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close this bookRecording and Using Indigenous Knowledge: A Manual (IIRR, 1996, 211 p.)
close this folderPart 1 Indigenous knowledge and development
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentHow the manual was compiled
View the documentHow to use the manual
View the documentWhat is indigenous knowledge?
View the documentWho knows what?
View the documentCharacteristics of local systems
View the documentWhy is indigenous knowledge useful?
View the documentHelping communities conserve their IK
View the documentUsing indigenous knowledge in development
View the documentRecording IK in communities
View the documentIntellectual property rights
close this folderPart 2 Recording and assessment methodologies
close this folderRecording methods
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSources and documentation of IK
close this folderSample selection
View the documentHow to draw a sample
View the documentIdentifying indigenous specialists
close this folderObservation and interviewing
View the documentCase studies
View the documentField observation
View the documentIn-depth interviews
View the documentInterviewing
View the documentParticipant observation
View the documentParticipative technology analysis
View the documentSurveys
close this folderWorking with groups
View the documentBrainstorming
View the documentFive questions
View the documentGames
View the documentGroup discussions
View the documentRole play
View the documentStrengths and weaknesses
View the documentSWOT analysis
View the documentVillage reflections
View the documentVillage workshop
close this folderUsing diagram
View the documentFlow chart
View the documentHistorical comparison
View the documentIllustrations and diagrams
View the documentMapping
View the documentMatrix
View the documentModeling bioresource flows
View the documentSeasonal Pattern chart
View the documentSorting and ranking
View the documentTaxonomies
View the documentTransect
View the documentVenn (or chapti) diagramming
View the documentWebbing
close this folderAudio-visual media
View the documentCassette documentation
View the documentParticipatory video
View the documentPhoto/slide documentation
close this folderPart 3 Assessment of indigenous knowledge
View the documentAssessing IK
View the documentCriteria for assessing IK
View the documentTapping assessment
View the documentUsing western science methods to assess IK
View the documentMonitoring and evaluation
close this folderPart 4 Mini-case studies - How development can build on IK
View the documentMini-case studies
View the documentProblem identification and prioritization in Kiko Rosa, Philippines
View the documentCommunity manged health in Pinagsanjaan, Philippines
View the documentIncorporation of local free species in an agroforestry project in Layong Mabilog Philippines
View the documentLocal vegetable varieties for home gardening programs
View the documentTraditional animal dispersal schemes in Cavite, Philippines
View the documentIncreasing food Production in Negros, Philippines
View the documentOvercoming labor shortages through indigenous mutual-help groups
View the documentPromoting the use of IK in Venezuela
View the documentFarmers' experiments in teak germination in Sri Lanka
View the documentPromoting an indigenous savings scheme in Ethiopia
close this folderPart 5 - Question guides
View the documentQuestion guides
View the documentGender and indigenous knowledge
View the documentFarmer-to-farmer extension and farmer experimentation
View the documentSoil fertility
View the documentCropping systems
View the documentGardening
View the documentAgroforestry
View the documentWatershed management
View the documentEnvironment, natural resources. and biodiversity
View the documentCoastal resource s management
View the documentAquaculture
View the documentAnimal husbandry and healthcare
View the documentFood and nutrition
View the documentReproductive health and family planning
View the documentWater and sanitation
View the documentHealth financing schemes
View the documentHealthcare systems
View the documentOccupational health
View the documentOrganizations and leadership
View the documentCredit and savings
View the documentEnterprise development
View the documentCommunication
close this folderPart 6 - Resources
View the documentAbbreviations and definitions
View the documentReferences
View the documentAddresses
View the documentProject staff and contributors

Overcoming labor shortages through indigenous mutual-help groups


Cavite, Albay, Cebul

Farmers in the Philippines often form informal mutual-help groups. These groups are called hunglunan in Albay province, alayon in Cebu, and tropa in Cavite. They usually consist of four to six, sometimes up to 10 or more members, who help one another with labor-intensive agricultural activities such as land preparation, planting, weeding, and harvesting. Members also help one another at social events such as fiestas and wedding=. Naturally, information is often shared by the group members IIRR used this traditional labor arrangement to implement its aroforestry projects in Albay and Cavite provinces.

The Upland Farm Management Project in St. Domingo, Albay, was initiated in 1986 by IIRR in collaboration with World Neighbors and the Mag-uugmad Foundation. It was to address problems experienced by marginal upland farmer soil erosion, poor soil fertility, lack of on-farm diversity, limited supply of fuel wood and fodder, low yields, and low cash income.

During the initial phase, the project arranged farmer-to-farmer visits with a similar project in Cebu which successfully used alayon to carry out labor-intensive activities. Once back in Albay, IlRR's farmer cooperators decided to form their own hungfunan. They started with one group in one village. After eight years, the project counted more than 40 hunglunan totaling 210 farmers in 10 villages adapting and adopting the agroforestry technologies offered by the project. IIRR staff considered ,., the hunglunan key to the fast spread of Agroforestry technologies in Bicol.

In Layong Mabilog, a village in Cavite, the introduction of soil and water conservation measures initially progressed very slowly because of the high labor intensity of these activities. During a village visit, IIRR staff observed a group of five to six farmers plowing a field. Realizing that farmers in Layong Mabilog were used to waking together, staff members explored with their cooperators the possibility of using tropa arrangements for the project. The farmers agreed and subsequently formed four groups whose members helped one another to plant farm hedgerows and build terraces. In Layong Mabilog, however, the project's technologies did not spread as widely as in Albay. One probable explanation is Layong Mabilog's proximity to Manila with its opportunities for employment.

Compiled by Raguelito M. Pastore, Samuel Operio and Evelyn Mathias Source: Librando 1994