social factors may often be misplaced.
At the moment people from both sides of the war in Bosnia are angry at the United States for not having become more active in the region earlier. According to those who seem to be well informed about the latest peace initiative, the United States has indicated that Bosnia should be divided in any way that can be managed but has pointed out the importance of maintaining a way for the various divisions to work together economically.
One year before the Iran-Iraq war ended, I was on a ski lift with two businessmen, an Iraqi and an Iranian, and they told me that the war was going to stop within a year or so because the economic conflicts that had fueled it were winding down.
What mechanisms do we have for using economic pressure to fight military dictators?
We would be mistaken if we imagined for an instant that economic interests are anything other than just that. They follow their own logic, and capital is a follower, not a leader. Capital goes where the incentive structures make it attractive to go.
Actions that people consider economic actions are actually the economic consequences of political actions. A boycott is a political action that enforces a view and a set of restrictions on the flow of capital, regardless of whether there are attractive returns for that capital in the target country. It is the result of political decisionmaking.
It is important to understand how economics work, how incentives affect capital flows, and how through changes in tax structures and incentives-capitalists, businesspersons, households, and farmers respond to the new realities created by these changes. For example, if the principles of making polluters pay the full costs of pollution and users pay the full cost of what they use were properly exercised-they are very seldom exercised now-the appropriate choice of technology would logically follow. Polluters and users are very pragmatic and are driven by the profit motive.
The chairman of a Japanese steel company told me that the company's plant in Japan is three or four times more energy-efficient than its plant in the United States. I asked him why he did not transfer Japanese energy technology to the United States, and he replied that it did not pay to do so because the price of energy in the United States was too low. The problem was not a lack of technology; it was a matter of responding directly to the incentive structure that exists in the United States.
When fuel prices rose rapidly in the United States after the 1973 oil-price shock, Detroit automakers suddenly began thinking about producing small cars, a decision they had previously maintained they would never make. So the economic factor exists.
However, the globalizing trends I was talking about are real, and sometimes they are positive. For example, in 1977 a very strange situation developed that I do not think existed before or afterward anywhere in the world. A "hot war" was fought between Libya and Egypt while 280,000 Egyptian nationals were working for the Libyan government. The Libyan government did not put these Egyptians in jail, nor did it expel them from the country because Libya could not run its services without them. The Egyptian government did not try to withdraw the Egyptians from Libya because it feared that they might not return to Egypt since they were earning good salaries in Libya. The absurdity of the situation and its link to economic reality caused the "war" to grind to a halt in less than a week. Political will was therefore tempered by economic reality. It is unthinkable that the countries of the European Union would go to war with one another to resolve any of their disputes because they have so many common interests.
Political movements are not always based on economic interests. They are based on symbolism and myth and on the manipulation of something greater than the self that can persuade people to join forces. The set of issues around political symbolism, cultural myths, and decisionmaking is not as well studied as the issues of economics and decision making, but it is equally important.
I have been very pleased with the presentations and discussion today. There has been a desire to see how we can link our ideas and take action to carry them out. This is the real challenge. Of course, as we all know, there are no miracles, and there is no perfection. This seminar is only the beginning of a process of bridging fields of knowledge to work toward better, more effective socioeconomic development.
This process also makes room for learning from our past and present mistakes. To do so, we must determine how we can enable ourselves to tolerate these mistakes, to learn from them without attacking one another. Many of us in the NGOs have criticized the World Bank in the past and still criticize it. The Bank on the other hand has its own perception of NGOs. In preparation for this seminar I have been at the Bank frequently and have worked with many wonderful people. But I have felt that I was not only the "other" but also someone foreign to the World Bank culture. Psychoanalysis was not part of this culture. Little by little a human relationship was built, and something happened. Today's seminar is the product.
At various points during the preparation, and even today, there have been several parallel discourses. But our most important achievement by far has been that we are willing to work through our differences and integrate our collective knowledge to increase the possibilities for more effective environmentally sustainable development.
Political movements are not always based on economic interests. They are teased on symbolism and myth and on the manipulation of something greater than the self that can persuade people to join forces -Ismail Serageldin
Education is a continuous learning process that helps us achieve self- empowerment, sustainability, equal participation in community affairs, and capacity building - Afaf Mahfouz
During today's discussion Shelton H. Davis spoke about the culture of hope versus the culture of violence, but two or three people also spoke about cultural despair. When we speak about hope, violence, and despair, it brings us to the self and the other and to the prejudice that can exist.
