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close this bookPHAST Step-by-Step Guide: A Participatory Approach for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease (PHAST - SIDA - UNDP - WB - WHO, 2000, 137 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPHAST training and information
View the documentWelcome
View the documentEvaluation form: PHAST
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderPart I: Introduction to the PHAST
close this folderPurpose and overview of the guide
View the documentWhy use this guide?
View the documentWho this guide is for
View the documentWhat PHAST tries to achieve
View the documentWhat are participatory methods?
View the documentWhy use participatory methods?
View the documentPHAST and empowerment
View the documentHow the guide is organized
close this folderHow to use the guide
View the documentPrepare before you start
View the documentMake your toolkit
View the documentSelect the group
View the documentGroup size
View the documentShould I follow the steps in order?
View the documentMoving from step to step
View the documentKeep records and activity outputs
View the documentEvaluate each activity
close this folderSome necessary background concepts
View the documentDiarrhoeal diseases and disease transmission
View the documentHealth awareness and community change
View the documentOther uses of this guide
close this folderHow to be a facilitator: some important points
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAll participants are equal
View the documentThere is no one right answer
View the documentCreating the right atmosphere
View the documentHow to cope with dominant personalities
View the documentGeneral instructions for all activities
View the documentRemoving and storing PHAST materials for future use
close this folderPart II: Step-by-Step Activities
close this folderStep 1: Problem identification
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentActivity 1: Community stories
View the documentActivity 2: Health problems in our community
close this folderStep 2: Problem analysis
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentActivity 1: Mapping water and sanitation in our community
View the documentActivity 2: Good and bad hygiene behaviours
View the documentActivity 3: Investigating community practices
View the documentActivity 4: How diseases spread
close this folderStep 3: Planning for solutions
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentActivity 1: Blocking the spread of disease
View the documentActivity 2: Selecting the barriers
View the documentActivity 3: Task of men and women in the community
close this folderStep 4: Selecting options
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentActivity 1: Choosing sanitation improvements
View the documentActivity 2: Choosing improved hygiene behaviours
View the documentActivity 3: Taking time for questions
close this folderStep 5: Planning for new facilities and behaviour change
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentActivity 1: Planning for change
View the documentActivity 2: Planning who does what
View the documentActivity 3: Identifying what might go wrong
close this folderStep 6: Planning for monitoring and evaluation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentActivity 1: Preparing to check our progress
close this folderStep 7: Participatory evaluation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentActivity: Checking our progress
close this folderPart III: Making a toolkit
View the documentGuidelines for PHAST facilitators and programme managers
View the documentGuidelines for PHAST artists
View the documentHow to make a pocket chart and more examples of how to use it
View the documentActivity, tool and artist acknowledgements
View the documentGlossary
View the documentReferences
View the documentHistorical background to PHAST

Activity 1: Community stories


· to enable group members to identify important issues and problems facing their community
· to help build a feeling of team spirit and mutual understanding
· to generate group self-esteem and creativity


· 1-2 hours


· tool: unserialized posters
· sticky tape

Sample unserialized posters

What to do

1. Ask the participants to form groups of 5-8 persons. Give each group a set of materials.

2. Give the groups the task using these words:

“Each group will choose 4 drawings from the set Working together, develop a story about your community using the 4 drawings you have selected. Give names to the people and to the place where the story is taking place. Your story should have a beginning, a middle and an ending.”

3. Give the groups about 15-20 minutes to make up their story.

4. When all the groups are ready, ask each group to tell its story to the other participants using the drawings it chose. Let the groups decide how they will tell their story to the other participants. Possible options include:

- a single person selected by the group
- a number of persons selected by the group
- participants act out their stories.

5. Invite the other participants to ask questions about the story and let the group answer them.

6. Once all the stories have been told, invite the group to discuss the main points of each story.

7. The following questions can be used to help stimulate the discussion, if the group is very quiet or silent:

- Are these stories about events happening now in this community?
- What issues were raised that could be considered to be problems in the community?
- How could these problems be resolved?
- What other (or similar) problems does your community face?

8. If the group did not come up with any problems related to water and sanitation, try the activity again using a set of drawings which are less general. Use instead a set of drawings which are more directly related to health and sanitation issues. Facilitate the activity in the same way as before.

9. Facilitate a discussion with the group on what it has learned during this activity, what it liked and what it did not like about this activity.


1. Let the small groups make up their stories by themselves. Do not offer guidance or assistance on what the subject of the groups' stories might be.

2. The purpose of this activity is to help the group express issues that are of concern to it. Don't worry if health issues are not directly identified. (The next activity will help the group to do this.)

3. If it appears that the group would like to work on issues which are not related to environmental sanitation, try to put it in touch with appropriate institutions, government departments, development agencies or nongovernmental organizations.

4. Groups will frequently find this activity stimulating and enjoyable, and may come up with two stories or ask for a second chance. If time permits, carry out the activity again since it may help you to discover important information about the community.