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close this bookRecording and Using Indigenous Knowledge: A Manual (IIRR, 1996, 211 p.)
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Abbreviations and definitions

Baseline data. Data on certain parameters (such as nutrition levels or crop production) collected at the beginning of a project. You can collect data on the same parameters later in the project and at its end. By comparing this evaluation data with the baseline, you can determine whether the parameters have changed, i e., the situation has improved or worsened (see also Evaluation data)

Closed-ended question. A type of question that limits the response to preselected alternatives. (See section on Surveys.)

Evaluation data. Data collected during and at the end of a project that enable project personnel to verify the achievements and failures of a project (see also Baseline data).

Focus groups. A research strategy which involves intensive discussion and interviewing of small groups of people on a given focus or issue. Focus groups were originally used to study consumer opinions and behavior.

IIRR. International institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines.

IK. See Indigenous knowledge.

Indigenous knowledge. The knowledge of local people in a given community. It is also sometimes called local or traditional knowledge (see also section What is IK?).

Insiders. People who live in the community.

Interview guide. A written list of topics and guide questions to be covered in a particular order during the course of a semi-structured interview. The interviewer notes responses on notepaper.

Interview schedule. A list of questions similar to a questionnaire, but the interviewer asks the questions and writes the reepondent's answers on the form.

Key informant. An individual who is credible, accessible, willing to talk and has great depth of knowledge about an area. Key informants have traditionally been important information sources in anthropological research.

Key informant Panel (KIP) A group of about six to 15 key informants who meet to discuss specific situations, events and other data.

Open-ended question. A type of question that does not limit responses to preselected alternatives. (See section on Surveys.)

Outsiders. People who do not come from the community, but want to work or do research there.

PRA. Participatory rural appraisal. A systematic, semi-structured approach that uses a combination of methods to assess and understand a community's situation or a particular problem with the participation of and through the eyes of local people.

Question guide. See section Introduction to question guides.

Questionnaire. A list of questions, providing enough space for answers to be recorded. Questions can be closed-ended or open-ended. It is self-administered: respondents read the questionnaire and write the answers on the form. Normally, a separate questionnaire is used for each respondent.

RRA. Rural rapid appraisal. A systematic, flexible approach that enables outsiders to quickly learn about a community's situation and problems through using a combination of methods and a multidisciplinary team.

Technology blending. Testing, improving and combining indigenous and western know-how and technologies (for example, modifying local stoves based on research findings).

Western knowledge. Knowledge developed by universities, research centers and private industries using a formal scientific approach. This manual uses the term "western knowledge" although it is not only developed in the West, and western is a relative term depending on where one's country is located. However, common alternative terms such as "scientific," "international" and "modern" knowledge are even less acceptable than western knowledge because they suggest (incorrectly) that indigenous knowledge is nonscientific, non-international and old-fashioned.

Sources: Bernard 1988, Chambers 1992a, Lynch 1979, Marshall 1994, Rhoades 1982, Townsley 1993.


References marked with "*" are cited in the text. The remaining references are important publications on indigenous knowledge and field methods.

*Agrawal, Arun. 1995 Dismantling the divide between indigenous and scientific knowledge Development and Change 26:415-439

Ames, Anthony I 1995 A tutorial for the electronic matrix system: A system to facilitate the collection of anthropological data in the field, using a Macintosh PowerBook 150 v and Microsoft Off ice(TM) software (reaction draft) Center for Indigenous Knowledge in Agriculture and Rural Development (CIKARD), Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, U5A

Babbie, Earl. 1986 The practice of social research 4th edition. Wadsworth, Belmont, California.

*Bennett, Roger. 1983. Management research: Guide for institutions and professionals. ILO, Geneva.

*Bernard, H. Russell. 1988 Research methods in cultural anthropology. Sage Newbury Park, California

*Bhutan, Jit 1990. Patterns of rural household system organization in relation to farming system under different environmental conditions in Nepal. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna, Philippines.

