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close this bookSmall-Scale Marine Fisheries - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1983, 631 p.)
close this folderWeek 2: Training
View the documentSession T-1: Introduction to technical training
View the documentSession T-2: The oceans, rivers, streams of the world an overview of world wide fisheries
View the documentSession T-3: Special projects
View the documentSession T-4: Introduction to nets
View the documentSession T-5: Non-verbal communication
View the documentSession T-6: Introduction to net construction and repair
View the documentSession T-7: Introduction to outboard engines
View the documentSession T-9: Values clarification
View the documentSession T-10: Outboard engine trouble shooting
View the documentSession T-11: Tropical photography - extension

Session T-1: Introduction to technical training

Time: 7:30 AM


· Introduce goals of the technical training program
· For trainees to share their expectations of technical training
· Introduce schedule for technical training
· For participants to get acquainted on a professional level
· To begin building a sharing atmosphere


In this first session of technical training the overall goals of the program are introduced. The program is described in some detail. Trainees share their expectations of technical training and trainers explain how expectations will be met by going over the schedule for the next seven weeks of training. Trainees have gotten to know each other on an interpersonal level during the orientation sessions, now they will work together using both interpersonal skills and technical skills. Through an exercise, trainees will reveal areas of technical expertise and start building an atmosphere of sharing and skill transference.


1. Introduction of Goals, Expectations and Schedule 2. Get acquainted professionally


· Flip chart paper, markers, tape
· Technical Training Schedule

EXERCISE 1 - Introduction of Goals, Expectations, and Schedules Time: 7:30 AM - 9:15 AM


· Share goals of technical training
· Share trainees expectation
· Describe training program
· Share schedule


The goals are presented and posted on newsprint in the training room where they will remain throughout the duration of training. Expectations of technical training are discussed using the schedule to show trainees where they can expect to have their expectations met. During this session any expectations that are unrealistic are discussed, and explanations of why they can not be met are given.




Introduction to technical training and training goals

1. Trainer begins by describing the technical training program, using the following outline to make these points:

15 Minutes

a. be intense (little free time)

b. continue to build on cross-cultural skills

c. entails use of resource materials

d. teach technical skills

e. be experiential

f. highlight and improve interpersonal skills

2. Trainer lists goals for technical training program and briefly discusses each one.

o to enable trainees to recognize their skills and to feel competent in the use of those skills;

o to teach trainees how to transfer the technical skills they have to others;

o to identify and improve skill areas that need strengthening;

o for trainees to understand their role as Fisheries Extension Peace Corps Volunteers in the host country; o to help trainees identify and find resources avail able to them in their community sites and host country agencies;

o the illustration of competency in fisheries extension techniques, in fish processing, fish preservation, outboard/Diesel repair and maintenance fisheries economics and marketing, small-scale fishing and fishing vessels, and vessel repair and construction;

o the ability to analyze properly communities social systems, which should identify problems and help communities seek solutions;

o an understanding of the basic theories of fisheries extension work;

o increased interpersonal, team building and communication skills; and,

o a better understanding of global and country specific fisheries issues.

Trainer moves to next exercise after answering any questions trainees may have.

Introduction5 Minutes Put items of List

3. Divide into small groups. Explain the purpose of the exercise. Ask participants to write on news print the expectations they have for this training flip chart program. Encourage the groups to record as many items as possible in this short time. Expectations may include things they want:

o to know

o to have given to them

o to have happen/not happen

o the facilitator to do/be

o the other participants to do/be

o to be able to do

Encourage group to record as many items as possible Expectations in a short time.

15 Minutes

Priority 10 Minutes

4. Now ask each group to prioritize the top five expectations that they all share.

5. Ask groups to share their expectations with large group.

Trainer's Notes:

Large schedule made by using six sheets of newsprint is made and posted in training classroom where it is intended that it remain during training program.

Reporting Expectations 20 Minutes

Take a few minutes to review the list of expectations, and compare it to the training schedule now posted.

Comment and eliminate those that the training program cannot hope to address. Those who are not part of the program may be met depending on ingenuity of the facilitator and technical expertise of the trainer. Do not leave group with a list of expectations the facilitators or the program cannot meet.


6. Trainer now produces on newsprint, the

a. How did your group work together?

20 Minutes

following list of questions about group dynamics:

b. Who took leadership?

c. Did everyone participate?

d. Did anyone check to see that everyone was included?

e. Who recorded for the group; how was that decision made?

f. Who talked a lot, who talked a little, quality?

g. How did decisions get made (consensus, voting, railroading)?

h. Did anyone summarize for group?

Wrap-up 10 Minutes

Trainer asks for observations about what things were the most helpful in each group and records them on newsprint - Asks for things that perhaps weren't quite as helpful, and records them on newsprint.

