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close this bookBoiling Point No. 38 : Household Energy in High Cold Regions (ITDG - ITDG, 1997, 40 p.)
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View the documentHousehold energy in high regions
View the documentDissemination of improved stoves in Nepal
View the documentEnergy needs of tourist lodges in two mountain communities in Nepal: A case study
View the documentStoves used for cooking, water heating and space heating at high altitude in Nepal - a case study in Jumla
View the documentHousehold energy in high cold regions of Morocco
View the documentStatus of improved stoves in the northern areas of Pakistan
View the documentHigh altitude space heating and cooking stoves in Pakistan
View the documentHeating-cum-cooking stoves of the FECT Project, Peshawar, Pakistan

Household energy in high regions

Based on conclusions reached in the regional workshop on space heating in Pokhara, Nepal, February 1996

Energies domestiques dans zones de haute altitude:

L'auteur souligne que l'analyse des besoins de chauffage des locaux dans les rons de haute moutagnes requiert des approches spfiques. Les foyers multi-usages (cuisson et chauffage) sont encore peu rndus quoique les technologies sont disponibles. Gralement, les programmes sur les foyers n'accordent que peu de place a conception d'ipements multi-usages. Le moyen le plus simple de chauffer des locaux est d'utiliser la chemincomme radiateur. Cependant l'optimisation des deux fonctions implique davantage d'efforts en mati recherches dloppement. Quant au chauffage solaire des locaux, les couts restent extremement v Dans quelques zones montagneuses du Nl, ITDG a introduit des ipements de cuisson utilisant l'ctricitLes recherches qui ont ete men pour accroitre l'efficacite cuisson n'ont pas retenu l'attention des usagers dans la mre o pertes de chaleur servaient en fait au chauffage des locaux. Cet exemple montre que les strates de promotion des foyers sages multiples sont diffntes de celles ayant pour seul objet la diffusion de foyers utilisprincipalement pour la cuisson.

Cold altitudes and the need for space heating

A large majority of people in the developing countries live in hot climates and there is a need for coolness rather than heating in their homes. Nevenheless, there are many millions, particularly in the Himalayas or Andes, for whom heating is essential for survival, or is needed for a tolerable existence.

Mountain people have been largely overlooked in the design of household energy programmes and stoves and, as a result, space heating has never figured prominently in studies of energy policy.

Where stoves provide a heating function, they are often in rooms which are badly ventilated, in order to prevent heat loss. The resulting exposure to severe indoor air pollution is known to be bad for the health of both the stove users and other family members. Although the use of chimneys can help in reducing many of the harmful components in the room, they are not a cure for smoke problems. Fires may bum faster due to the improved draught, heat will be lost through them and fuel will be wasted.

Biomass use in mountain areas

As in almost all developing countries, biomass is the main source of energy for cooking and space heating and it is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. The reasons are:

· A reliable supply of biomass is usually locally available.
· It is almost always the cheapest available fuel if the fuel has to be bought.
· Use of biomass is traditional and women are skilled in fuel
· Stoves have been designed or adapted to the local biomass fuels.
· There may be no other fuels available.

Meeting household energy needs

Stoves with several uses

Some combined cooking and space heating stoves have been developed with the aim of saving fuel, reducing environmental impact and yielding a range of benefits to users, particularly savings in time, work and money. Besides being able to afford an improved stove, the need for information about its good and bad points needs to be given to the user. If users do not know about the benefits and problems associated with a new stove they will often stay with the traditional stove.

Typical stove used in high regions for cooking and space heating

Cookstoves often have several functions; cooking, space heating, lighting, crop and fuel drying. social gathering etc. To succeed. stove development needs to take account of the local conditions, including house and stove construction materials and skills and the effects of weather. Social and cooking habits, affordability, complexity of the stove and ease of maintenance and repair need to be carefully checked. The materials used for stove construction should be obtained locally in view of the extreme difficulty of transportation. Stoves need to suit the available fuels, pot sizes and use (cooking on high heat, simmering, baking, special food preparations etc.).

The need to design stoves which perform several functions is often overlooked by stove programmes. In mountain areas, space heating is an important energy need which merits far more emphasis in energy policy and research.

The most straightforward way to provide space heating from a stove is to use the chimney as a heat radiator. This means routing the chimney through the room/s so as to transfer the heat from the exhaust gases to the air around the chimney. In many places, considerable local expertise on chimneys is available and can be used at the design stage.

The Chinese under-floor heating system, the 'Kang-Lianzao' bed stove (BP.29, page 33), may be appropriate for cold mountain regions elsewhere.

Solar energy for space heating

Active solar systems collect energy from the sun and then move the energy to storage or directly to the user by means of a transfer medium such as water. They perform well for domestic water supply but offer little for space heating. Adoption rates are very low due to the initial cost for the householder.

Passive solar designs have produced promising results in demonstration projects all over the world, notably on the high plains of Bolivia at an altitude of over 4000 metres. Similar work has been carried out by the LeDeG organisation in Ladakh. Passive solar design employs the principles of positioning buildings to achieve maximum winter insolation (incoming energy from the sun) whilst minimising heat losses. Window design has also been developed to a fine an. The trombe wall, which acts as a heat store during the day and gives out heat to the dwelling during the evening, is a simple device which also shows impressive results.

However promising the technical performance of these systems appears, the obstacles to the spread of solar designs are formidable. In particular, finding ways of influencing the design of new dwellings is a real barrier to the technology. The challenge of changing existing houses to adopt elements of solar design may be too great. In general, the costs of incorporating solar design into dwellings will restrict their spread beyond any but the most wealthy communities or for communal buildings.

Stove programmes

Stove programmes are often driven by the supply of the technology itself. Too frequently, they take a narrow view of stove development without considering other options which could achieve the same goals, such as better maintenance of traditional stoves or improving house construction.

Kang-Lianzao bed stove

During research into improved electric stoves for rural areas of Nepal carried out over the last six years, ITDG worked in several Himalayan communities. The electric stove incorporated a heat store made from stones. During one phase of the work, the local team tried to improve the insulation to this heat store, thereby saving most of the heat generated for cooking. They soon learned that the space heating characteristic of the new stove design was valued much more highly by users than the project team had initially imagined.

It is rare to find credit facilities and training programmes provided to local entrepreneurs and manufacturers in mountain communities. Availability of local materials for constructing space heating stoves is very limited and the import or transport of these materials increases the cost of stove manufacture.

Stove promotion

Strategies for promoting heating stoves have to be different from those used for cooking stoves because of the varying seasonal and local requirements for heating energy.

· A stove programme must be integrated with related programmes such as housing improvement, health and sanitation or rehabilitation work following disasters.

· It should be used to promote traditional skills and technologies and use local institutions.

· improved stove dissemination should lit in with the financial reality of households rather than the economic aims of governments.

· Technology research and development for solar systems should concentrate on cost reduction, for example, simple approaches using locally available building materials may be suitable for reducing the heat loss from the building.

Overall, a far greater understanding of the priorities of mountain communities is required. Lessons from the commercial spread of stoves in many countries have shown that successful stoves arc those which meet the expectations of their purchasers rather than the ambitions of their designers. A simple point, but fundamental to bringing mountain communities more directly into work on household energy.