*Beef, Walter de, Kojo Amanor and Kate Wellard with Anthony Bebbington. 1993. Cultivating knowledge Genetic diversity, farmer experimentation and crop research. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

Brokenaha David, D M Warren, and Oswald Werner. 1980. Indigenous knowledge systems and development. University Press of America. Lanham, USA

Case, D'Arcy Davis. 1990. The community's toolbox: The idea, methods and tools for participatory assessment, monitoring and evaluation in community forestry. Community Forestry Field Manual 2. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.

*Chambers, Robert. 1992a. Rural appraisal: Rapid, relaxed and participatory Institute of Development Studies Discussion Paper 311. Institute of Development Studies, University of Susses, Brighton

Chambers, Robert. 1992b. Methods for analysis by farmers: The professional challenge. Paper for the Association for 1991-1992 Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium, Michigan State University, USA.

*Chapple, E. D and C. 5. Coon. 1942. Principles of anthropology. Henry and Holt, New York.

Connell, Frances Garrett A manual for developing indigenous literacy material for village women. A Reminiscence Sing, 12211 Remington Drive, Silver Spring, Maryland 20902, USA.

Conway, Gordon R., Jennifer A. McCracken, Jules N. Pretty. 1987. Training notes for agroecosystem analysis and rapid rural appraisal. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.

Crucible Group. 1994-. People, plants and patents The impact of intellectual property rights on biodiversity, conservation, trade and rural society. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.

*DFM. 1995. Decentralization Finance and management project. 4(1), Winter 1993. Associates in Rural Development, 110 Main St. Burlington, Vermont 05401, USA

Engels, Paul O. H. 1995 Facilitating innovation: An actionoriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture. Thesis. Agricultural University Wageningen, Netherlands.

*FAO and IIRR. 1995. Resource management for upland areas in Southeast Asia. FARM Field Document 2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Bangkok, Thailand and International institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines

Feldstein, Hilary Sims and Janice Jigging. 1994. Tools for the field: Methodologies handbook for gender analysis in agriculture. Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut.

Gamser, Matthew 5., Helen Appleton and Nicola Carter. 1990. Tinker, tiller, technical change: Technologies from people. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

Gary J. Martin. 1995. Ethnobotany: A methods manual. Chapman and Hall, London.

Gianotten, Vera and Winfried Rijssenbeek (eds.). 1995. Peasant demands: Manual for participatory analytic. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Hague.

Hannagan, T. J. 1982. Mastering statistics. Macmillan.

Haverkort B., J. van der Kamp and A. Waters-Bayer (eds). 1991. Joining farmers' experiments: Experiences in participatory technology development. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

IIED. 1991. Participatory methods for learning and analysis. RRA Notes 14. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

IIED. 1994a. Special issue on training. RRA Notes 19. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

IIED. 1994b. Special issue on livestock. RRA Notes 20. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

IIRR. 1990. Proceedings: Department of Health tri-level consultations on working with flog Sirahanos. Balay Kalayaan Seminar House, Bacolod City International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines

*Kerlinger, Fred N. 1982. Foundation of behavioral research. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

Khon Kaen University. 1987. Proceedings of the 1985 international conference on rapid rural appraisal. Rural Systems Research and Farming Systems Research Projects, Khoen Kaen, Thailand.

*Kidder, L. H. 1981 Research methods in social relations. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

*Krejcie, R. V. and D. W Morgan 19/0. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement 50:607-610

*Labayen, Lorna 5 1989-1990 Participatory data gathering tools and techniques in rural reconstruction. Rural Reconstruction Review 10:3136. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines

Lightfoot, Clive, V. P. Singh, Thelma Paris, E Mishra and Ahmad Mailman. 1990. Training resource book for farming systems diagnosis. Process documentation of an experiential learning exercise in farming systems diagnosis of the ICAR/IRRI collaborative rice research project held at Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke, Ranchi, Bihar, India, 10-15 July 1989. International Rice Research Institute, P. 0 Box 935, Manila, Philippines and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Mangement, P. 0. Box 1501, Manila, Philippines

*Lightfoot, C., M Prein and T. Lopez 1994. Bioresource flow modeling with farmers it ELA Newsletter 10(5):22-25.