Trainer points out that a great deal of our work will be done in groups and that it is important for us to be aware of our own process, how we get work done and thus get the most out of the training program. Further, we will from time to time ask groups to look at their own process.

Trainer's Notes:

You will want to save the expectation list to go over at a later date. It is best to leave posted if possible.

1. Trainer now leads into next exercise.

EXERCISE 2 - Getting Acquainted Professionally

Time: 30 Minutes


· To allow participants to get acquainted
· To get people talking
· To begin building a sharing atmosphere


This exercise gives participants an opportunity to get to know each other. Even though they have met in training before this activity allows them to see each other in a different way and to begin talking and interacting.




Introduction Set-up

1. Introduce exercise by stating the purpose and asking participants to get an index card and pin.


10 Minutes 20 Minutes for mingling Time Check Summary

2. After everyone has a card, show the following newsprint:


When you have completed your card please pin it on and start to mingle with other participants and discuss each others' card. Try and meet with as many people as possible. Trainers should join group as participants after you have set up the exercise and are sure people are mingling with each other.

Let the participants know when they have five minutes left so they can check to be sure that they have talked with as many people as possible.

6 Minutes

3. Ask individuals to share some of the interesting"things" they have discovered about each other.

5 Minutes Linkage

4. Trainer now makes remarks about this session. Summarizes the interactions of the session and links to future sessions.

Trainer's Notes:

Listed below are five possible introduction exercises that can be used. You may prefer to use another exercise that will accomplish the same purpose.

1. Dyad-Quartet

Each person meets and gets to know the other; he/she in turn introduces his/her partner to another dyed.

2. Depth Unfolding Process Because it takes five minutes per person, this exercise should be done in small groups. The leader should disclose first to make trainees more comfortable.

In the first three minutes, tell what has brought you to this point in your life. Use one minute to describe your decision to join Peace Corps. Use the last minute to answer questions from others.

3. Structured Introductions

In dyads, small groups, or in large group, participants can tell why they joined Peace Corps, or write a letter to a friend about their decision.

4. Life Map

Each person draws on newsprint with crayons or magic marker a picture of their vision of their Peace Corps service, using stick figures and symbols.

5. Sentence Completion The trainer presents a series of unfinished sentences, asking each group member in turn to complete the statement.


· One of the things I anticipate about my Peace Corps service is
· The thing I will miss about home

Session T-2: The oceans, rivers, streams of the world an overview of world wide fisheries

Time: 9:30 AM


· To provide a global view of Marine Fisheries today and in the future
· To provide information on Peace Corps Marine Fisheries Goals
· To bring the individual volunteer's role into perspective
· To have participants brainstorm key problems and possible solutions concerning small scale fisheries in and around their site


This session is to bring into focus the global view of the worlds' fish supply. Are we depleting the fish of our oceans? Do we need controls world wide? These are two of the many questions that are addressed. Discussion then moves to Peace Corps goals in marine fisheries, and finally brings into perspective the role of the individual volunteer.


1. Participants brainstorm problems and solutions
2. Lecture on global views, Peace Corps Goals, individual perspectives


· Flip charts, markers, tape

EXERCISE 1 - Problems and Solutions in Marine Fisheries That Trainees May Encounter

Total Time: 45 Minutes


The purpose of this exercise is to have trainees brainstorm and record problems and solutions in marine fisheries that they expect to encounter.




45 Minutes

1. Trainer asks for groups to form based on the countries they will be going to for service. Trainer then asks groups to brainstorm problems that they expect to encounter and list them on newsprint. After problems have been listed, list possible solutions.

2. Small country groups present their lists of problems and solutions to large group.

3. Trainer summarizes the activity and points out similarities and differences.

EXERCISE 2 - Overview of Marine Fisheries From-A Global Prospective, The Peace Corps Goals, and The Individual Volunteer Role

Total Time: 1 Hour


The purpose of this exercise is to give information on the world problems in marine fisheries, to state Peace Corps Goals and to give hope to the individual volunteer that they can play a part in changing the grim predictions for the world's fisheries.




45 Minutes

1. Trainer (or, if possible, a visiting authority on Marine Fisheries)gives lecture on global picture. Lecture outline follows: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE A. Commercial Ventures

1. What impact they have on the small-scale fisherman

2. What impact they have on the world fish population

B. Small-Scale Fisheries

1. Past

a. Technical proficiency

2. Present

b. Personal fulfillment

3. Future

c. Community involvement

C. Peace Corps Goals

1. Education of fisherman in:

a. Preservation

b. Processing

c. Marketing

D. What can the individual do.

15 Minutes

2. Trainers and/or speakers ask for questions from participants. Trainer summarizes - pointing out that volunteers are a part of a large picture and have a valuable job to do and that we are going to spend the next seven weeks getting ready to do that job.

