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close this bookPrimary School Agriculture: Volume I: Pedagogy (GTZ, 1985, 144 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart I: Pedagogical foundations of primary school agriculture
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View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Objectives for teaching agriculture in primary schools
close this folder3. Approaches to the teaching of agriculture
View the document3.1 Overview
View the document3.2 An appraisal of how agriculture is taught at present
close this folder4. A Science-Based approach to primary school agriculture
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View the document4.1 The relationship between agriculture and science
View the document4.2 Environment-Based school agriculture
View the document4.3 The Political dimension: Self-reliant development, social justice, and the link with traditional culture
View the document4.4 Objectives for primary school agriculture
close this folderPart II: Teaching methods
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close this folder1. The scheme of work
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View the document1.1 The growth cycle of crops as a means to devising the scheme of work
View the document1.2 The principle of integration
View the document1.3 The physical strength of school children
close this folder2. The structure of teaching units
View the document2.1 Breaking down a scheme of work into units
View the document2.2 Defining objectives for the sub-units
View the document2.3 Indoor and outdoor activities in a sub-unit
close this folder3. Indoor activities
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View the document3.1 Classroom preparation of outdoor activities
View the document3.2 Follow-up of outdoor activities
close this folder4. Outdoor activities
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View the document4.1 Farm work
View the document4.2 Observational activities
View the document4.3 Experimentation
close this folder5. Special problems related to school farm work
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View the document5.1 Farm care during holidays
View the document5.2 Income
close this folderPart III: Examples for practical use
close this folder1. Teaching sub-units
View the document1.1 The maize harvest-integrating work, observation and classroom teaching
View the document1.2 Surveying farm plots - the use of the plane table
View the document1.3 Results of an experiment on pineapple farming
View the document1.4 Observing the growth of yams
View the document1.5 Planning maize farming
close this folder2. Lesson notes
View the document2.1 Lesson notes on tephrosia
View the document2.2 Lesson notes on rice
View the document2.3 Lesson notes on Land Tenure in Kake-Bakundu
View the document2.4 The integration of agriculture and mathematics
close this folder3. Teacher’s documentation
View the document3.1 Notes on Land Tenure in Kake
View the document3.2 Yam growing in Banyang area
View the document3.3 Traditional rites associated with the planting of maize in Bali(by V. Kette)
View the document3.4 Some corn dishes in Bali
View the document4. Record sheets

4.2 Environment-Based school agriculture

This approach contains the study of the child's everyday-life environment as one of its central ideas. It has been stated as follows:

"Focus On the Local Environment
The didactic centre of the reformed primary school curriculum is supposed to be the local environment, with which pupils, teachers and parents are familiar. The children's learning process will start from that very environment in order to become aware of its problems and try to find solutions. According to this concept the educational activities should be organized around centres of interest or problems which relate to the environment in question. The content of teaching will differ from region to region, even from one locality to another in the same region." (IPAR-Buea, Report on the Reform of Primary Education, 1977, p. 71)

Primary school agriculture can help to achieve this aim. Farming is part of children's lives in most of the country. They usually help to farm from a very early age. The use of the environment is a sound educational principle. In order to make full use of the educational possibilities offered by the environment one would have to observe the following guidelines:

- Local crops should be at the centre of teaching and school farm work.
- Local farming methods should be discussed.
- Good local farmers should take part in teaching and farm work.
- If new crops and methods are discussed in school, they should be related to local conditions.
- Agriculture should not be taught as an isolated field of productive activities. It should be presented as a part of people's way of life and cultural tradition. By following these guidelines one will automatically africanize the content of teaching.

The use of the environment is a sound educational principle.