*Librando, Pert. 1994 Tropa or Hunglunan: Mutual work among Bulaio farmers In: indigenous knowledge and sustainable development in the Philippines. Proceedings of a workshop held at the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, June 24-26,1992. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Cavite, Philippines. pp. 145-150.

*Lynch, Frank. 19-/9. How to make a social-survey interview schedule: Instructions for beginners. Papers on survey research methodology Agricultural Development Council, Bangkok

*Marshall, Gordon. 1994. The concise Oxford dictionary of sociology. Oxford University Press, Oxford

*Mascarenhas, James 1995 Interviewing in PRA. Handout prepared for: Special course on regenerative agriculture for German Agro-Action partner organizations, June 27 July 25,1995. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines

*Mascarenhas, James, Parmesh Shah, Sam Joseph, Ravi Jayakaran, John Devavaram, Vidaya Ramachandran, Aloysius Fernandez, Robert Chambers, Jules Pretty. 1991. Participatory rural appraisal: Proceeding of the February 1991 Bangalore PEA trainers workshop RRA Notes 13. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

Molnar, Augusta. 1989. Community forestry rapid appraisal. Community Forestry Note 3 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

*Ortigas, Carmela D. 1991. Handbook for facilitators, group proceses and the inductive method, theory and practice in the Philippines. 2nd edition. Atenec de Manila University Pess, Quezon City, Philippines.

Prain, G. D. and C. P. Bagalanon (eds.). 1994. Local knowledge, global science and plant genetic resources:: Towards a partnership. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Genetic Resources. UPWARD, Los Ba Laguna, Philippines.

Pretty, Jules N. Irene Guijt, John Thompson and Ian Scooted. 1995. A trainer's guide for participatory learning and action. International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

Rajasekaran, B 1991. Local soil terms and their classification in Tamil Nadu, India. Draft paper, CIKARD, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.

Reijntjes, Coen, Bertus Haverkort and Ann Waters-Bayer 1992. Farming for the future: An introduction to low-external-input and suetainable agriculture. Macmillan, London.

*Rhodes, Robert. 1982. The art of the informal agriculture survey Social Science Department Training Document 1982-2 International Potato Center, Lima.

Rural Advancement Foundation International. 1994. Conserving indigenous knowledge: Integrating two systems of innovation. United Nations Development Programme, New York.

Schoonmaker Freudenberger, Karen. 1994. Tree and land tenure: Rapid appraisal tools. Community Forestry Field Manual 4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome

*SHOGORIP. 1992. PRA guidelines: A manual to support PRA activities in Bangladesh. Bangladesh (publication information incomplete).

Thomas-Slayter, Barbara, Andrea Lee Esser and M. Dale Shields. 1993. Tools of gender analysis: A guide to field methods for bringing gender into sustainable resource management. Program for International Development and Social Change, Clark University, USA.

*Townsley, Philip 1993 Rapid appraisal methods for coastal communities. Bay of Bengal Programme, 91 St Mary's Road, Abbiramapuram, Madras 600 018, indict

*TriPARRD. 1993. A manual on the estate/barangay-level productivity systems assessment and planning (PSAP) methodology. Philippine Partnership for the Development of Human Resources in Rural Areas (PhilDHRRA), 59c Salvador St., Loyola Heights, Quezon City, Philippines.

*TVE. 1994. TVE's guide to films on development and the environment. Moving Pictures Bulletin, 17

February 1994. TVE Centre for Environmental Communication, Prince Albert Road, London NW1 4RZ, UK.

UNICEF. 1993. Visualization in participatory programmes. A manual for facilitators and trainers involved in participatory groups events. Unicef, PO Box 58, Dhaka 100, Bangladesh.

Vilches, M.N. and Gonzaga, E 1984. Seasonal pattern charts as a technique for community involvement in health. Rural Reconstruction Review 6:47-49. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines.