Session T-3: Special projects

Time: 4 PM


· To introduce special projects. Explain in detail how they are to be done, and when. (Important for trainees to see how special projects are integrated into schedule of training.)

· Have trainees choose one project from special group projects to lead and take responsibility for

· Have trainees choose three individual special projects overview

The purpose of all special projects is to identify those participants with special skills and have them assume responsibility for transferring those skills during training program; and to give all participants special assignments which are problem solving exercises that they will have to complete during training. For trainees to use materials made available for their use in the resource library.


· Newsprint with projects listed (trainer responsible for project and space for trainee to sign up.) Date that project is due is also listed

Trainer's Notes:

This session is confusing for trainees and has to be gone over several times. Should be checked again at beginning of next session.


The following is a listing of the special projects and special group projects used in the pilot training program. Special projects are worked on individually; special group projects, although one trainee signs up as group leader, involve any number of trainees on a volunteer basis. Depending on the size of the group and the level of marine fisheries development in the countries of assignment, the technical trainer may wish to add to or delete from these lists. A trainer will act as advisor for each project.

In presenting the lists (with the sign-up sheet, the due date, and the trainer advisor), it is important that a brief description of the project and requirements be given. Special group projects, unless otherwise noted, each require a write-up of the project for the Trainees' Resource cook (described below) including necessary charts, diagrams, and references. Special project write-ups fall under three headings:

· List A - projects which will require written reports along with essential diagrams, charts, and reference;
· List B - projects which will require diagrams with "how-to" steps, essential charts and references; and,
· List C - projects which will require only a list of references.

Because project write-ups most likely will not be typed, they must be concise and clearly written in black ink in order to provide a good photocopy for the Trainees' Resource Book.

Suggested Special Projects

List A:

1. Poisonous/toxic fish (see Session T-51)
2. Corrosion control (see Session T-54)
3. Color depth charts (see Session T-69)
4. Tropical seabirds (see Session T-50)
5. Weather for the Mariner (see Session T-36)
6. Fish aggregating devices (see Session T-72)

List B:

1. Artificial reefs/Tire breakwaters (see Session T-94)
2. Outboard/Diesel repair facilities (see Session T-22)
3. Water heater (see Session T-102)
4. Water filtration systems (see Session T-34)
5. Gyotaku (see Session T-87)
6. Filleting (see Session T-30)
7. Metric systems (see Session T-59)
8. Anatomy of hooks (see Session T-22)
9. Anchoring techniques (see Session T-73)
10. Fish silage (see Session Tell)

List C:

1. Tropical Photography (see Session T-11)
2. Library (see page 7)
3. Aquaculture (see Session T-107)
4. Efficient charcoal making (see Session T-58)
5. Blueprint reading (see Session T-68)
6. Seaweed farming (see Session T-65)
7. Cookbook for Third World fisheries (see Session T-28)
8. Constructing a scarf joint (see Session T-76)
9. Fiberglassing techniques (see Session T-79)
10. Star charting (see Session T-45)
11. Transportation Systems (see Session T-90)
12. Trainees' Resource Book (see below)

Special Group Projects

1. Gardening, Composting and Small Animal Raising (see Session T-16)
2. Communication through Illustration/Lesson Plans/Audiovisual Aids (see Session T-52)
3. Diesel and Outboard maintenance Schedules, fuels, and costs (see Session T-19)
4. Alternative Energy (see Session T-101)
5. Nutrition/fish culinary skills (see Session T-66)
6. Salt making (see Session T-49)
7. Ice box construction (see Session T-39)
8. Sailing (see Session T-84)
9. Trolling for Spanish Mackeral (see Session T-22)
10. Fish cooperatives (see Session T-91)
11. Solar fish dryer (see Session T-56)
12. Smoker: wood and tin (see Session T-57)
13. Fund raising (see Session T-88)
14. Fish issues (see Session T-98)
15. Ecology/conservation issues (see Session T-99)
16. Marketing survey of local fish products (see Session T-81)
17. Language (see Session T-3) Trainees' Resource Book

The Trainees' Resource Book is a compilation of the special project and special group project write-ups. Not only does it afford trainees the opportunity to practice putting their knowledge and experience into writing in an easy-to-follow, how-to format; it also provides them with a valuable reference in the field.

The trainee who chooses the Trainees' Resource Book as a special project will be responsible for the following:

· presenting the write-up formats for each list to the trainees;
· setting deadlines for write-up completions,
· Manual cover design;
· Table of Contents; and,
· photocopying.