Although I have been involved in socioeconomic development, I tend to think from the point of view of a psychoanalyst. When I first spoke about development at the American Psychoanalytic Association seminars, everyone thought I was speaking about child development. The word "development" has different meanings in different contexts and fields. We use our own vocabulary because it is familiar to us, but others may not perceive it in the same way. Therefore in our dialogue today as we decide how to translate ideas into actions, we know, as Betty Reardon said, that education is not simply formal education. To me and to many others education is a continuous learning process that helps us achieve self-empowerment, sustainability, equal participation in community affairs, and capacity building, not only in the short term or the medium term but also in the long term. Even when we are open and communicative and are trying to learn from one another, we still remain in boxes and ivory towers. How can we open up and communicate with one another to address problems related to war, poverty, and violence? Inequality, poverty, and prejudice are types of violence.
We can slowly try to create a pilot project by using the techniques and knowledge from each field involved in the World Bank projects that Gloria J. Davis told us about. Because there are people from UNESCO and UNFPA at this seminar, perhaps some common projects involving population, gender issues, and education can be started. In peace education it is important to explore and discuss this type of education further and to propose ways of attaining peace within ourselves and with others to generate the self-esteem and self empowerment that comes from within us and that will lead to sustainability.
Gloria J. Davis outlined the following plans of action concerning social development, which seem to be consonant with what we psychoanalysts would have formulated: fostering equality; expanding the participatory process; working together; understanding social, institutional, and cultural contexts; and creating capacity.
The challenge is to find ways to institute these tremendously important goals that she has in mind. One cannot carry them out without applying psychological and psychoanalytic concepts to the process.
Through my parenting education work I have been involved to an extent in linking what we know about the individual through psychoanalysis to society as a whole. The issue of modifying education to make it more meaningful than it is, as Betty Reardon suggested, is an avenue to the poor.
We must bear in mind that we have a point of view, but our interlocutor has another point of view. We must be able to recognize that the other person may be different from us in some ways. We cannot immediately apply the professional methods that we would use to help an individual change to our methods of changing society, nor can we try to understand a culture or group using the parameters or measures that we would use to get to know an individual.
The projects that the participants in this seminar are carrying out are enormously important for society, and so is the work we analysts are doing. I have decried the fact that we analysts love to stay in our offices. to work with one mind, one person, one human being. However, I think we should make what we have learned available to other disciplines so that it can be of use to society. As early as 1933 Freud said that the greatest contribution of psychoanalysis would be the application of what we have learned in a clinical situation to the rearing of the next generation.
Perhaps we are finally doing this. If we do not have immediate answers, I hope you at the World Bank will not get discouraged about having a dialogue with psychoanalysts and will continue that dialogue.
We analysts have learned that the effects of educational efforts are limited because they underestimate the power of unconscious motivation.
In an experiment conducted by psychologist Janet Beavin Bavelas, a person is told that a light will go on if he or she pushes a series of buttons in the right sequence. The person starts pushing the buttons, and twenty minutes later the light goes on. The person keeps working. The next time it takes ten minutes for the light to go on, then three minutes, and then the individual is interrupted. The subject is asked to tell the examiner the correct sequence for pushing the buttons and gives a complicated answer explaining how he or she managed to make the light go on.
The subject is then told that there is no correct sequence for pushing the buttons and that the intervals between illumination of the light are coupled to a theoretical learning curve and have nothing to do with the subject's actual behavior. The subject does not believe the experimenter. The only way to persuade the subject to change his or her opinion is to have the subject watch another person do the experiment and see that person formulate a different theory about the correct sequence of buttons, with equal conviction.
Changing convictions is very complicated. At this seminar we are all interested in change, and we know how difficult it is to institute change. To do so, we think that we need a rather rigorous framework in which people feel safe. Within that framework people can rewrite history by going back and forth in their psychic realities, identifying alternately with both the self and the other. This was illustrated in the change of conviction in Bavelas's experiment that came about after one person had been both the subject and the experimenter.