*Veldbuizen, L. R. van and H. de Zeeuw. 1992. Learning for people-centered technology development: A training guide (draft). Vois, 0-5. ETC, Leusden, Netherlartds.

'Warren, Michael D. and B. Rajasekaran. 1991. Utilizing and integrating indigenous knowledge systems for agricultural and rural development: Training manual and guide for extension workers (First, incomplete draft). Center for Indigenous Knowledge, Agriculture and Rural Development, 318 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa USA

Warren, D Michael, L. Jan Sikkerveer and David Brokensha. 1995 The cultural dimension of development: Indigenous knowledge systems. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

*Waters-Bayer, Ann. 1994. The ethics of documenting rural people's knowledge: investigating milk marketing among Fulani women in Nigeria. In: Ian Scoones and John Thompson (eds.). Beyond farmer first: Rural people's knowledge, agricultural research and extension practice. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.

*Waters-Bayer, Ann and Wolfgang Bayer. 1994. Planning with pastoraliets: PRA and more. A review of methods focused on Africa. Working Paper. German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Division 422, Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany.

Wickham, Trevor Wayne. 1993. Farmers ain't no fools: Exploring the role of participatory rural appraisal to access indigenous knowledge and enhance sustainable development research and planning. Student Paper 17. Thesis in Regional Planning and Resource Development, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

*Yin, Robert K 1984. Case study research: Design and methods. Applied Social Research Methods Series 5. Sage, Beverly Hills.


Resource centers of the global indigenous knowledge network

The global indigenous knowledge network consists of a growing number of independent resource centers that document and perform research on IK promote networking and information exchange, and design training materials on IK The Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, published by CIRAN, contains news on network activities. For more information, contact one of the global centers listed below.

Global centers

CIRAN Centre for International Research and Advisory Networks Drs O. W. von Liebenstein, Director ClRAN/Nuffic, P.O. Box 29777 2502 LT The Hague, Netherlands Tel: +31-70-4260321 Fax: +31-70-4260329 E-mail: Editor: Publishes the Indigenous knowledge and Development Monitor.

Center for Indigenous Knowledge for Agriculture and Rural Development Dr D. Michael Warren, Director 318 Curtiss Hall, Iowa State University Ames, Iowa 50011, USA Tel: +1-515-2940938 Fax: +1-515-2946058 E-mail:

Leden Ethnosystems And Development Programme Dr L. Jan Sikkerveer, Director Institute of Cultural and Social Studies University of Leiden, PO. Box 9555 2300 RB Leiden, Netherlands Tel: +31-71-273469/273472 Fax: +31-71-273619 E-mail:

Centre for Traditional Knowledge Julian T. Inglis, Executive Director PO, Box 3443 Stn D Ottawa, Ontario KIP 6P4, Canada Tel: +1-613-566 4750 Fax: +1-613-952 9693 E-mail:

Regional Centers

African Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Prof. Adedotun Phillips, Director Dr Tunji Titilola, Research Coordinator Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NlSER) PMB 5 - Ul Post Office, Ibadan, Nigeria Tel: +234-22-400500 Fax: +234-22-416129 or +234-1 614397

Regional Program for the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge in Asia Dr Evelyn Mathias, Coordinator International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) Silang, Cavite 4118, Philippines Tel: +63-969-9451 or +63-2582659 Fax: +63-2-5222494 E-mail:

National centers

Brazilian Resource Centre for indigenous Knowledge Dr A J. Cancian UNESP, Dept. Biologia 14870.000 Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil Tel: +55-163-252500 Fax: +55-163-224275 Telex: 1119014 ujmf br E-mail: uejab@brfapesp.bitnet

Burkina Faso Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (Centre Burkinabe de Recherche sur les Fratiques et Savoirs Paysans) Dr Basaga E. Dialla (IRSSH), Director 02 B.P 5154 Ouagadougou 02, Burkina Faso Tel: +226-307664/308608 Fax: +226-312209