Diesel and O/B Costs


Corrosion Control

Tropical Seabirds

O/B Diesel Repair Facilities

Weather for the Mariner


Anchoring Techniques

Star Charting



Salt Making Ice Box

Metric Systems

Solar Fish Dryer

Blue Prints


Construction of a Scarf Joint


Fiberglassing Techniques

Water Heater

Water Filtration System



Library Trainees' Manual

Color Depth Chart


Poisonous/Toxic Fish

Efficient Charcoal making

Fish Aggregating Devices

Seaweed Farming

Artificial Reef/Tire Break Waters

Alternating Energy

Physiology of Hooks

Language Lessons

Trolling for Spanish Mackeral


Fish Cooperatives
Marketing Survey
Fund Raising


Tropical Photography
Communication Thru Illustration
Audio Visual/Lesson Plans
Fish Issues
Ecology & Conservation


Nutrition and Fish Cooking
Gardening and Small Animal Raising
Cookbook for Third World Fisheries

Special Group Project: Languages

Time: 15 Minutes


· To expose trainees to language training
· To acquaint trainees with the languages in their countries of assignment
· To show trainees that language learning can be fun and rewarding
· For trainee assigned the special group project to build on leadership, communication and technology transfer skills


Many people experience anxieties around learning a new language. The few minutes spent each morning during technical training learning a few new words or phrases in French, Spanish or Swahili will insure a smooth transition to in-country language training on the part of the trainee. The daily language lessons should be no more than 10 or 15 minutes, and the content should be limited to the very basics, i.e., days of the week, numbers, colors, market items, how to ask directions, how to order in a restaurant, vocabulary for fishing gear, etc. In other words, building vocabulary is emphasized more than grammar.


1. Trainee assigned the special group project organizes daily language lessons, alternating among the languages of the countries of assignment.

Trainer's Notes

In the pilot program held in Puerto Real, Puerto Rico, the daily language lesson was Spanish - even though none of the trainees were going to Spanish-speaking countries. It was the feeling of the training staff during the pilot program, that the importance of learning the local language - regardless of the length of time one spends in a place - needs to be emphasized and reinforced throughout the training. Trainees in the pilot program were very positive about the Spanish lessons, and were pleased with their progress over the eight weeks of training, progress which was evident to them in their day-to-day interactions with people in Puerto Real.


· Peace Corps Language Books


Glossary of fishing gear terms

Glossaire de termes d'engins de pe

Glosario de tinos de aparejos de pesca

A. aimed trawling

chalutage contr

arrastre dirigido

anchor seining (Danish seining)

pe a senne danoise au mouillage

pesca con red de cerco danesa

angle of attack

angle d attaque

ulo de ataque

(of trawl board)

(de panneau de chalut)

(de puertas de arte de arrastre)

B. backstrop (de panneau de chalut)

patte (de las puertas)

pate de gallo

bag, bunt

poche, sac

copo del arte


filet trappe

red de copo




battings (2) petit dos

(1) diminutions (2) casarete, cazarete

(1) reduccie mallas






media malla

(of mesh)

(cde la maille)

(lado del cuadrado)




(of longline)

(de palangre)

(de palangre)

beach seine

senne de plage

arte de playa, atarraya


chalut erche

arte de arrastre de vara, vara da barra







(of trawinet)

(de chalut)

(de arte de arrastre)


barrette do ventre


boat seine

senne de bateau

red de cerco


diabolos, sphs

boles. dilos

(of groundrope)

(de bourrelet)

(de relinga inferior o de promos)



cabo de entrallar







(of trawinet)

(de chalut)

(de arte de arrastre)


calur le fond

calado en el fondo

bottom trawl

chalut de fond

arte de arrastre en el fondo




(of trawl board)

(de panneau de chalut)

(de puerta de arte de arrastre)




(netting Yarn)

(fil pour filet)

(hilo pare red)




(of netting)

(de filet)

(de la red)







breaking load

rstance A la rupture

resistencia a la rotura

bull trawl






(of purse seine)

(de senne coulissante)

(de arte de cerco de jareta)





leucalenal de bou

boya luminosa


guindineau triangle


(of trawl)

(de chalut)

(de red de arrastre)

C chafer



(for codend)

(pour cul de chalut)

(del copo)



saco copo

(of trawlnet)

(de chalut)

(de arte de arrastre)


raban da cul


(of trawinet)

(da chalut)

(de arte de arrastre)




(of rope)

(de filin)

(de cabo)




combination rope

filin mixte

malleta alambrada


patte d'oie

pate de gallo

cutting rata

processus do coupo

indice de reducci/TD>

(of netting)

(do filet)

(de pade red)

D. Danish seine

senna danoise

red danesa








filet soulev/TD>


disc roller

diabolo plat

dilo, rodillo

(for groundrope)

(pour bourrelet)

(de relinga da promos)

double knot

double noeud

nudo doble

double rig

grent double

aparejo doble






draga, rastra


filet dvant

arte de derive

E elasticity



(of netting yarn)