We can identify with the other only within a framework that offers safety that is enforced by rules. Within such a framework the other will not destroy us. Identification with the other on the affective level, rather than a superficial role change, can produce profound change.
We can identify with the other only within a framework that offers safety enforced by rules. Identification with the other on the affective level, rather than a superficial role change, can produce profound change - John Kafka
Even if we are using the same jargon with members of a professional fraternity, we might not understand the language by which we attempt to communicate concepts about the South and the North, or the East and the West - Maurice Williams
Maurice Williams, Overseas Development Council
We have the self and the other, and the "we" and the "they," within us. Even if we are using the same jargon with members of a professional fraternity, we might not understand the language-the tool kit-by which we attempt to communicate concepts about the South and the North, or the East and the West.
One interesting insight that the people from the South attending this seminar have gained is that the acquisitive societies of the West, which used to believe in values of individual freedom and profit maximization, are now shifting toward values of security maximization. This is a major shift.
With reference to the presentation that Henri Parens made concerning the relationship between parenting and development, I think parenting should be concerned with the process of internalizing and with creating a sensitivity in children and in the future generations.
I have a problem with the concept of sustainable development as an intergenerational tradeoff. It is not an intergenerational tradeoff because it is already a tradeoff within the present generation. The richest 20 percent of the world's population is getting 82 percent of the world's income, and the poorest 20 percent is getting 1 percent of it.
The only way we will be able to make any changes in the process of development is to approach it by beginning with our own internal sensitivity. It is a universal misconception that reason and logic are Western attributes and that intuition is an Eastern attribute. We find that reason, logic, and intuition are all coming together to give a new meaning to development.
Environmentally sustainable development improves the quality of people's lives by expanding exercisable choices. It is important that we continue to expand these choices and that we go back to the concept of survival first and security second in the context of sustainable development.
Elaine Valdov, Beyond Borders: World Organization for Peace and Development
To address the issue of global survival, security, and sustainable development in a significant way, on July 12, 1995, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously passed a resolution calling for a "World Week of Peace" to begin on October 24, 1995. This resolution proposed that cease-fires, conflict-resolution forums, and humanitarian efforts be carried out around the world during that week.
The resolution was initiated by NGOs and was proposed to the General Assembly by the Costa Rican mission. But it was cosponsored by only sixty-two UN member states. Although UN countries viewed the activities in the resolution as positive, they believed that carrying them out would be considerably difficult and that it would be almost impossible for them to be globally effective. Thus even though the resolution was unanimously adopted by the General Assembly, governments created no significant global action plan. In addition there was little press coverage of the resolution because it was deemed impossible to carry out. However, NGOs are now lobbying member states to follow up in some way on the unanimous passing of the resolution.
Based on this resolution, NGOs have established a "Campaign for a Culture of Peace." This will begin some of the work we have been talking about during this seminar, such as promoting the development of parenting groups, greater conflict resolution programs, and more peace education forums around the world.
"Beyond Borders" has started a Culture of Peace Campaign that will help world citizens focus on peace issues in their daily lives, where peace must begin. We are working with people around the world toward launching programs that will further establishment of a culture of peace. These include people in South Africa led by Ela Gandhi, grant/daughter of Mahatma Gandhi. An example of their work is the introduction of peace concepts into the regular school curriculum to make peace education available to all, rather than a separate learning experience for some.
We must create think tanks that will collaborate with the World Bank and others on organizing conflict resolution and peace education forums to study the causes of conflicts and create action plans to resolve them. If we do not deal with conflict resolution now, the world will continue to maintain a pessimistic mindset toward world peace and development. This pessimism will continue to influence the actions and decisions of all people, from great leaders to young children. We must take on the responsibility of believing that we can be agents of change globally in the direction of peace, and we must act together to make this a reality.
In discussing the problems education is facing, we did not mention the fact that the quality of education depends on the programs used in schools. Who decides which programs will be used for teaching subjects such as the history of the United States, the history of Europe compared to that of the United States, or the history of the non-Western cultures we have been discussing?
We have not achieved the revolution we desired in determining which programs are taught at all levels of education, from elementary school to the university, because in every society the state has a monopoly on deciding what the curriculum in the schools should be. When private schools are allowed in democratic countries, a broad diversity of juxtaposed systems arises, but they are systems that promote mutual exclusion, not systems that further knowledge of other cultures.