Centre for Advanced Research of Indigenous Knowledge Systems Dr. Jan Brouwer, Director P.O. Box 1, Saraswathipuram, ysore 570 009, India Tel: +91-821-61467 Fax: +91-821-61459

Cameroon Indigenous Knowledge Organization Prof C.N Ngwasiri, Director PO. Box 170, Buea, South West Province, Cameroon Tel: +237-522690 Fax: +237-322514/430813

Ghana Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Dr M Bonsu Interim Director School of Agriculture, University of Cape Coast Cape Coast, Ghana Tel:: +233-42-2240-9/2480-9 Telex: +235-42-2552 UCC GH

Indonesian Resource Center for Indigenous Knowledge Prof. Dr Kusnaka Adimihardja, Director UPT INRIK-Unpad, Ruang K-3, Jl. Dipati Ukur 35 Bandung 40132, Indonesia Tel: +62-22-2503271 ext. 111 or 2508592 Fax: +62-22-2501977/237416

Kenya Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Dr Mohamed Isahakia, Acting Director National Museums of Kenya P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya Tel:: +254-2-'f42131 Fax: +254--2-741424

MAKCIK Madagascar

Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Ms. Juliette Ratsimandrava c/o Centre d'lnformation et de Documentation Scientific et Technique B.P. 6224, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar Fax: +261-2-32123/20422

Maasai Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Dr Nathan Ole Lengisugi Simanjiro Animal Husbandry Vocational Training Centre (AHVTC) PO. Box 3084 Arusha, Tanzania Fax: +255-57-8907

Nigerian Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Dr J. O. Olukosi, Coordinator of Institute for Agricultural Research Ahmadu hello University, PMB 1()44, Zaria, Nigeria Tel:: +234-69-50571-4 Ext.. 4322 Fax: +234-69-50891/50563 Telex:: 75248 NITEZNG

Philippine Resource Center for Sustainable Development and Indigenous Knowledge Dr Rogello C. Serrano, National Coordinator Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development ((PCARRD) Paseo de Valmayor, PO. Box 425 Los Ba Laguna, Philippines Tel: +65--94-5001b to 50020 Fax: +63-94-50016 Telex:: 40860 PARRA PM

Mexican Research, Teaching and Service Network on Indigenous Knowledge (Red de Investigation, Docencia y Servicio en Conocimientos Autoctonos) Dr Antonio Macias-Lopez,
Coordinator Colegio de Postgraduados, CEICADAR Apartado Postal 1-12, C.P 72130 Col. La Libertad Puebla, Pue., Mexico Tel: +52-22-851442/851448/ 851447 Fax: +52-22-851444

South African Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Prof. Morris H. Cohen, Co-Director
Institute for Indigenous Theory and Practice P.O. Box 2335, 8000 Cape Town, South Africa
Tel: +27-21-242012 Fax: +27-21-232168 Email

Sri Lanka Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge University of Sri Jayewardenapura, Forestry Unit Dr Hemanthi Ranasinghe, Acting Director Nugegoda, Sri Lanka Tel: +94-1-851685
Fax: +94-1-437879

Uruguayan Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Pedro de Hegedus Coordinator CEDESUR, Casilla Correo 20.201, Codigo Postal1 12. 900 Sayago, Montevideo, Uruguay Tel:: +5-982-350634 Fax: +5982-913780 E-mail:

Venezuelan Resource Secretariat for Indigenous Knowledge Dr Consuelo Quiroz National Coordinator Centre for Tropical Alternative Agriculture and Sustainable Development (CATADI) University of the Andes, Nucleo "Rafael Rangel" Apartado Postal 22, Trujillo 3102, Estado Trujillo, Venezuela Tel/Fax:+55-72-33667 Tel:: +58-72-721672 Fax: +58-72-711350, +58-43-340967 E-mail:

Other institutions and organizations interested in IK

Many other government and nongovernment organizations are interested in and promote indigenous knowledge. It is not possible to list them all here, Below are a few organizations that serve as information sources and produce publications that contain information on IK.