(do fil pour filet)

(del hilo para red)




(of netting yarn)

(de fil pour filet)

(del hilo para red)

end bracket

gousset d'extrt/TD>

pie de gallo

eye splice

oeil s/TD>


F. fishing lamp

lampe da pe

lara de pesca

fish pump

pompe oisson

bomba para peces


voile tambour


((of trawlnet)

(de chalut)

(de la red de arrastre)

fleet (of nets)

tre (de redes)






ralingue do flotteurs

relinga alta, de corchos


dragaga a vol

pescar en marcha

(Danish saining)

(pe a senne danoise)

(con red danesa)

flying mesh or flymesh

maille folle

malla libre

foam plastic

mousse do plastique

plico poroso


bourrelet ralingue infeure

relinga de promos, burl/TD>

front weight

poids anteur

peso anterior

full mesh

maille franche

malla entera

(in cutting of netting)

(on coupe de filet)

(en la reduccie la red)




G. gear (for fishing)

engin (pour la pe)

equipo, material de pesca


croc en G

gancho en G


filet maillant

red de enmalle


bourrelet de coco

relinga de bonote

(of trawl)

(de chalut)

(de arte de arrastre)



telinga de promos

H. halving back, see splitting strop


ligna ain

aparejo, llnea de mano


montage armement

armar un arte

(of netting)

(d'un filet)

hanging ratio

taux d'armement

coeficiente de armadura


corde da dos

relinga de corchos

heaving bag

double poche extoure

saco de izar

high opening trawl vertical

chalut rando ouverture verticale

arte de arrastre de mucha abertura




hook shaft

tige do l'hame hampe

brazo del anzuelo

hook tip

pointe do l'hame ardillon

punta del gancho, muerte



cercar, rodear, cerco




(trawl board)

(panneau do chalut)

(puerta de arte de arrastre)

I. Inflatable float

flotteur gonflable


J. jig




abouture, collage


(of net sections)

(do pis de filet)

(de pade red)

K. kelly a eye




plateau vateur





knotless netting, Raschel

filet sans noeuds, Raschel

red sin nudos, Raschel

knotless netting, twisted

filet sans noeuds, retordu

red sin nudos, colchada

l. lacing


pasar una randa, ligadura,. atadura

lampara net

filet lamparo




relinga de contorno

(of trawlnet)

(de chalut)




(of rope, etc.,)

(d'un filin etc)

(de un cabo, etc.)


baillon hala-otd



ralingue plomb

relinga de promos

leg (of trawl)

patte (de chalut)


lengthening piece (of trawlnet)

rallonge (de chalut)




balanza, medio mundo

light fishing

pe a lumi

pesca con luz







(of chain)

(do chaine)

(de cadena)

live bait


cebo vivo


palangre, cordo



palangrier, cordier

buque palangrero




M. mainline (of longline)

ligne principale (de palangre)

linea. linea madre





longueur de la maille

luz de la malla




midwater trawl

chalut pgique

aite de arrastre pelagico




mudrope (of trawl)

bourrelet pour fond do vase (de chalut)

relinga de promos pare fondos sucios




N. net




nappe de filet, al

pae red

netting Yarn

fil pour filet

hilo pare redes

O. opening type (puree ring) otter board. See trawl board

anneau do coulisse du type ouvrant

anillas que se pueden abrir

otter trawl

chalut anneaux

arte de arrastre de puertas




overhand knot

noeud simple

nudo llano

P. pair trawl


arrastre de pareja

panel (of net)

face (de filet)


patent link pelagic trawl, see midwater trawl

maillon brevet/TD>

eslabe patente







(netting yore)

(fil pour filet)

(hilo para redes)


maille de c

malla lateral

(in cutting of netting) poke, pork line, see lazyline

(en coupe do filet)

(corte da pa

pole and line (tuna fishing)

canne (pe du thon)

pesca con ca/TD>

pony board


puerta secundaria


nasse, casier


pot warp

orin do castor

cabo de nasa

pound not

filet pi

almadraba. trampa

preservation (of yarns, etc.)

conservation (des fils, etc.)


pureed lampara net

filet lampara coulissant

mampara de cerco

puree line



puree ring

anneau do coulisse


purse ring bridle

pantoire d'anneau de coulisse

cabo de anillas, rabiza de anilla

purse seine

senne coulissante, bolinche

red de cerco de jareta

purse seiner


embarcaciue pesca al cerco. cerquera

Q. quarter points (au coin do carr

triangle d'aile

secciones del burl/TD>

quarter rope R. Raschel, see knotless netting

parpaillot, biribi


recessed link

maille ats


reef knot

noeud plat

nudo llano




(of gear)


(el arte)


filet tournant

red de cerco



dilo, rodillo

(for groundrope)