Is the teaching process at all levels preparing students to look for criteria that will enable each one to think critically? Experts who give advice on how to carry out teaching programs have all been trained in the same systems of education. Instituting the principles we are discussing depends on the quality of the educational programs being used, the ideology of the people determining which programs are taught at all levels, and the intellectual posture being taken in the programs.
I would like to elaborate on what I call the "structural violence" going on in society. It has been established through the systems of education to which I have referred and through the official discourse of states throughout the world. Structural violence and open violence- I would call it "bloody violence"-have existed throughout history and still exist everywhere. This is the hidden violence in cultural and intellectual strategies that conceals the determinant forces at work in society and obscures the fact that each society is a system of inequality, rather than one of equality. We repeat the discourse that each system should be one of equality. But each system has been, still is, and will continue to be characterized by inequality. The effects of this problem have not been overcome anywhere in the world in any civilization, culture, religion, or system of thought. In our work we are all dealing with societies based on systems of inequality.
In every society the state has a monopoly on deciding what the curriculum in the schools should be. When private schools are allowed in democratic countries, a broad diversity of juxtaposed systems arises, but they are systems that promote mutual exclusion, not systems that further knowledge of other cultures -Mohamed Arkoun
Western-minded people from the North speak about the individual self in psychic, mental, and psychoanalytical terms. The people from the South speak much more often about the collective self, the collective space in which the self can be reflected on, and cultural and spiritual values - Adel Rifaat
At this seminar the Western-minded people from the North speak about the individual self in psychic, mental, and psychoanalytical terms. The people from the South speak much more often about the collective self, the collective space in which the self can be reflected on, and cultural and spiritual values. These two different approaches are quite natural.
If you go back to what was said in the video "The South Slope of Liberty" about the individuals in the North and in the South, you notice that these individuals may appear to resemble each other because they are basically alike in the way they speak, dress, and eat. But the deep difference is the fact that in the North people have inherited a five-hundred-year effort to bring society within the reach of individual endeavor. Philosophers, writers, artists, and lay people have for centuries brought every philosophical, ethical, and aesthetic value in line with the individual dimension.
This has not happened in the South, where individuals have had no more than half a century to cope with a reality that is not appropriate for them. In general societies in the South do not help individuals assert or express themselves. All the philosophical, ethical, and aesthetic problems are either half-solved or have not been dealt with at all. Therefore it could be said that individuals exist and have to cope with their own personal destinies, but they are not yet citizens. Individuals have no actual rights that are recognized by society, by official authorities, or even by the people around them. When an individual in the South begins to speak, he or she can say, "I think that...," but in the individual's inner self he or she wonders if the other family members have the same feelings. Being oneself in the South requires much more hesitation than in the North. It is really a kind of suffering.
It is extremely important to remember these factors when we speak of individuals in the North or in the South.
It is also as important, if not more important, to remember these factors when we refer to women. We have not spoken directly about that yet.
I would like to note that the importance of listening to a person whom you are trying to serve applies not only to the analyst's office but also to parenting. Good parenting requires the parents' ability to continually listen to their child and empathize with the child's experiences to understand him or her.
In our discussion we tend to simplify problems to a large degree. When UNESCO was created, its constitution was written by prominent intellectuals who said that it was "in the minds of men" that wars began and thus in the minds of men peace could be constructed. They thought that world peace could be achieved if people got to know each other. The fact is that modern wars began in Europe between people who knew each other, and now wars everywhere in the world are fought between people who know each other, who live with each other or very close to each other. It is true that education, economic progress, and democracy can help achieve peace. But we must not imagine that one factor alone can solve the problem of war and peace.
Despite all of our good intentions there is a worldwide increase in the alienation and dependency of individuals, groups, and nations. We have been talking about establishing environmental sustainability before promoting self-empowerment. I would like to reverse the process and put first self-empowerment, or even the empowerment of the other, followed by sustainability.
Although many relevant issues are being addressed in development literature, we still have a long way to go. I have been working in the development field for a number of years and have noticed that many development assistance programs perpetuate people's dependency. For example, many of the income-generating activities that are provided for women throughout developing countries collapse after the funding ends. Women are knitting, sewing, and embroidering, and they are hurting their eyes everywhere. These activities do not further the empowerment of women. In many instances they represent the disempowerment of women and their dependency on the funding agency.