Dissemination of improved stoves in Nepal

B B Gurung, CARE International in Nepal

Diffusion de foyers amor au Nl

Les foyers amores ont introduits au Nl par le Drtement de l'Agriculture dles ann 1950. Depuis la fin des ann1980, Care International a lanca promotion de foyers amoires en partant d'une approche into communautbficiaires sont oitement associ. Un certain nombre de les peuvent e dg: Les programmes doivent e lsur plusieurs ann, les villageois acceptent plus facilement les id nouvelles lorsqu'elles sont propag par des voisins. Afin d'accroe l'impact des foyers amor il est fortement recommend'associer les bficiaires lors des luations

Nepal is a small landlocked country situated between India and China. The population is over 21 million, of whom 90 per cent live in rural areas. There are no significant fossil fuel resources in Nepal and all petroleum products have to be imported from abroad. Rural people are fully dependent on fuelwood for energy. Studies show that the average fuelwood consumption per capita is very large (708 kg/year). The diminishing forest area has alarmed policy makers and planners into taking some immediate measures to reduce the fuelwood consumption. Greater environmental awareness is also a major factor in Nepal.

Introduction of improved stoves

Options and measures to optimize the use of fuelwood were explored. The introduction of Improved Cook Stoves (ICS) was one of them. Improved Cook Stoves (ICS) were first introduced by the Department of Agriculture (DOA) of Nepal in early 1950s. Other organizations like the Research Center for Applied Science and Technology (RECAST), and the Peace Corps also tried to disseminate the idea of ICS in the rural areas in 1970s but could not continue. Later, the Community Forest Development Programme (CFDP) in collaboration with RECAST started promoting ICS. The stoves promoted by CFDP used ceramic inserts made in Kathmandu.

CARE International in Nepal (CARE/N)

Early experiences

CARE International in Nepal (CARE/N) has been involved in various development activities in Nepal since 1978. The CARE/N working policy is based on an integrated approach and community participation in development activities.

Using an integrated approach, CARE/N started promoting ICS in late 1980s as part of the Small Farmer Community Project (SFCP). This was a joint project of CARE/N and the Agricultural Development Bank of Nepal (ADBN). Its major focus was on improvement of farmer-managed irrigation systems followed by forestry and agriculture extension. CARE/N used the ceramic inserts which had been made and promoted in Kathmandu. However, they were not well accepted by the community because:

· The set of ceramic inserts consisting of a number of fragile tubes, which were not locally made, were difficult to transport intact from Kathmandu.

· Some parts could be broken when cleaning the chimney.

· Once installed, if a part of the ceramic ICS was broken it was almost impossible to replace.

Current work of CARE/N

Learning from the drawbacks of the ceramic ICS, improvements were made. The present model of ICS is found to be more appropriate in rural areas as the stoves can be easily made using local materials. Presently CARE/N is promoting the new stoves in its seven working districts in remote areas of Nepal. The Center for Rural Technology (CRT) is providing training on improved Cook Stoves. The status of installation of ICS in CARE/N working areas is shown in Table 1.

Merits of ICS:

The ICS has major advantages over the traditional stoves. The main features are as below:

· Appreciable reduction of smoke in house

- eye irritation and inhaling of smoke reduced significantly
- babies and small children less affected by smoke
- less soot on clothes, walls and house

· Easier and faster to cook

- no chance of soot falling on the food
- constant feeding with fire sticks not required, saving time for other work
- food is burnt less often
- faster cooking

· Fuel efficient

- less fuelwood consumption and thus less fuelwood collection
- efficient use of flame
- sticks get burnt more efficiently
- the effect of wind is nil

· Safer for users, children and babies

- less chances of bums for users
- less danger for children or babies falling into the fire
- less chance of mattresses, beds and roofs catching fire

· Easy to install and repair

- the bricks can be locally made, no need to purchase anything from outside
- broken parts can be easily repaired or replaced
- easy to replicate
- no hi-tech skill is required for installing ICS

Limitations of ICS

· not suitable for large families
· insufficient extra heat generated for space heating during cold season
· soot needs to be frequently removed from the chimney
· it is still possible for thatch roofs to catch fire

Some lessons learned

· In Nepal, the cooking area where the stove is located is regarded as the most sacred place. Strangers are not allowed to go near the stove. It is a sensitive issue and due respect should be given.

· Stove programmes are not a completely new thing for the Nepalese people. It takes considerable effort and time to introduce them as people will not accept them easily. Therefore, the ICS programme should be a multi-year programme.

· The ICS programme should focus more on sustainability than on meeting targets.

· Villagers more easily accept new ideas from neighbours than from outside instructors. A people-to-people earning environment needs to be created.

· Skill and technology should be transferred to the community to give continuity to the programme.

· Local people should be involved in the evaluation and impact studies on the performance of the ICS. The lessons learned in the evaluations are easily shared with neighbours. It is the best method for propagating the use of ICS.

Table 1: CARE/N Project Areas (1990 to June 1996)









Number of ICS installed









Number of persons trained









Energy needs of tourist lodges in two mountain communities in Nepal: A case study

Kamal Banskota PhD, Centre for Rural and Environmental Studies (CREST) and Kamal Rijal PhD, international Centre for integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD)

Besoins rgques des logis touristiques dans deux rons montagneuses du Nl:

Cet article montre que dans la ron de Ghandruk o promues les rgies de substitution, la consommation de bois est nettement moins importante (30% en moins) que dans l'autre ron, Ghorepani, di L'efficacitnergque est plus vhandruk du fait de l'introduction de nouvelles technologies (cuisson ctrique artir d'ipements de faibles puissances) alors que les ssions de CO2 sont nettement infeure

This case study analyses two areas, Ghandruk and Ghorepani, which are located in the Annapurna Conservation Area Programme (ACAP). Information collected in 1994 from twenty-two community-based tourist ledges in Ghandruk and eighteen lodges in Ghorepani form the basis of the case study. The study was undertaken to assess the impacts of alternative energy and technology.

Ghandruk has relatively better access to new energy sources and efficient technologies whereas

Ghorepani is largely dependent on firewood; both are heavily dependent on tourism. ACAP has introduced a number of fuel-efficient technologies and alternative energy sources in the area in order to reduce pressure on the forests. These include:

· establishment of kerosene depots in several areas
· installation of a 50kW micro-hydro electricity power plant in Ghandruk
· distribution of low-wattage cookers (Bijuli Dekchi)
· incentives for installing solar water heaters, back boilers and improved stoves
· some lodges have also started using LPG

Table 1: Total energy supplied per room per year

Energy use



Firewood (kg)



Kerosene (litres)



Electricity (kWh)



Solar (kWh)



Gas (cylinders)



Table 2: Fuel pattern uses in tourist lodges in Ghandruk and Ghorepani (%)

Energy use


















The energy consumption pattern differs significantly between Ghandruk and Ghorepani, particularly as Ghandruk has access to electricity. In Ghorepani, firewood supplemented by kerosene meets the bulk of the energy requirement. Both these areas are almost equally important in terms of tourism.

The average annual consumption of firewood by lodges in Ghandruk is much lower than in Ghorepani: Ghorepani uses much more kerosene. The total energy supplied to each room each year is shown in Table 1.