(pour bourrelet)

(pare relinga da promos)


filin, cordage



longueur par unite poids

longitud por unidad da peso

S. scoop net

isette, haveneau





(of net)

(de filet)

(de red)



red de cerco





bordure renforc

enchace, borde, costura

semi-pelagic trawl

chalut semi-pgique

arte de arrastre semipelco

et gillnet

filet maillant cal/TD>

red de enmalle fija


filet cal/TD>

red fija





chaine d'rtement

cadena de refuerzo

sheet bend, or weaver knot

noeud d'ute ou de tisserand

vuelta de escota, nudo de tejedor

shoe plate

ment de semelle


(of trawl board)

(de panneau de chalut)

(de puerta de arrastre)

shrimp trawl

chalut revette

arte camaronero

shrimp trawler


camaronero (embarcaci


retrait au mouillage


(of yarn, etc.)

(de fil, etc.)


couture latle

costura lateral

side trawler

chalutier latl

arrastrero por el costado







spacer diac



(for groundrope)

(de bourrelet)

(de relinga de promos)

splitting strop

erse de cul


square (of trawinet)

grand dos (de chalut)

cielo del arte, visera



estaca, posse. pilote


haut-parc et bas-parc

arte de estacada

staple fibre

fibre, discontinue, schappe

fibra corta


chalutier arri

arrastrero por pope

stick-held dipnet

filet soulevoutenu par un bn

salabardo con mango

stow net

diable, chalut 'lage




cabo trenzado, rebenque

(of yarns)

(de fil)

strengthening rope

filin do renfort, ralingue

cabo da refuerzo, relinga




(of netting)

(de filet) ou nappe

(piezas de redes)




sunk driftnet

filet dvant on profondeur

red de derive en profundidiad

surrounding net

filet encerclant

red de cerco

sweepline, sweep





grillete giratorio

T. take-up



(of meshes)

(de mailles)

(de malias)


folle, filet emmnt

red de enmalle




taper ratio

rapport de diminution

Indice de reducci/TD>


gorges, tambour


(of fyke net)

(de verveux)

(bituron alas)

tickler chain

chaine gratteuse

cadena pare levantar camar/TD>





filet pi

nasa, trampa

trawl board

panneau de chalut

puerta del arte




trawl gear

engin de chalutage

arte de arrastre



red de arrastre


bateau de pe a traine



pe a traine

pesca a la cacea


chalut d'essai

red de ensayo

(for shrimp trawling)

(pour chalutago a crevette)

(pare pescar camarl arrastre)


fil, fil retors


twist factor

coefficient do torsion

coeficiente de torsi/TD>

(of yarn)

(de fil)

(del hilo)

V, vinge trawl, see wing trawl

W. warp


cable de arrastre

(for trawl)

(de chalut)

weaver knot

noeud de tisserand

nudo de tejedor

(or sheet bend)

(ou noeud d'ute)

(vuelta de escota)

webbing, see netting



alsa, bandas, pernadas

(of trawinet)

(de chalut)


pointe d'aile

extremo del ala

wing trawl

chalut rande ouverture verticale

arte de mucha abertura vertical

wire rope

filin d'acier

cable, cable de acero

Y. yarn, see netting yarn

Z. zipper line jareta

ligne de transfilage

mataficabos pare dividir 105 cerc

zipper ring carco de jareta

anneau pour transfilage

anillas de los cabos de divisie

Session T-4: Introduction to nets

Time: 7:30 PM


· For trainees to acquire basic information about nets and their usage by small scale-fishermen


In this session trainees will be introduced to a variety of fish nets, tools, floats, etc. They will have several types described and they will try to ascertain their use.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart, pens, nets, lines, floats, net needles and twine

Trainer's Notes:

We borrowed nets from local fishermen and had trainees handle nets, floats, etc.




1. Technical trainer has trainees pick up net. Has them straighten net out. Trainer asks how they invision net being used.

Trainer's Note

If possible, borrow a Gill Net for this exercise.

2. Technical trainer now draws a rough sketch of a Trammel Net and has trainees once again tell how they think this net is used. Trainer repeats this process with drawings of the following:

- Drift Gill Net

- Common Haul Seine

- Long Haul Seine

- Long Seine

- Short Seine

- Otter Trowl

- Cast Net

Trainer's Note:

You will want to describe several types of nets, especially those that you know trainees will be using or will see being used.

3. Trainer concludes the session by saying that nets and net mending are an intrinsic part of small scale fishermen life. They not only provide a means of catching fish, but also play an important part in the social life of the fishing community. As volunteers, you will be prepared to mend nets and be good at mending nets. Over the next several weeks you will have lots of practice time.