Consortium for International Eart Science Information Network Information Resources Department 2250 Pierce Road, University Center, Ml 48710, USA Fax: 1-517-797-2622
Consumers' Association of Penang 228 .Jalan Macalister, 10400 Penang, Malaysia Fax: 604—365106

Information Centre for Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture PO Box 64, 3830 AB Leusden, Netherlands Fax: 033-940791 Publishes the !LE IA Newsletter IITDG Intermediate Technology Development Group Myson House, Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HT, UK Tel: +44--1788 560631 Fax: +44-1788 54-0270 E-mail: Published Appropriate Tehnology magazine.

International Institute for Environment and Development Sustainable Agriculture Programme 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H ODD,, UK Fax: 44-71-388-2826 Published PLA Notes (formerly PRA Notes).

Society for Research and Initiatives for Sustainable Technologies and Institutions Prof Anil K. Gupta Indian Institute of Management Vastrapur, Ahemdabad 380 015, India Tel: +91-272-407241 Fax: +91272-427896 Publishes Honey Bee newleetter. Tear Fund 100 Church Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 8QE, UK Tel +44-181-977 9144 Publishes Footsteps magazine.

Third World Network
87, Cantonment Road, 10250 Penang, Malaysia Fax: 604-364505

Traditional Marine Resource Managements and Knowledge Kenneth Ruddle, Editor Matsugaoka 11-20, Nishinomiyashi, Hyogo-Ken 662, Japan Fax: +81--798-714749

Bureau for Programme Policy Evaluation PDSR7BPPE, Room 214-6.1 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017, USA Fax: 1-212-906-6947

Project staff and contributors

Project coordinator Evelyn Mathias
IIRR contributors

IIRR, Silang, Cavite 4118, Philippines

David G. Abbase
Nita C. Abena
Ruben 5. Aledia
Ricky G. Anunciacion
Laurito B. Arizala
Ricardo C. Armonia
Carlos 5. Basillo
Rustico A. BiBR>Jit P. Bhuktan
Eblas L. Blancas
Adelina H. Bognot
Dindo Campilan
P. Sandy M. Fortuna
Estrella P. Gonzaga
Angelina C. Ibus
Kennedy N. Igbokwe
Normita G. Ignacio
Gregory C. Ira
Ella A. Jordan
Scott A. Killough
Lorna 5. Labayen
Perpetuo C. Librando
Tomas B. Limpo
Phoebe V. Maata
Ma. Carolina 5. Mariano
Glenda A. Martija
Evelyn Mathias
Enrique G. Mercaida
Ana Reylene J. Montes
Paul Mundy
S. S. Tabrez Nasar
Samuel Operio
Emmanuel F. Pastores
Raquelito M. Pastores
Nestorio B. Roderno
Eduardo A. Sabio
Francisco C. Saladores
Andrea G. Sales
Romeo E. San Buenaventura
Catherine Shut
Teodoro L. Sevilla
Arnold V. Velarde
Esther Catherine C. Velasco
Minda V. Yaun

Non-llRR contributors

T. N. Manjunath
2904,11 Main, Chamundipuram, Mysore 570 004, India

Christie Peacock
FARM-Africa, 9-10 Southampton Place, London Wc1A 2DA, UK

Consuelo Quiroz
VERSIK, Univ. of the Ande, Apartado Postal 22, Trujillo 3102

B. Rajasekaran
CIESIN, 2250 Pierce Road, University Center, M1 48710, USA

Laurence R. van Veldhuizer
ILEIA, PO Box 64, 3830 AB Leusden, Netherlands

D Michael Warren
CIKARD, lowa State University, Ames, lowa 50011, USA


David G Abbas (Editor-in-chief)
Evelyn Mathias
Ana Reylene J. Montes
Paul Mundy
Jaime P. Ronquillo
Terri Willard


Ricardo E. Cantada
Ranulpho Ramacula Jr.
Layout Carmenia May M. Magno

Desktop publishing

Carmenia May M. Magno
Evangeline C. Montoya

Workshop support

Evangeline C. Montoya Angelita T. Poblete
Flordeliza Saputil