Total energy requirements per room per year are shown in Table 2 as percentages.

The primary energy generated in the lodges as a whole has been calculated and this is compared with the useful energy. The results are given in Table 3.

Notice that the efficiency of space heating is very high in both cases, but is higher in Ghandruk than in Ghorepani. The cooking efficiency is almost twice as high in Ghandruk as in Ghorepani; this is because of the improved technologies available in Ghandruk (Bijuli Dekchi, rice cookers etc.), which also has improved stoves and back-boilers.

ACAP has played an important role in the diffusion of efficient technology and new sources of energy. Its intervention has been critical in developing an institutional base for energy planning and forest conservation in an area where tourism plays an important role. Key grassroots institutions have been established for sustaining various conservation related programmes as well as development and dissemination of alternative energy. In addition, a great deal of awareness and training programmes have been introduced.

Forest conservation efforts alone would perhaps not have been successful in the absence of affordable energy and end use technology and alternative energy sources.

Table 3: Primary energy and total useful energy for tourist lodges in Ghandruk and Ghorepani


Total primary energy (GJ)

Total useful energy (GJ)

Efficiency (%)





Water heating




Space heating





















Water heating




Space heating
















Stoves used for cooking, water heating and space heating at high altitude in Nepal - a case study in Jumla

K M Sulpya, Research Center for Applied Science and Technology, (RECAST), Trithuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Foyers utilispour la cuisson le chauffage dans les rons montagneuses du Nl: une de de cas Jumla

Cet article montre que les ipement traditionnellement utilipour le chauffage au Nl sont le foyer ouvert pierres (Agenu) et le foyer sans cheminen terre et en pierre. Le Centre pour l'Auto-entraide a introduit des foyers mlliques avec eherninumla. Quoique plus efficaces que les foyers traditionnels, des nomies d'rgie supplntaires peuvent re encore risees par la mise en ouvre de quelques amorations techniques, par exemple en modifiant la taille de la chambre de combustion. Les coe production sont cependant vnotamment ause des frais de transport. Aussi la diffusion de ces foyes a accompagnde subventions

Traditionally, agenu (open fire with an iron tripod) and chulo (closed mod/stone stove without chimney) stoves have been used for cooking and heating purposes in Nepal. The kitchen is normally a small room which is usually not well ventilated to prevent heat loss so the chulo or agenu generally makes the kitchen warm. In winter months besides cooking, space heating is considered a must and the fire is often kept burning round the clock.

The chimney wood-stoves now being introduced in Jumla by the Centre for Self-help Development (CSD) are gaining some popularity. They are used for cooking as well as heating purposes and they appear to be more beneficial and useful than the traditional open fire. The diversity in the types of stove introduced in Jumla is quite remarkable. The technologies used are

· open fire (Figure 1)
· semi-closed stoves (Figure 2)
· closed stoves with chimney and water heating system (Figure 3)

The materials used for stove construction are cast iron and metal sheet. The stoves have two or three pot holes of different sizes and are rectangular in shape and usually without a baffle.

Mild steel sheet stoves are constructed by skilled persons and are good examples of locally produced innovative technology. Cast iron and mild steel stoves are constructed in workshops either in Jumla or in Kathmandu; but they are expensive, influenced by externally introduced technology and have been known to crack over time.

A - DCS stoves with two and three pot holes (dimension in cm)

B - DCS stoves with two and three pot holes (dimension in cm)

Social effects of improved stoves

The improved stoves have created a number of lifestyle changes. The stoves radiate heat to the surroundings and warm the entire room inducing people to sleep around the stove during colder months. People perceive the benefits of reduced smoke inhalation due to the chimney.

In Karnali Trade School the chimney passes through other rooms to provide heat (see Figure 3). in houses that have not installed a metal stove with a chimney, the room is heated directly by a wood-buming open fire.

Programme Set Up and Stove Dissemination

The stove programme was initiated, set up and funded by the United Mission to Nepal and later by the Centre for Self-help Development (CSD). Development Consultancy Services (DCS) is a private company and is run with support from the United Mission to Nepal (UMN). it operates its branch in Jumla mainly in micro-hydro and other support to Kamali Technical School.

DCS started manufacturing cast iron and metal stoves which are more durable and expensive than the original blacksmiths' stoves which were available at that time. The steel sheet was 18 mm thick and the top plate, made of cast iron, was 1 cm thick.

For mass-scale dissemination, having motivated the potential users, CSD provided a 75 per cent subsidy towards the cost of the stove. Prior to dissemination, 25 per cent of the cost was collected from stove users and deposited with the DCS. After two years, because of high demand, and for sustainability of dissemination, the subsidy was reduced to 50 per cent. However, demand for stoves dropped and in 1996, the subsidy was increased to 62 per cent and demand for the stove improved. Stoves made by local blacksmiths were also subsidies in the project areas only. Direct sale of the stoves by the manufacturers did not attract a subsidy.

Cost of the Stove and Affordability

During 1992 to 1995, CSD promoted 366 metal DCS stoves. The cost of the stove to the CSD and to users is given in Table 1.

The cost of the stove is high because of the air freight which is Rs. 40 per kilogram from Nepaljung to Jumla. DCS managed to reduce it to Rs. 23 per kilogram after a special agreement with Nepal Airways. The cost has also increased because of the cast iron plate which costs Rs. 1500.

A local blacksmith has been producing metal stoves since 1989 and has already sold more than 400 stoves for the Small Fammers Development Project (SFDP), CSD, and to local people of Khalanga Bazaar. This type of stove is made from 22mm steel sheet. The cost of the these stoves is given in table 2.

Table 1: Stove costs by stove type and year (DCS model)

Stove type

Weight of stove (kg)


Cost to CSD (Rs)*

Cost to users (Rs)*

Subsidy (%)

3 pot holes (cast iron top plate)


1992 & 93




3 pot holes (cast iron top plate)






3 pot holes (cast iron top plate)






2 pot holes (cast iron top plate)


1992 & 93




2 pot holes (cast iron top plate)






2 pot holes (cast iron top plate)






*40 Rs= 1US$

Table 2: Stove cost by stove type and year (Blacksmith's model)

Stove type


Cost to CSD/ SFDP (Rs)*

Cost to users (Rs)*

Subsidy (%)

3 pot holes (mild steel plate)





3 pot holes (mild steel plate)

1992 & 93




3 pot holes (mild steel plate)

1994 & 95




2 pot holes (mild steel plate)





2 pot holes (mild steel plate)

1992 & 93




2 pot holes (mild steel plate)

1994 & 95




*40 Rs= 1US$

Blacksmith stoves with two and three pot holes (dimension in cm)

Blacksmith stoves with two and three pot holes (dimension in cm

Durability of Stove

The metal stoves with a cast iron top plate were found to be durable; even after 4 years, no cracks have developed. According to the manufacturer, the stoves can last for 10 years during normal use. Other parts, like the chimney and stove body, may last for 5 years depending upon the thickness of the sheet metal used. The Blacksmith's model did not last as long. After 23 years the chimney started tearing off and the top plate sank giving the pot holes an uneven shape; this was caused by the use of thin mild plate.