Although the NGO movement has been doing wonderful work in recent years, it still has a lot of problems and fosters certain aspects of this dependency. Even the movement's capacity-building efforts-through which NGOs are assisted in the writing of proposals to get funding from donors-focus on helping these organizations to be dependent. There is a great deal of dependency of individuals on other individuals and of organizations on other organizations. Nations that are receiving aid are becoming dependent on the nations providing aid. What would happen to these nations if the funds were suddenly cut off?
We have mentioned that education can be helpful in resolving these problems. It depends on the kind of education that is promoted. Education has been irrelevant to the needs of people, especially women, for a long time. Mohamed Arkoun touched on this when he talked about Islamic culture and Islamic science. Does anyone in the Islamic countries know anything about the scientific achievements of Muslim scholars in the Golden Age of Islam? The science Muslims study in school is alienating because it makes no mention of these scholars or of the Islamic origins of Western science. Muslim students get the message that Muslims are inferior and have never accomplished anything significant. Students in most Islamic countries learn that they may be able to use Western science, but they cannot contribute to it. There is a good deal missing from education in these countries.
We have to think seriously about the empowerment of people. Often those who believe that they are helping others are the ones being empowered.
Many development assistance programs perpetuate people's dependency. Many of the income-generating activities represent the disempowerment of women and their dependency on the funding agency - Nagat El-Sanabary
The same historical events should be viewed from the perspectives not only of those involved but also from various observer stances to show that there are not only multiple perspectives but also multiple interpretations. It is the mediation of interpretations that is required to find our common ground -Betty Reardon
I would like to suggest a practical theme around which there could be some cross-cultural-because I think our disciplines become cultures-discourse toward a common project. The point about the content of education and who creates school programs is profoundly significant, particularly in relationship to history.
Women have been talking about developing "her story." I would like to see us develop "our story"-the story of humanity. For years I have advocated the teaching of history using the idea that the same historical events should be viewed from the perspectives not only of those involved but also from various observer stances. One of the most important aspects of this approach is to show that there are not only multiple perspectives but also multiple interpretations. It is the mediation of interpretations that is required to find our common ground.
One of the major contributions psychoanalysts can make to such a discourse is in interpretation. I am not talking about having psychoanalysts provide interpretations. Psychoanalysts work with their clients so that the clients will be able to interpret their own experiences. This is what we are suggesting is necessary in the teaching of history.
We are talking about the significance of culture. We learn about the evolution of our cultures by learning history. One of the reasons history is taught is to enable us to know who we are. We need to know who we are in relation to others and in the context of at least a possibility, if not a conviction, that everyone is of equal worth. UNESCO has done some work concerning the interpretation of history texts, but I propose that we do more. I hope we can move forward with something practical.
When I was a student in Paris in the 1960s, UNESCO initiated an excellent project that was discontinued. In the project an international group of students read textbooks on history, and each student gave his or her interpretation of the historical events. The goal was to communicate these interpretations to governments to come up with a collective accepted version of each historical event. Unfortunately, at least to my knowledge, UNESCO did not follow up on this project.
I would like to comment on Adel Rifaat's statements about the difference in the way the individual develops in the North as opposed to the South. In the North conditions foster the progression of the self from infancy to latency to adolescence to adulthood. But some cultures do not foster this progression. The cultures of the South do not allow individuals to progress to adolescence, a stage at which they can emancipate themselves and become independent. The people of the South are still in the earlier stages of development, and that is why individuality has not crystallized in the South. These people are like latency children. They are still dependent on the environment. It is a matter of life and death for them to please the environment because their livelihoods are attached to it. In the same way a latency child cannot react violently to the ideas that are inculcated by the authority figures with whom he or she lives because the child's livelihood depends on those figures.
This brings me to the issue of dependency that Nagat El-Sanabary talked about. Dependency is not necessarily a bad word. It can be good or bad, depending on the way we extend help to another human being. We can extend help in such a way as to enslave a person if we are fixated on a symbiotic level of the developmental profile I have given. For example, a mother can help her children in such a way as to foster their dependency instead of helping them to become independent. Instead of being attuned to the next step of development, the mother tries to obstruct and stifle continued development. She is not mature enough to enable her children to become autonomous and have their own identities. The children are unable to advance beyond the mother's level of development.
