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close this bookBetter Farming Series 02 - The Plant: the Stem; the Buds; the Leaves (FAO - INADES, 1976, 30 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentPlan of work
close this folderThe stem
View the documentWhere is the stem?
View the documentHow a stem is made
View the documentWhat the stem does
View the documentThe buds
close this folderThe leaves
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderHow a leaf is made
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe leaf-stalk
View the documentThe veins
View the documentThe shape of leaves
close this folderWhat are leaves for?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHow the leaf changes raw sap into elaborated sap
View the documentOrganic matter in the plant
View the documentThe plant breathes.
View the documentThe plant transpires.
close this folderSome practical applications
View the documentThe plant needs air and light
View the documentThe plant needs water
View the documentThe plant needs its leaves

What the stem does

· It supports leaves and flowers.
· It circulates sap.


Cut through the stem of a coffee tree or of a lemon tree. What do we see?

· First of all, on the outside of the stem, there is the bark.

This is the skin of the tree.
Skin protects a man or an animal.
The bark protects a tree stem.
If a goat eats the bark, or you cut it with a hoe, the plant is no longer protected. It is injured.
Many diseases can get in through this injury.
You must not injure the bark.

· Under the bark is the wood.

When the tree is old, the wood is thick, the stem is hard.
Wood makes the stem hard.

Cut stern of a lemon tree

In the wood you can see many little holes.
These are little tubes or vessels.
In a man's body the blood is carried by blood vessels.
In a plant, vessels carry the sap.

· In the centre of the stem is the pith.

If you cut a cotton stem you can see the pith very easily.
It is less hard than the wood.
Often it is not the same colour.