Stove operation and maintenance

Most cooks do not attend to the fire carefully and lose lots of fire outside the wood-feeding gate (see Figure 1). it is also observed that they do not control the draught or the rate of combustion. In contrast, in the Khalanga Bazaar of Jumla, where fuelwood is scarce and expensive, users attend to the fire carefully and control the power of the stove. Most people in the Bazaar use pressure cookers, especially for beans and meat.

Stove Efficiency

Water boiling and cooking tests were carried out by a cook in field conditions. Table 3 shows the efficiency of the stoves as well as the cooking test results.

The results show that stoves with two pot holes are not only more efficient than open fires but they are also more efficient than stoves with three pot holes. However, the DCS stove with three pot holes consumed more fuel than the open fire.


The metal stoves introduced by CSD do not have significant fuel saving and, in some cases, they use more fuelwood than the traditional stoves. In Jumla, the chimney improved the kitchen environment by making it more smoke free, and increased space heating around the kitchen. The water heating system also helped to produce warm water.

Cooking tests show that metal stoves cook faster than the open fire. In metal stoves, 2 to 3 pot holes can be used at a time. Women also perceived that the metal stove cooks faster.

From the discussions and interviews with both women and men, it was found that the metal stoves with chimneys provided health benefits is and reduced headaches, eye and respiratory infections etc.

Table 3: Cook testing results for stove tested

Stove type

Equivalent food dry wood (kg)

Food cooked (kg)

Wood required to cook 1 kg food (kg)



DCS 3-pothole






DCS 2-pot hole



0 415



Blacksmith 3-pot hole






Blacksmith 2-pot hole






Open fire






People's Attitude Towards the Stove

In Jumla people consider the metal stove with a chimney a necessity, because the stove removes smoke from the kitchen and provides heat to the surroundings. In most cases, it was women who took the initiative to acquire the stove. Out of 64 households, 57 have installed the stoves. Those remaining 7 households are very poor and some have no male adult in their family. Out of 57 households, 4 own more than one stove and are keeping it for their children.

Users of the metal stove said they felt better and more comfortable using the stoves because they cook faster, provide space heating during winter months, they are convenient, smokeless and pose fewer fire hazards, etc. They also felt that the DCS model was expensive but more durable than the Blacksmith model but they did not experience the fuel saving they had expected with the DCS model; nevertheless, they are satisfied.


Forests in the mountainous areas have been an open access resource and wood energy pricing in most areas is lacking. Switching to petroleum based energy may result in less pressure on the supply of the fuelwood but it has to be imported. Thus, from the perspective of sustainable development, for cooking and heating at high altitudes, fuelwood conservation is the only option left in the rural areas.

Research and development activities on high altitude stoves are almost non-existent. Prototypes were introduced without proper investigation. Monitoring and feedback information is still lacking. Financial institutions set up for stoves programmes and promotional institutions for enhancing private sector participation are also lacking. Thus, due consideration should be given to this matter with a view to strengthening research, development, promotion and extension of high altitude stoves.

Household energy in high cold regions of Morocco

by Philippe Simonis, Coordinator of the Special Energy Program (GTZ/CDER) PO Box 509, Gueliz Marrakech, Morocco

ergie domestique dans les zones froides du Maroc.

Cet article consid principalement la ron de IMLIL situdans le Haut Atlas. Le bois en la principale source d'rgie de la plupart des villages du Haut Atlas. L'logie de cette ron ainsi que les aspects socio culturels sont retracdans cet article. Les foyers traditionnellement utilisdans cette ron sont des foyers en cmique sage multiples. Ces foyers ainsi que les fours ain sont gralement construits par les femmes qui s'occupent lement de leur maintenance. Le programme GTZ - CDER (Centre d'udes sur les ergies Renouvelables) vise la ptration des foyers mlliques dont les rendements sont plus vet utilisant le bois comme combustible. Les mesures d'accompagnement notamment la formation des artisans font partie de ce programme

Energy Profile of Morocco

The Kingdom of Morocco is situated on the north-western coast of Africa. It is dominated by the Mediterranean climate which is tempered by the influence of the Atlantic Ocean. Inland, the climate is continental with significant seasonal temperature differences. The mountainous Atlas region is moist with frequent snow falls in winter.

The Renewable Energy Development Centre (CDER) plays a key-role in implementing an energy policy aimed at sustainable development and protection of the environment. With the help of the German Technical Cooperation organization (GTZ), CDER is carrying out several programmes in the fields of biomass and improved stoves. These comprise energy planning (including renewable energy and biomass energy) and the development of technologies with a higher energy efficiency (for stoves and heating institutions and public baths)

Wood energy situation in Morocco

The annual wood consumption is estimated at 7.4 million tonnes with production at only 2.6 million tonnes; a deficit of 4.8 million tonnes annually. Forests are disappearing at an annual rate of 35000 hectares.

Baking top and face of bread

Baking the sides

kettle suspended over Takate

The non-sustainable rate at which wood is being used in Morocco is now being addressed. There are fears that forests will disappear in the near future, especially around cities and villages. In some regions, poor families already use cotton stalks and dried cow dung for cooking.

This article considers mainly the region of Imlil in the High Atlas Mountains, where CDER and GTZ started a dissemination programme on wood stoves. The mountain population consists of Berber tribes who practice different ways of life based on traditional agricultural systems (either transhumant pastoralism or irrigated terraced agriculture); the other on local tourism (for example pilgrimage to shrines). Although adapting to the modem world, the population of the High Atlas region remains closely attached to its traditions.

The locally produced diet comprises cereal grains, vegetables, dairy products, eggs, fowl, meat and walnuts, the main cash crop of the region. The basis of nearly every meal is milled barley, corn or wheat.

Villages, houses and stoves

A village in the High Atlas region comprises a tiered succession of houses overlooking the terraces. Most of the villages are not electrified.

Village houses are generally built of adobe blocks, stone, or more recently, of cement. They are divided in different spaces for men and women, stabling for animals and food storage. The diwan is a room reserved for men and their guests. Lunch or supper is served in the diwan. Women bring in the food and leave; they usually eat in the kitchen or the courtyard. Women collect and store brush wood, firewood and corn roots used for the fire in the kitchen. They keep the fire stoked and ready for use. In the morning, women build the fire and prepare breakfast (milk, coffee, barley gruel or bread).

The "Takate" traditional stove is composed of a ceramic hemisphere placed into a mud support and it is used for several purposes. It serves daily for cooking, (soup, douaz, couscous), bread-baking (a slim pancake in the morning and a more substantial one in the afternoon) and boiling water. The clay insert which constitutes the inner layer of the stove is produced by local craftsman and can be bought in the market.

Sometimes, the shallow firepit in the hearth is lined by granite stones sunk into the floor. An iron grate is often placed over the fire. Alternatively, an iron rack straddling the fire allows kettles to be placed over the fire at various levels so that stews, couscous and other foods can be boiled or steamed at the correct temperature.

Generally wood stoves and bread ovens are made by a particular woman in the family, using knowledge which has been passed down through the generations. She will know how to save wood, combine bread or couscous baking with boiling water for the tea etc. She will also know how to maintain and repair her stoves by protecting them with a mixture of clay and straw.