Three weeks ago I attended a meeting in Cairo at which peace education was discussed. Everyone at the meeting appeared to agree that education for peace is indeed an ideal to be pursued. But as the meeting progressed, disagreement and problems arose for several reasons.
In the context of inequality peace is a very controversial issue. In the Arab context, in which the peace process is viewed as not meeting the needs and aspirations of the people living in the region, peace is perceived as something that is imposed.
Everyone at the meeting was extremely worried because it looked as if certain countries-Arab countries-were being targeted for peace education programs. Nobody felt that these programs were being instituted in France or the United States. The participants thought these countries also needed peace education programs.
I am making this point to stress that certain assumptions are made and particular cultures or countries are targeted for certain projects. It is assumed that people in the Arab countries need peace education, whereas people in such countries as France and the United States are exempt of all blame and do not need this education.
My other point involves the credibility of the agencies that are carrying out the programs. It seems programs should be introduced at home before they are introduced in other countries.
I see the word "development" hidden in the title of this seminar. I understand the emphasis the World Bank puts on environment and sustainability. But the issue of development still exists. The difference, even by conventional measures, between the economic well-being of Africa and the rest of the South is enormous, and the disparity is growing.
When I heard the suggestions concerning the psychology of dependent populations, I wondered about the culture of entrepreneurship, a concept that is related to development. There seem to be continental differences in the culture of entrepreneurship. The boom in Asia is certainly not equal throughout the region, but the Asian piece of the economic pie is growing extremely rapidly, whereas the African piece of the pie, in per capita terms, is dwindling. The basic question is whether there is something wrong with a culture's relationship to ways of expanding its portion of the economic pie under all of the caveats concerning environmentally sustainable development. Education is, of course, relevant here.
Certain assumptions are made and particular cultures or countries are targeted for certain projects. It is assumed that people in the Arab countries need peace education, whereas people in such countries as France and the United States do not need this education - Hoda El-Sadda
I cannot accept en earlier speaker's suggestion that, according to the Freudian model, the people in the South are not reaching full maturity - John Kafka
I find it hard to believe that manhood and womanhood have not been fully achieved in African countries. This would be an unjustifiable ethnocentric perspective of psychiatrists who have conducted in-depth studies only of Europeans and Americans. Have any comprehensive psychoanalytically oriented in-depth studies of poor people in developing countries been conducted? Some attempts have been made to conduct such studies, and, on the basis of the findings reported, I cannot accept an earlier speaker's suggestion that, according to the Freudian model, the people in the South are not reaching full maturity.
This was a generalization, and I agree that not every culture in the South obstructs the development of the individual. But some cultures emphasize a certain phase in the development of the individual. I am not saying that the people in these cultures are not capable of further development. There are, however, conditions in the environment that do not encourage or foster further development, such as the tightness of family ties that results in the fear of being autonomous and independent from the family. Adolescence cannot be fully achieved in this kind of situation because the individual cannot afford to separate emotionally from the inner circle of the family. He or she is fixated on a level of development at which separation from parents is equated with their loss.
I feel quite uneasy when we cite the shortcomings of a culture as the essential reason for all the impediments to individual self-assertiveness.
Almost all traditional cultures prefer collectiveness to individuality, and conformity to originality and change. However, purely traditional societies that live within a coherent set of archaic values no longer exist. All Southern societies have been perforated by the international culture of individual assertiveness, by market rules, and by humanistic values as a result of Western influence. The international culture is now permanently embroidered in the very fabric of these societies.
It is all right to speak of traditional cultures going against individual assertiveness, but now more and more individual assertiveness is impeded by totalitarian states. In these states the political and economic elite monopolize all the privileges and have no interest in having millions of people say that they "would like this instead of that." The problem is one of citizenship and democracy, and we should keep this essential point in mind. Naturally, different cultural backgrounds play a role.
In sum it is worth pondering something Nelson Mandela said shortly after he was freed from prison. A journalist asked him what sort of political system would be appropriate for the new South Africa. As he was asking the question, the journalist spoke about the necessity of preserving African-rooted values. Mandela listened to him politely and then told him that he would prefer the nearest thing to British democracy.