Session T-5: Non-verbal communication

Time: 8:30 PM


· To identify ways we communicate verbally and non-verbally
· To identify patterns of non-verbal communication
· To look at perceptions one has about one's non-verbal message
· To identify some implications of non-verbal communication for cross cultural effectiveness
· To develop non-verbal communication skills


This session explores communication as a process. Trainees will have received some non-verbal communications training previously. This session will reinforce those learnings and concentrate on building nonverbal skills.


1. "Messages" and lecture

2. Reflections on non-verbal communications and observations of another.

EXERCISE 1 - Messages Total Time: 30 Minutes


We communicate our likes and dislikes; actually, we communicate more non-verbally about relationships than we do in any other way. In this exercise we are going to communicate non-verbally only.




5 Minutes

1. Trainer announces that "we are going to try a game, the meaning of which we will discover later, trust me." The game is structured rather like charades except that one may not use charade-like signals (such as spelling with the fingers or using word conventions). Even if you have played this game before, it is fun to see if you are becoming skillful at it.

10 Minutes

2. In pairs, give each person a message on a piece of paper (see list below); then tell the group that they have three minutes to try to get the message across without using words. They cannot write, spell or talk. Trainer keeps track of time. After first three minutes, switch so that the other person can try it out also. A sample list of messages follows (you may add your own but the message should include either an emotion or communicate something about a relationship, as well as try to give a message about a thing).

Messages (have them written out on slips of paper):

a. "I'm angry because the goats ate my garden."

b. "I'm happy because your crew arrived to work today."

c. "I'm frustrated because you never listen to me."

d. "You can't understand me, and this frightens me."

e. "I'm surprised at your youthful appearance."

f. "I like you and want to be your friend."

g. "I'm weak (and submissive)and you are strong(and dominant)."

5 Minutes

3. After the non-verbal experience, gather group reactions:

o What was that like for you?

o What was easy about it (i.e., what part of the message could you get)?

o What was difficult (i.e., what part of the message couldn't you get)?

10 Minutes

4. Build a lecture out of group experience:

o How many of you know about non-verbal communication?

o What is it? Give some examples.

o What does non-verbal communication communicate?

o How aware are you of your own non-verbal message?

As trainees answer these questions, write down the answers on a flip chart and examine them with the group. At the end, the group and the trainer should arrive at a working definition of non-verbal communication which they can test out during the next week with each other.

EXERCISE 2 - Reflections on Non-Verbal Communications and Observations Of Another

Total Time: 30 Minutes


The purpose of this exercise is to give individuals time to think about how they communicate non-verbally. They can then decide if there is perhaps some new or different non-verbal behavior they would like to try out during training.




15 Minutes

1. Trainer lists on newsprint the following:

o Body Bearing

o Appearance

o Tone of Voice

o Use of Space

o Content of Language

o Gestures

o Ornaments

o Touching

o Facial Expressions

o Smells

o Colors

o Signs

o Grooming

o Manners

o Eye Contact

o Clothing

o Actions

o Sounds

o Others

Asks participants to take a few minutes to write down how and what they think they communicate non-verbally in each one of these categories.

5 Minutes

2. Ask participants to look over responses to the non verbal categories. Determine if there is some area of non-verbal communication they want to strengthen or perhaps change.

5 Minutes

3. Ask participants to choose partners which will be for the purpose of "observing each other" for a one week period in order to learn more about non-verbal communication and the way we are perceived by another. The task is to "watch each other" during the week whenever possible, and to notice how the other person uses non-verbal communication. At this point, they may want to share with each other their responses to the non-verbal categories-to check-out their perceptions of how and what they communicate non-verbally.

5 Minutes

4. Trainer says that at the end of the week, the same pairs will meet to both provide each other feedback on how they communicated non-verbally and to draw some generalizations from the experience about how people from our culture communicate non-verbally. Also, participants will be able to check their own non-verbal images with their partners.

Session T-6: Introduction to net construction and repair

Time: 7:30 AM


· To have trainees learn basic net mending techniques focusing primarily on the Becket Bend as well as the nomenclature of nets


In this session trainees learn how to construct and/or repair a net using the Becket Bend.

Materials and Equipment:

· Sections of netting, net needles (various sizes, types) net twine, hand-out on Becket Bend

Trainer's Notes:

Practice is necessary for net mending proficiency. We had trainees practice out of doors in view of local fishermen. Local fishermen took great interest, helped trainees by showing them how they tie knots, etc, and reinforced net mending as a social event as much as a practical skill.




30 Minutes

1. Technical trainer passes out instructions for Becket Bend. Next passes out net which has been cut so that it can be repaired. Trainees are given net needles and twine. Technical trainer shows each one how to mend using Becket Bend.

1 Hour

2. Trainees spend the remainder of session mending net. Technical trainer remains at scene but does not offer help unless asked. At the end of first hour, inspects trainees work and makes appropriate comments. 3. Trainees continue net mending. At end of the hour the technical trainer goes over highlights of the net session from the night before and links to future net mending sessions.