The kitchen is the energy storehouse of the home. Piles of brush wood, wood and charcoal are stored to one side of this dark room. Women labour in small spaces which are heated by the fire and filled by its smoke. Light penetrates from a small air shaft in the roof. Following the direction of the winds, smoke either exits or fills the house enveloping women and children, which is the cause for different kinds of diseases.

More and more families have a gas burner installed, which is only used for certain preparations or special occasions. Butane gas is distributed in small (3kg) and medium bottles (12kg). The supply is often unavailable in mountainous areas when rain and snow are abundant.

Wood harvesting is one of the most laborious tasks for women although it gives them the opportunity to meet and talk together. It is so important that the strong cord which is used for wood and forage bundling constitutes a part of the wedding gift. Women travel together, starting in the darkness at early dawn with torches and walking up to 10km, often over rugged and steep terrain. They come back in the afternoon with loads weighing 25-55kg for wood or 15-25kg for the very voluminous thorny brushwood. For this reason, women consider wood collection as one of the most awkward of their tasks.

Wood energy constraints and prospects

Fuelwood will remain a main source of energy for most of the villages in the High Atlas mountains. The complex factors affecting its use are acknowledged by Ministries, donors, NGOs, local authorities and the local population.

The main activities actually developed by CDER with the help of GTZ include:

· increasing, improving and updating existing information on woodfuel sources, consumption and more energy efficient technologies

· planning and simulating possible developments in the energy sector (both wood consumption and other renewable technologies)

· dissemination of improved metal wood-saving cooking stoves by; awareness-raising, training of craftsmen and users, commercialization, project monitoring and evaluation

· providing incentives to increase the use of bottled butane gas in rural areas

There are important constraints to such programmes:

· lack of institutions capable of coordinating and steering huge regional dissemination programmes

· absence of decentralized institutions (NGOs) or private companies able to co-ordinate dissemination activities in the near future

· low income level of the population


The measures undertaken in the mountainous regions of Morocco are very important for protecting the ecosystem, maintaining soil quality and helping rural families to find a relatively cheap source of cooking energy. For the goals m be achieved and sustained, projects must be carefully planned and executed in collaboration with local authorities (such as the forestry administration) and associations. The population, especially women, should be involved at every stage of the process and help should be sought from international donors and NGOs.

Status of improved stoves in the northern areas of Pakistan

Muhammad Saleem, Programme Monitoring Officer, The Aga Khan Rural Support Programme, PO Box 506, Babar Road, Gilgit, Pakistan

Situation des foyers amiordans les rons du Nord Pakistan

Cet article souligne que le foyer traditionnellement utilisst un foyer tred mllique consommant environ 20 k/j de biomasse et dgeant beaucoup de fum Le Tandoori peut e consid comme un foyer amorour la cuissori des aliments et du pain. C'est un foyer clos fabriqu partir de l'argile. Les foyers bi-usages (cuisson et chauffage) sont des foyers miliques plus nomes en rgie (15 kg/j au lieu de 20 kg/j). Environ 15 000 de ces foyers ont introduits jusqu'resent. Le foyer amortilisxclusivement pour le chauffage est un foyer mllique produit artir de mataux de recuperation. Ce foyer est surtout rndu parmi les families relativement ais. Diffntes sortes de biomasse peuvent e utilis. Environ 1000 foyers sont fabriques quotidiennement par quelque 50 artisans. Du fait de la crise du bois de feu, les rgies dv des hydrocarbures commencent tre introduites notamment au sein des villages proches des grandes agglomtions


Rural communities at different altitudes in developing countries use various cooking and space heating devices, depending upon the socioeconomic conditions. A growing population and decreasing natural forests have put considerable pressure on the biomass fuel resources used by the rural communities. The situation calls for the development of devices which are most suited to specific socio-economic conditions.

The Northern Areas experience severe cold in winter with heating devices used from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. for both cooking and heating purposes. In summer, these devices are used for two hours in the morning, two hours at noon and two hours in the evening for cooking and baking only. This paper attempts to highlight some of the traditional and improved cooking and space-heating devices used in the Northern Areas of Pakistan.

The Northern Areas

The Northern Areas of Pakistan consist of five administrative districts. The terrain, which is rugged, uneven and mountainous is spread over an area of 74 square kilometers. The Northern Areas experience two extreme temperatures; a maximum of 45 degC in summer and a minimum of 40 degC in winter. The rainfall varies from 100 mm to 500 mm in a year. Diamer district is rich in natural forests with a forest coverage of 30 per cent of the area. The other four districts have little natural forestry with less than 1 per cent coverage. In some areas, not even a single tree exists.

To meet the shortage of forestry products, the Village Organizations, under the umbrella of the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (AKRSP), have planted 20 million trees on their irrigated land within a period of twelve years.

The estimated population of the Northern Areas is 10 million. The average household size is 8.33. The population lives at a minimum altitude of 1200 metres and at a maximum altitude of 3200 metres. Much of the area above 2000 metres remains under snow for four months in the winter season. Nearly 95 per cent of the population depend on agriculture for their livelihood.

The families in the Northern Areas prepare three main meals; breakfast, lunch, and dinner each day. In addition, morning tea at 10am and evening tea at 4pm are also prepared for the household members.

Cooking, heating and baking devices

Open hearth

The open hearth is a very old traditional device for cooking, heating and baking which is made from local materials such as stones and mud. It is very cheap and is easily built by the household members themselves. The design of the open hearth varies from area to area (see Figures 1-3). In this open hearth a three-legged iron frame supports the pots and tawa (a circular iron pan for baking bread). All types of biomass fuel, such as firewood, dung, bushes, sawdust, crop residues and mud-grass slices are used. The open hearth is built in an open place in the centre of the traditional house. The house itself comprises a single room which is used for many purposes; sitting, dining and sleeping for all the family members. However, this tradition is gradually decreasing as a result of the introduction of modem living standards for those with more money.

Open hearth common in Gilgit

Open hearth, common in Baltistan

Open hearth, common in Shigar (Baltistan)

The open hearth consumes a lot of biomass fuel. On average, 20 kg (costing Rs.100/40kg) of firewood is used in the open hearth a day (40Rs. = 1US$). Heat cannot be properly retained because a large open hole, with a diameter of 18 inches (450mm), is made in the centre of the roof to allow smoke to pass out of the house. Moreover, heat cannot easily be concentrated towards the pot and tawa for cooking and baking.

The house is filled with smoke which is emitted from the open hearth, which results in health and cleaning problems. The household members have to spend a sizeable amount of money on medicines and detergents.


The tandoor is considered to be an improved device for cooking and baking; it is not used for heating. The tandoor is a closed pot formed from clay (see Figures 4-5). Quite a large amount of fuel is required to heat up the tandoor properly. Once properly heated op. the tandoor is useful for cooking dishes and baking breads (chapattis) in large amounts and for a long time. The tandoor uses, on average, 80kg of firewood a day for baking 300 loaves. It is not used for cooking and baking by small families.

The normal size of the tandoor is 2 feet (0.6m) high and it is 1 foot (0.3m) in diameter at its widest point. It is built in Rawalpindi by trained artisans and is transported to the Northern Areas. The price of average-size tandoor is Rs. 1000 and there is an additional installation cost of Rs.3000.