We have totalitarian parents as well as totalitarian regimes. Totalitarian parents do not allow their child to become an adolescent. They instill fear in the child whenever he or she is deviating from parental expectations. Instead of fostering the child's development, they cripple it through intimidation and rigid control.
Millions of fathers have left Egypt to work in Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Libya to send money back to their families. The role of the father is therefore changing and disintegrating in Egypt, for the moment at least.
Parenting should in fact include fathers, although we have been concentrating on mothers and mothering. Mothering and fathering are both important.
After I spoke to Russian psychiatrists in Moscow, it became clear that living in a culture in which the individual has to be absolutely submerged for the good of society, as he or she is under communism, is an enormous problem.
One psychiatrist told me that as a young boy in school he would not necessarily raise his hand when he knew the answer to a question. He did not want to stand out because he would be told that he was trying to be better than the other students. We analysts need to learn more about a variety of cultures as we try to apply what we have learned from working with individuals in one geographical area to what happens to individuals in other parts of the world.
I would also like to comment on Mohamed Arkoun's strong argument about the malignancy of inequality. The problem in addressing this issue is that, as psychoanalysts, we know that identification is a very powerful process and that we all identify with those who rear us. Narcissism plays a role in concepts such as "my religion is better than your religion." In their liturgies some religions say that their adherents are "the chosen people." Who are the others?
Another important issue is the need for people to have enemies that will be the recipients of the hate they actually feel toward their mothers and fathers and toward themselves. Psychoanalyst Vamik Volkan's work discusses this issue. Displacing self-hate onto others gives rise to prejudice.
Gloria J. Davis
I would be the last to deny the importance of culture in influencing behavior. I once gave the Thematic Apperception test to Hawaiians and Japanese. All the Hawaiians thought that a woman who was lying on a mat had just been killed by a man who was leaving the room. All the Japanese thought that the man was her husband and that he was going to get medicine for her.
I would also like to defend traditional people. It has been suggested that traditional people may not be as socially "mature" as more modern people. Yet many of us have lived in cultures where there was as much diversity, innovation, and creativity among traditional people as there was among more modern groups. But they might not have expressed it in the way that we are used to seeing it expressed, for example, in public forums and schools.
We analysts need to learn more about a variety of cultures as we try to apply what we have learned from working with individuals in one geographical area to what happens to individuals in other parts of the world - Henri Parens
We are talking to people in slums in developing countries. After defining the meeting of their economic needs as the most important problem, these people say they are worried about crime, conflict, and lack of security. These factors prevent them from achieving what they want to do - Gloria J. Davis
I would also like to make a connection between the paradigms that have been presented at this seminar and the development work in which we are involved at the World Bank. While I was listening to the discussion on survival, security, dignity, and self-respect, I thought of Maslow. In development the bottom line is certainly survival. If people do not survive, a great deal of what we have discussed is irrelevant. I think we agree therefore that we have to address economic and material needs.
It is interesting that we at the Bank have not spent much time thinking about the importance of security. We are talking to people in slums in developing countries. After defining meeting their economic needs as the most important problem, these people say they are worried about crime, conflict, and lack of security. These factors prevent them, both psychologically and physically, from achieving what they want to do. Women cannot go out at night. People cannot go to work. They cannot let their children go out alone or leave them at home unattended.
Many governments in developing countries are involved in a delicate balancing act between imposing national unity and encouraging diversity at the state level. Many corrupt, hostile forms of government use repression to suppress individual rights rather than fostering civic order. Determining how to create a secure environment poses a dilemma for a government.
But security is different from empowerment, dignity, and self-respect, which follow and flow from material well being and security. We are seeing examples of how self-empowerment can be achieved. For example, Muhammad Yunus from the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh gives small amounts of money to women and organizes them into five-person credit associations. The importance of the groups he has formed is not in the fact that they mutually guarantee small loans. When they have a function these groups of newly empowered women organize themselves for a variety of purposes in their communities, and new types of organizations emerge that cut across traditional organizations.
Our work at the World Bank has indicated repeatedly that the functioning of many organizations such as these depends on the participation of women. The men in traditional societies are locked into traditional organizations through reciprocity and kinship, but the women are not. Women can cross many of these boundaries. Therefore, if you are trying to develop new types of organizations at the local level, empowering women and giving them resources is one of the wisest things you can do.
