Cover Image
close this bookBasic Concepts in Environment, Agriculture and Natural Resources Management: An Information Kit (IIRR, 1993, 151 p.)
close this folderIntroduction
View the documentUse of workshop
View the documentWorkshop participants
View the documentSupport staff
View the documentGlossary of commonly used environmental terms
View the documentList of references
close this folderEcological basics
View the documentEcosystem degradation
View the documentHabitat and niche
View the documentThe food chain
View the documentBiological magnification
View the documentNitrogen cycle
View the documentSociety and the carbon-oxygen cycle
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View the documentPopulation and the environment
close this folderFreshwater and marine ecosystems
View the documentFreshwater ecosystems
View the documentEstuarine-mudflat ecosystems
View the documentSeagrass ecosystems
View the documentMangrove ecosystems
View the documentCoral reef ecosystems
View the documentHuman intrusions into the water cycle
View the documentDiversity of coastal and marine resources
View the documentPhilippine marine fisheries
View the documentMarine turtles
View the documentMarine food web
View the documentOcean pastures
View the documentThe menace of algal bloom
View the documentRed tide (Dynamics and public health aspects)
close this folderForest ecosystems
View the documentTropical forest -ecosystems
View the documentProtected areas: a tool for biological diversity conservation
View the documentEnvironmental effects of overexploitation for fuelwood in nearshore coastal resources
View the documentBiological diversity: and wildlife conservation
View the documentWildlife trade
close this folderGlobal warming and acid rain
View the documentClimate change and the greenhouse effect
View the documentHow deforestation contributes to the greenhouse effect
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close this folderPollution
View the documentToxic and hazardous wastes
View the documentPollution and long-term effects on the human body
View the documentUrban pollution: The metro Manila environment
View the documentMining operations: environmental effects on soil, water, communities and atmosphere
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View the documentPhilippine commercial energy sources, 1990
View the documentCommon property resources in crisis
View the documentDegradation of the uplands
View the documentLowland degradation
View the documentEnvironmental issues in animal production
View the documentPlant genetic resources
View the documentNatural hazards

Protected areas: a tool for biological diversity conservation

Protected areas: a tool for biological diversity conservation


1. The Philippines, through-the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS), has adopted eight categories of protected areas: strict nature reserves, nature parks, natural monuments, wildlife sanctuaries, protected landscapes/seascapes, resource reserves, natural biotic areas and multiple-use areas. These categories represent a range of varying level of human use:

2. Strict Nature Reserves. To protect nature and maintain/natural processes in an undisturbed state. They provide ecologically representative examples of the natural environment and make these areas available for scientific stubby, environmental monitoring and education and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state.

3. Nature Parks. - To protect outstanding natural and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific, educational and recreational use. These are relatively large natural areas not materially altered by human activity and where commercial extractive uses are not permitted.

4. Natural Monuments. To protect and preserve nationally significant natural 'features because of their special interest or unique characteristics. These are relatively small areas focused on protection of specific features.

5. Wildlife Sanctuary. To ensure the natural condition necessary to protect nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment where these require specific human manipulation for their perpetuation.

6. Protected Landscapes/Seascapes. To maintain nationally significant areas which are characteristic of the harmonious interaction of resident people and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment ' through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas.

7. Resource-Reserve. To protect the natural resources of the area for future designation and prevent or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives based on appropriate knowledge and planning.

8. Natural Biotic Area; To foster the way of life of societies living in harmony with the environment to adapt to modern technology at their pace.

9. Multiple-Use Area (i.e., Extractive Reserve? Game Ranch and Recreation Area). To provide for the sustained production of water, timber, wildlife, pasture and outdoor recreation, with the conservation of nature primarily oriented to the system of economic activities.

Benefits of protected :areas

Protected areas provide the following year-round benefits:

· Protect ecosystems essential to maintain life-support cervices, to conserve wild life and to advance scientific research.:

· Protect culturally important landscapes and traditional sites of activities of great significance to indigenous people, including sacred places and historic monuments built on them.

· Protect recreational and educational uses of natural, modified 'end cultivated ecosystems.

· Protect ecologically important areas which, when damaged, endanger public welfare. Example: watersheds.

· Protect species and population that are highly sensitive to human disturbance, those important in medicine and those which enhance the attractiveness of landscapes.

· Protect ecologically important areas

· which, when damaged, endanger public

· welfare.

· Protect the habitats critical to harvested, migratory or threatened species.

· Protected area management

· Management of protected areas is to be done by a protected area management board. The board is madeup of local representatives, DENR officials, NGOs and indigenous cultural communities. Management plans are to be designed using various management zones to regulate activities within the protected area.