Traditional Tandoor common in Gojal

Improved Tandoor

Improved metal cooking and heating stove

Cooking and heating stoves are built by private builders who use either metal sheets or recycled sheets produced by cutting up oil barrels. These stoves are placed in the centre of the traditional house, in the room and in the kitchen. The normal size of the stove is 30" × 17" × 7" (800mm × 450mm × 180mm).

The stove has two holes on the top for two pots to be heated at the same time. It has a door at the front for putting in biomass fuel. The improved cooking and heating stove uses all kinds of biomass fuel. A long metal pipe is fixed at one end of the stove to let out exhaust smoke. A considerable amount of heat is retained in the house by using the stove. No open holes or ventilators are needed to let out smoke and fumes (see Figure 6).

These stoves are more fuel efficient than the open hearth, each one normally consuming about 15Kg of firewood a day. The stoves are built by private builders at the district headquarters. There are estimated to be 50 builders in the Northern Areas, who between them produce 200 stoves a day. The price of an average size stove is Rs.450. Most of the stoves are marketed in winter.

Improved metal cooking, baking & heating stove

The Aga Khan Housing Board (AKHB) Gilgit, took initiatives to introduce these stoves in the rural areas through village organizations in 1986. In 1994, AKHB Gilgit employed a trainer from GTZ Peshawar, Pakistan, to train twenty cooking and heating stove builders who were already working in this sector. AKHB Gilgit has, so far, introduced 15000 cooking and heating stoves in the rural areas of the Northern Areas.

Improved metal heating stove

The improved heating stove is built by using metal sheets or by recycling the sheets produced by cutting up oil barrels. The size of the stove is 16" × 13" (400mm × 330mm) with a door at the front and a long metal pipe on the top to vent smoke from the stove. It is mainly used for space heating. It is very common in rich and large families (more than 10 family members) and is used for heating isolated rooms (see Figures 7-8)

Improved metal heating stove

Improved metal heating stove, using saw dust

All kinds of biomass fuel, such as firewood, bushes, dung, sawdust and grass-mud slices are used. The stove in which sawdust is used has a slightly different design; it has a very small hole measuring 3" (75mm) at the front and a large 6" (150mm) hole on the top. The sawdust is put in through the top hole and pressed in such a way that an airway is formed between the bottom front and the top holes. On average, 20Kg of firewood is consumed by the stove in a day.

K. Oil heater

Nearly 1000 heating stoves are manufactured a day by an estimated 50 private builders at the district headquarters. They are sold for Rs. 400 per stove.

Kerosene oil and electric stoves/heaters

K. Oil stove - cum - heater

The price of firewood is increasing daily in the Northern Areas because of depleting natural forests and forest plantations on the irrigated land. Moreover, biomass fuel collection is a time-consuming activity. A single person can collect 40Kg of firewood from up in the high forests in a day. As a result, in cities and in villages very near to the cities, people have started replacing biomass fuel stoves with stoves and heaters fuelled by kerosene oil, LPG (known locally as faun gas) and electricity (see Figures 9-12).

Electric stove - cum - Heater

Electric heater


The communities in the Northern Areas use different devices for cooking, baking and heating, depending on their specific requirements. These devices are: open hearth, tandoor, metal cooking-cum-heating stoves, and stoves and heaters fuelled by kerosene oil, faun gas (a type of LPG) and electricity.

The communities in the Northern Areas are very concerned about the rising costs of biomass fuel and want to save fuel as much as they can. They need special attention from agencies involved in the development of appropriate technologies. Stoves should be designed in such a way that they save fuel, reduce smoke, save time and produce greater heat for corking and warming up houses and rooms.

Improved cooking and heating stoves are hygienic and environmentally friendly. Lung diseases and eye infections suffered by housewives have been considerably reduced by their introduction. A sizeable amount of money is saved from reduced use of detergents and medicines because of the house being free from smoke and fumes. The stove has also indirectly reduced the workload for women, who are responsible for cleaning and washing. Finally, the introduction of the metal stove has reduced pressure on natural forests as a result of savings in biomass fuel consumption.

Improved metal stoves used only for heating are also more biomass fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly, but they only serve the purpose of heating the rooms. Therefore, these stoves are not considered economical for poor families.

High altitude space heating and cooking stoves in Pakistan

Ghulam Umar Sarhandi, Pakistan Council of Appropriate Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Foyers pour la cuisson et le chauffage dans les zones aute altitude du Pakistan

Dans cet article, I'auteur souligne qu’avant 1975, diffnts foyers ient utilispour le chauffage et la cuisson. Le Programme de mise en oeuvre des Technologies onomes en ergie devrait permettre la diffusion de 70,000 foyers amorentre 1995 et 1997 dont 15,000 foyers bi-usages (cuisson et chauffage). Ces foyers sont en ml et disposent d'une chemin Ils sont plus adaptaux rons semi-urbaines obois est commercialist l'espace habitable rit. Des amorations techniques y ont introduites comme par exemple la chambre de combustion qui est plus petite. Une grande quantite charbon s'accumule dans la chambre de combustion permettant ainsi de conserver la chaleur La construction de ces foyers n'est accessible qu' es artisans relativement qualifi Il est estimue les nomies de bois sont de l'ordre de 25% par rapport aux foyers traditionnels. La durde vie de ces foyers est d'environ 3: ans en supposant qu'ils soient utilis5 mois par an. En outre les ssions de CO sont nettement moins importantes. Ils restent plus chers que les foyers traditionnels mais sont cependant bien diffussans e subventionn La formation particuliment des artisans est une composante importante de ce programme

Country Profile:

Pakistan, Iying between latitudes 24N and 37N, longitudes 61E and 75E, and having an area of 880000 square kilometres, is one of the most densely populated countries of the world with population of around 130 million. More than 68 per cent of the population live in rural areas. There is diversity in social habits, usually dictated by geographical situation, including cooking, religious beliefs, regional or ethnic practices.

At present, it is estimated that 40 per cent of the total energy used in Pakistan comes from biomass. The per capita energy consumed is very low compared with other countries of South East Asia (Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia etc.).

Depending upon the availability of fuelwood, people use wood, cow-dung cakes, crop stalks, bagasse, some grass bushes and even leaves as a fuel for cooking, but for space heating only fuelwood or charcoal is used. Details of fuelwood consumption can be seen in Table 1.

Heating-cum-cooking devices are widely in use in the colder regions of Azad Kashmir and the mountainous areas of Rawalpindi. They complement the way of living of the people and have, therefore, become a basic component of the household. Mostly, these devices are installed in the bed room, which also serves the purpose of kitchen during the winter. In the semi-urban regions of Swat district and Rawalpindi district, smaller, round heating stoves are used.

Stove use

Heating requirements

Heating requirements vary during the winter season, which spreads over five months. In November, heating is only for four or five hours. In December and March the house is heated all night (eight hours or so) while in January, the heating is required both night and morning. February is the month of snowfall and rains and heating is required for almost 24 hours a day.