When I came to the World Bank fifteen years ago, it was self-evident to my colleagues-and I took it at face value with only a few reservations-that governments were legitimately constituted, that they represented their citizens, and that if you were going to channel financial resources to people, you had to do it through governments, which would provide the goods and services.
That paradigm has evaporated, and nobody accepts it today. Indeed it is time to develop a new social policy for the World Bank that includes visions concerning peace, history, and an emerging form of global empowerment, which did not exist twenty years ago.
Carl Schieren, African-American Institute
Last week I talked to a woman who had just returned from Bali, where she met some young girls on a beach. She was impressed by their literacy and the fact that they could discuss a variety of subjects they had been reading about. Two days later I talked to a woman who had just returned from Egypt, where she had been evaluating the basic education system. She said that enormous amounts had been spent on educational programs in Egypt over the previous five years, but there was a real question as to whether this had improved literacy or learning. I would like to believe that formal education can bring about all the changes Mohamed Arkoun mentioned, but Egypt makes me wonder if money going into formal education should not be reengineered or reallocated. I have had the same experience talking to some people from Sub-Saharan Africa.
In Egypt the situation is a result of economics, which we have not discussed adequately. It is a result of the salary incentives for teachers. If international development agencies such as UNESCO want to improve peace education in Egypt, for example, they do teacher training or curriculum development. The teachers then use their training-if they use it at all-to give private lessons outside the classroom to make money. They do not use it in the classroom. If they did, the students would learn more and would not need private lessons. If the teachers did not earn money through these lessons, they would not survive because they are so underpaid. Planners must address issues of survival and incentives in developing countries.
Another question is how people in developing countries learn about their own culture or identity. Some people say they get information from the mass media, probably more than they would like; others say they get it from organizations, religious groups, and associations of various kinds. But they do not learn about their culture through the formal educational system to the extent we do in the United States. In Asia certain societies have begun to produce enough goods to ensure a level of survival that allows people to discuss ways of allocating educational resources effectively. How important has the role of identity, culture, and roots been in these Asian societies, and what has been the role of formal education? Are there relevant comparisons with what we see in the Middle East and Africa?
A third question relates to the empowerment of women and their identity. At the 1995 UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing an informed observer said the real drive on women's issues seemed to have shifted from the North to the South. I cannot forget the face of the woman street organizer from India and her power at the end of the video "The South Slope of Liberty." What is the source of her identity? She and the women who work with her are dealing with practical issues concerning their own day-to-day survival. Because these women are driven not by anyone's ideology but by their own shared experience, they feel they can comment on injustices toward women, such as policies on inheritance, credit, and land ownership. Today women in developing countries have gut vitality that surpasses much of what we see in the North. This vitality comes from associational life, a new role for women in civil society, which is generating confidence and empowerment.
Women in developing countries have gut vitality that surpasses much of what we see in the North. This vitality comes from associational life, a new role for women in civil society, which is generating confidence and empowerment - Carl Schieren
The interaction at this seminar between psychoanalysts and people involved in development could result in creative models from which people can learn Antoine Hani made a point about research on prejudice. Prejudice cuts across North and South, rich and poor. If insights could be found as to why we discriminate, why we are prejudiced against other people, they might help mitigate the extent of prejudice and its significant negative social, economic, and political consequences.
Alicia Hetzner, World Bank
Earlier we discussed links with the poor to close the gap between rich and poor. In 1993 the World Bank worked with NGOs for six months to plan an October
1993 international conference to reduce world hunger. At the conference Ismail Serageldin told the participants that it would not be just another conference on hunger. He pledged that action would come out of it. For the past two years he and others at the Bank have worked hard on that commitment, and as a result the Bank, with many other agencies, has established the Consultative Group on Assistance to the Poorest, or CGAP (which could also stand for 'Close the Gap"). The CGAP facility, whose secretariat is housed at the World Bank, will support institutions that grant micro-credit to the poorest, loans that are frequently no more than $100 apiece to individuals, based on the Grameen Bank example in Bangladesh. The grants will be intermediated by NGOs. This process is complicated by the fact that, as Nafis Sadik said today, there are so many NGOs that sometimes it is difficult to decide which ones are authentic. ·