How to use this manual
This is one of four manuals on traditional animal health care
practices (or "ethnoveterinary medicine") in tropical Asia. The manuals were
compiled during a participatory workshop held at the International Institute of
Rural Reconstruction in July 1994. The four manuals cover swine, poultry,
ruminants (cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats) and general information. For
details, see the General information manual.
The topics in this manual have been broadly presented to include
the whole spectrum of "conditions" which a field practitioner may encounter in
the care and management of livestock.
Topics which describe a disease or condition present the
Symptoms key symptom(s) by which the disease can be identified.
Causes primary cause(s) of the disease.
Prevention appropriate preventive measure(s) to avoid disease
Treatment a detailed description of the treatment(s).
The treatments list the ingredients by their botanical (or
Latin) name and a common English name. For some commonly known species (e.g.,
garlic, ginger, coconut, banana. guava), only the Enalish name may appear in the
text. The General information manual contains a complete list of plants named in
the four manuals.
The treatments or remedies which require multiple ingredients
are presented in a step-by-step "recipe" format which lists all ingredients to
be used and describes how to prepare them. See the General information manual
for details on how to prepare remedies such as fomentations, poultices and
decoctions. Many remedies which require only a single ingredient are presented
in tables. Each remedy is identified by the "." mark; where several remedies are
presented, the choice of the remedy is left to the user.
After each treatment, the countries in tropical Asia where the
treatment is practiced (as validated by the workshop group or through
references) are presented in boldface parentheses. Immediately after the names
of the countries is a series of numbers that reflect the validation criteria
used in the workshop:
1. Workshop participants agreed that the
treatment would be useful.
2. Treatment is widely used in a region or a country (some
remedies were also validated against practices from outside Asia).
3. Workshop participants had first-hand knowledge of the
remedy's use on-farm.
4. Traditional healers are known to use the remedy.
5. The remedy is cited in the literature in one of two ways: (1)
it is used to treat the same problem in humans or another animal species; or (2)
this plant has proven pharmacological activity to treat the problem in question.
For instance, laboratory tests have shown that Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaf
extract is effective against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro (Syat
1990). This tends to support the use of tobacco leaves in treating wounds.
6. The remedy has been scientifically validated as effective to
treat the problem in the livestock species in question. Relevant references are
given under the corresponding plant name in the Glossary of medicinal plants in
the General information manual.
Dosages and preparation methods in indigenous practice are often
imprecise and vary widely between individuals and regions. The dosages and
methods given are those that, according to the professional judgement and
experience of the workshop participants, are most suitable, are easy to prepare
and are likely to be effective. The workshop participants and IIRR have made
every attempt to ensure that the remedies are effective and are not harmful.
However, they cannot guarantee this or be held liable for problems arising from
Unless noted to the contrary, all dosage quantities for
treatments are for single dosage applications; in other words, each treatment
should be prepared at the time of application according to the quantities
specified. Dosages for treatments in swine are usually given in terms of live
body weight (a simple calculation procedure for estimating live body weight for
all species is explained in the Estimating live weight of animals section).
Where possible, simple measurements (handful, cup, etc.) have
been given for ease of use by field practitioners. The General information
manual contains a guide to commonly used weights and measures. More detailed
measure meets (milliliters, etc.) are also given to allow a practitioner to be
as precise as the particular conditions may allow.
All references used in this manual are listed in the References
section in the General information