Table 1: Share of fuel wood uses in households in Pakistan during 1991

Stove No


Consumption (kg/household/day)

Share of Total consumption (%)


Cooking, space and water heating




Cooking and space heating




Cooking and water heating




Cooking only




Water heating only




Space heating only







Source HESS Energy Wing, Planning and Development Division Government of Pakistan Islamabad 1991

Adoption of multi-purpose stoves

Before 1975, there were exclusively separate cooking and heating stoves or open fires throughout Pakistan. Even now, in some areas, cooking and heating are separate, while in other colder regions, cooking-cum-space heating stoves with chimneys are in general use.

Types of fuel

The same types of wood are used for both cooking and heating stoves except for branches which are only used in cookstoves. This is because wood which burns for relatively long periods is needed for room heating. In one of our pilot areas pine, deodar and few non-cultivated trees are used for heating. Branches of fruit bearing trees are also used for cooking, but not for space heating which requires logs to keep the fire going.

Benefits of chimneys

Space heating varies from house to house depending upon individual choice. The cost of fabrication construction of stoves with chimneys is twice or sometimes three times as high as that of stoves without them. Further, fuelwood consumption in stoves with chimneys is more than that of stoves without; therefore, the running cost is also high. Those who have easy access to woodfuel are more likely to use stoves with chimneys.

Conditions for space-heating use

People in colder areas mainly use cooking-cum-space heating stoves and only a few stoves are exclusively for heating. They are used for cooking breakfast and supper only. Lunch is usually cooked on an outdoor cookstoves unless there is rain or a snowfall during the daytime, then it too is cooked in the living room.

The stove programme:

Structure of the programme

The Fuel Saving Technologies (FST) Programme was originated to consider fuelwood conservation and to help rural women by reducing smoke in the kitchen and to provide education on energy and environmental awareness. The existing programme is a broader one concentrating on both cooking and heating. During the three years from 1995 to 1997, 70,000 fuel saving devices will be produced and disseminated throughout the country. Of these, the number of cooking-cum-space-heating stoves will be around 15,000. Less attention is paid to space heating because only 15-16 per cent of the population of Pakistan lives in colder regions where space-heating is required.

Origins of the stove programme

The stove programme was set up with a modified version of an Indian stove called the 'Nada Chulah'. Before 1988 only 2500 improved cookstoves were constructed in rural and semi-urban areas of Pakistan. A need was felt for a properly organized programme.

A National Seminar on improved cookstoves was organized in Islamabad, the Federal Capital of Pakistan, with the collaboration of the RWEDP of the FAO Regional Office, Bankok. During three days of deliberations a close interaction between the Domestic Energy Saving Project (DESP) of GTZ, Germany and PCAT came into being, which led to a Pak-German project 'Fuel Efficient Cooking Technologies' (FECT).

This project, under which some 40000 metallic cookstove IMPS) were fabricated, was approved in January 1990 for a period of three years. Two improved versions, the Jargan-B3 (JB-3) and the JarganB-5 (JB-5) were developed, tried and disseminated (see Figure I). These had the following advantages:

· Performed well at low as well as at high power.
· Wood saving compared to traditional stove is 25 per cent.
· Cooking time is shorter and PHU is higher.
· Smoke is very much reduced.
· Thick metal sheet provides greater durability.
· Reduced emission of carbon monoxide and smoke provides better atmosphere in the kitchen.

Figure 1: Improved round heating-cum-cooking stove: JB-5

Stove development

The improvement in design was made by reducing the size of the fire box by means of a baffle, which limits the amount of wood fed into the stove and slows down the speed of gases escaping through the chimney.

Materials used

The improved cooking-cum-heating stoves are made with thick metal sheet (usually 22 gauge) including both stove body and grate; the material for chimney construction is left to the end users. Most people use discarded kerosene oil tins for constructing chimney, while some use metal sheet of 24 or 26 gauge. In a few cases, earthen chimneys are used.

Stove Construction method.

Only skilled metal workers can produce the improved stoves. Dies have to be designed and bending machines have to be purchased from the market. These are provided free of cost to the metal workers who are given training in fabricating the stove.

Fuel feeding and ash removal

The baffle alters the speed of the flue gases leaving the chimney and is one of the major factors affecting wood consumption. It makes the size of combustion chamber smaller so that less wood is needed. Sliding doors on the improved heating stove adjust automatically according to the fuel load and they are unaffected by the size of the wood so smoke does not escape through the door.

Operation and Maintenance of the stoves

Compared to a conventional stove, this stove is easy to operate and maintain. Stove tests found that the improved version operated at low power (see Table 2). The speed of hot gases is reduced by the baffle so that maximum heat is given out to the stove body before they leave through the chimney. A large amount of charcoal is accumulated in the combustion chamber which keeps the stove body hot thus reducing the frequency of wood feeding and the attention of the operator.

Figure 2: Chitral Stove

Due to its complex structure, cleaning of the improved stove is difficult. More regular cleaning is needed as the narrow channel for flue gases causes more soot to be deposited in the stove which may cause a blockage.

To avoid smoke leakage, tightly fitting pot hole lids have to be produced.

Further development

· The cooking hole dimensions are fixed already. The users would prefer provision for different sizes of cooking utensils to fit on the stove.

· Quality control needs to be maintained, as stove dimensions, especially pothole lids, are vital for the good working of the stove.

Stove Costs

Capital Cost

The JB-5 stove, made with 22 gauge sheet and weighing 5kg, costs less than the Kalam stove or the Chitral stove (Figure 2). it occupies less space and is therefore more popular among the poorer sections of the population. The Kalam stove is much larger, it is made from 24 gauge sheet, weighs 6kg, and is less popular. The improved version of the Chitral stove made of 22 gauge sheet and weighing 5.5kg is gaining popularity with the rural population.

Table 3: Laboratory test results of 5kg test (traditional vs improved)

Round Stove

Moisture content (%)

Dry wood (kg)

Time taken (minutes)

Average power (kW)

CO reading (ppm)

Traditional stove






Improved stove






Comparison (%)






*Keeping the difference in room temperature at 18°C, 5kg wood lasts longer in improved stove

**The emission of CO in the improved model is 61 % less that in the traditional stove

Running Costs

Heating-cum-cooking devices consume approximately 25 per cent less wood than traditional ones Results from comparative tests carried out in the laboratory are giver in Table 3.


It is estimated that life expectancy of these models is three years, assuming their use for 5 months in a year, depending upon the quality of material. If new 22-gauge steel sheet is used the durability of stove is ensured for a period of 3-4 years. Much depends on its cleanliness; if the stove is properly maintained and ash is removed at the proper time, the life expectancy is as stated other wise the stove may need to be discarded within two years.

Stove dissemination

Multi-pot improved clay stoves are disseminated through the trained workers of PCAT, potters and other collaborating agencies. Metal cooking-cum-heating stoves are disseminated through commercial metalworkers and blacksmiths. From the metalworker the stoves are supplied to NGOs for dissemination, or direct to the end-users. Also, a number of shopkeepers keep stoves in stock.


At present, people usually pay the full cost of the stoves and no subsidies are involved. In a few cases chimneys are provided free to the NGOs who are collaborating with PCAT in the implementation of this programme. In the case of multi-pot improved clay cook stoves, people provide and prepare the clay treated with sand, cow dung and wheat straw which is needed for this purpose. The stove is built by a PCAT worker or a trained worker belonging to a local NGO. The chimney is provided free by PCAT. For metal conking-cum-heating stoves, metal fabricators are provided with a free bending machine, as an incentive. They are given a margin of 10 per cent profit over the fabrication cost and this subsidy is borne by PCAT. Also, the transportation charges from the metalworker to the end user or shopkeeper is home by PCAT. Therefore people are provided with stoves at the fabrication cost.

Table 3: Cooking efficiencies of the the stoves


Big pot
31 cm
7kg water


Medium pot
3kg water


Small pot
1kg water


Traditional Kalam stove







Improved design







Comparison (%)




- 13



Traditional round stove







Improved design







Comparison (%)







Heating-cum-cooking stoves of the FECT Project, Peshawar, Pakistan

Tanveer Ahmad and Sohail Nazir Women Educational and Environmental Network (WEEN) PO Box 25 Abbottabad NWFP Pakistan

Foyers bi-usages con par FECT

Cet article examine les procres pour tester les foyers bi-usages. Les rltats en mati d’nomie d'rgie, d'ssion de monoxyde de carbone et de durabilitont compares aux foyers traditionnels. Les rltats montrent que ces tests sont 'avantage des foyers armor

Heating-cum-cooking devices have been widely in use in the colder regions of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan for the past decade. These devices were introduced mainly by the metal workers of an area called Gujar Gari. The main reason for their wide acceptability was that they conformed to the way of life of the people and soon became a basic component of the household.

Development of heating devices was started in Kalam in collaboration with the Pak-Swiss project called KIDP in the beginning of 1990. During this phase a number of devices were designed and tested extensively. The research and development in this phase started with the modification of traditional heating devices by improving combustion chambers along with other minor changes. A number of new designs were developed and tested at the Kacha Gari research and development centre in Peshawar. Emphasis was placed on reduction of both fuel consumption and smoke emission and the design of a product which was user friendly at an acceptable price.

Figure 1: Rounded heating stove for communities living in less cold mountain regions.

Based on the basic needs of the targeted population, work on two different heating stove models was initiated; a smaller rounded heating stove for the target group living in relatively low and less cold mountain areas (Figure 1), and a bigger rectangular stove which was aimed at the population living in high mountain areas, who experience harsh winter conditions with temperatures below freezing point for most of the winter. Both these models were field-tested and modified where this was needed.

The latest stove models

The main shortcomings in the improved models included:

· The cleaning of the improved model was reported to be difficult due to its complicated shape
· The stove was seen as too expensive compared to the traditional stoves in the local market

During the field testing, one point became very clear i.e. there was a need to develop different sues and shapes in the heating stoves for different altitudes and ethnic groups within the Swat and Kalam Valleys.

Testing Procedure used at FECT

Different methods were applied to get detailed information about the most important aspects of heating stoves. These aspects included:

· Cooking capacity
· Heating capacity
· Fuel consumption
· Maintenance of fire
· Smoke leakage

Three different approaches were applied to the improved stove models as well as their traditional counterparts. All the tests were carried out in a well-insulated test room, especially designed for the purpose, so that simulation of reality could be combined with standardized test conditions. The fuel wood used in the tests was brought from the area for which the stove was to be developed.

The three different test methods used during tests were:

One hour test

In this method, the stove is operated at very high power rate for twenty minutes. For the remaining forty minutes, operation continues at low power under such conditions that the temperature reached during high power phase does not drop. Temperature and composition of the gases in chimney was measured every fifteen minutes. The amount of wood used during the test is recorded and the whole process is carefully observed.

Savings of the improved stoves at a glance (kg):

Savings using box shape stove compared with the traditional stove

Wood saved in eight hours per stove


Wood saved per day (24 hours operation)


Wood saved per month


Wood saved per season (6 months) per stove


Saving with round improved stove:

Wood saved per eight hours per stove


Wood saved per day (18 hours operation)


Wood saved per month per stove


Wood saved per season per stove


Five kilogramme test

This test method was used to obtain additional information about the relation between fuel consumption, heating capacity and time. The test was carried out to find out the time taken by each stove to consume 5Kg wood. The test method was same as the 1 Kg test except that the 5Kg test was continued until all the wood was finished

Eight hour test

In this test, after 20 minutes of a high power phase, the operation was continued at low power, maintaining the temperature reached during high power phase throughout the test period of eight hours.

After four hours operation, the carbon monoxide content of the air was measured where the person cooking would be located. This was done for one hour using carbon monoxide measuring tubes.

Every 15 minutes, temperatures at four different points of the stove body were measured. These points were:

· Top of stove (over the pothole lid)
· At the side of the wall
· Under the combustion chamber
· Outside of the chimney pipe

The eight hour test, according to our experience, gives a lot of useful information concerning fuel consumption, ease of operation, maintenance of fire, heating capacity and smoke emission etc.

Comments on results

The main conclusions reached using laboratory tests were as follows:

Heating capacity of stoves

It can be clearly seen from the test results that the heating capacity of the improved stoves was far greater than their traditional counterparts

Wood saving

The baffle in the improved stove models is one of the major factors reducing wood consumption. With the baffle, the speed of flue gases leaving the chimney is slowed down and it makes the size of the combustion chamber smaller so that the operator can only feed a small amount of wood. Another factor is the sliding mechanism of the door which helps to retain the heat, whereas the door of the traditional heating stove is left open when the fire is burning. The door of the improved heating stove comes down to just the size of wood fed into the stove. This factor also helps in saving wood (see result of eight hours with open and closed door)

Comparing the results of eight hours test, the wood saving in both the box-shape improved and the round-shape improved stove is around 25 per cent as compared to their traditional models.

Cooking efficiency

The heat is concentrated directly under the pot due to the baffle, so the cooking time of the improved heating stove is shorter and efficiency (PHU) is higher. The improved box shape models give a big difference in PHI,. In traditional stoves, the big pots sit on the pot supports, so there remains a 2cm gap between the pot and the stove which causes the decrease in its cooking efficiency.

Compared to traditional models, the efficiency of the improved box shape heating stove, using big pots is raised by 77 per cent while cooking time is reduced by 52 per cent. For the smaller round stove models, the differences are greater. With small pot sizes, the flames are more concentrated under the pot and the pot hole is completely covered by the pot.

Smoke/carbon monoxide

Laboratory test results show that with the improved models, smoke is very much reduced compared to the traditional models.

Durability of the stove

The improved heating stove models being of thick metal sheet (22 gauge) are more durable than the traditional models (28 gauge). Also the chances of the pot hole becoming distorted are reduced as a metal rod is rolled in its rim.

Operation of stoves

One advantage noted whilst testing the stoves was their operating characteristics at low power. With traditional stoves it is really hard to operate them at low power; the stoves need constant attention and very careful feeding of wood pieces whereas with improved stoves, the operation at low power is very easy.

In improved stoves. the speed of the hot gases is reduced by the baffle, so maximum heat by the exhaust gases is given out to the stove body before they leave through the chimney. In the improved models, a large amount of charcoal is accumulated in the combustion chamber, which keeps the stove body hot, thus reducing the wood feeding and attention of the operator.