Instruction card

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Session T-7: Introduction to outboard engines

Time : 9:30 AM


· To introduce very basic internal design and operating procedures for the two-cycle low horsepower outboard
· To have trainees be able to speak of/about outboard in proper terminology


In this session trainees are introduced to the outboard engine. For some this will be a refresher; for others, the workings of an engine will be brand new. The technical trainer will use an outboard motor to demonstrate the functions. As the technical trainer talks about how engine operates and various parts, used parts will be passed among trainees for them to see and handle.


· Outboard engine, engine parts, schematic of O.B. engine




1. Technical trainer introduces outboard engine. Points out:

o power head

o water check

o pump vent

o exhaust column

o water pump

o cavitation plate

o lower unit

o carburetor

o spark plugs

o power pack (if appropriate)

As technical trainer points these parts out, used parts are passed around for trainees to handle. Trainer explains each function.

2. Trainer covers outboard engine and asks each trainee to draw an outline of the O.B. (basic schematic) and try to identify as many parts as they can and where they belong in the engine.

3. Technical trainer now shows trainees a schematic which has been drawn earlier with all parts labeled.

4. Technical trainer explains the importance of knowing the right names for parts and their functions.

5. Technical trainer links to next O.B. engine session which will be about maintenance and its importance.

Trainer's Notes

Parts to be handed out should cover as wide a range as possible: old blocks, pistons, gears, carburetors, etc. If possible contrast an old part and a newer one pointing out signs of wear, neglect or poor maintenance.

Outboard motor maintenance tips

by Peter L. Hendricks
Hawaii County Agent
University of Hawaii
Sea Grant College Program

Adapted, by permission, from Basic Outboard Motor Maintenance, published by the University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program, August 1977 (UNIHISEAGRANT-AB-77-03).

Figure 1. - Cutaway drawing of typical internal combustion, reciprocating outboard engine (Otto Cycle).

Oregon State University Extension Marine Advisory Program
A Land Grant / Sea Grant Cooperative
SG 43 September 1978

Another title in the series

Marine recreation outboard engines

Most outboards, given proper care, require little service other than periodic maintenance and adjustment. The individual engine owner can handle most of the periodic maintenance. This bulletin was written to aid the individual in basic outboard maintenance skills. Most of the procedures are possible without special tools. If you are in doubt about your motor's service, consult a dealer or, in minor cases, the factory authorized owner's manual for your particular engine.

Power source

The power source for all outboard motors is the internal combustion, reciprocating engine (see figure 1). The basic difference in these power sources is the way in which the fuel mixture is ignited. Most outboards have their fuel ignited by an electric spark (Otto Cycle Engine), as opposed to heat of compression ignition (Diesel Cycle). In most outboards, one complete crankshaft revolution completes the series of events necessary to make the engine run. This is called a two-stroke cycle.

In a two-stroke cycle engine, five events must take place in two strokes of the piston, or in one revolution of the crankshaft. They are: (1) intake (fuel and air), (2) compression, (3) ignition, (4) power, and (5) exhaust. A compressed fuel charge is fired each time the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, and each downward stroke is a power stroke.

In order to accomplish this, the initial pressure of the incoming fuel-air mixture must be raised to a point somewhat higher than the lowest pressure existing in the cylinder; otherwise, a fresh charge of fuel could not be admitted and the engine would not run. This elevation of pressure requires the use of an air pump, or compressor, of approximately the same volume as the cylinder itself.

Coincidentally, such an air pump is available with a minimum of additional parts, cost, or frictional losses by utilizing the opposite side of the piston and cylinder as the pump. Such engines, called crankcase-scavenged, are almost universally used in the outboard motor industry.

In the crankcase-scavenged engine, most of the frictional parts requiring lubrication are located in the fuel intake system. Lubrication is accomplished by mixing the required amount of oil with the fuel, so that a small amount of oil, in the form of a fine mist, is drawn into the crankcase with each fuel charge.

It should be pointed out that the new oil brought into the crankcase can do little more than supplement the losses; therefore, it is necessary that the frictional parts be well lubricated at the time the engine is started. The use of too much oil in the fuel mixture results in spark plug fouling, excessive carbon buildup, and poor performance, as well as being wasteful. Too little oil results in excessive wear and shorter engine life.

Periodic servicing Many of the troubles related to outboard motors will be much easier to repair if caught before they do extensive damage. Sometimes the lack of proper servicing is the primary cause of failure.

The following list of procedures may help in a regular program of preventive maintenance for your outboard. Preservice checkout. Perhaps the boat has been out of the water and the engine has not been run for a long period - say, several months. Here are a few simple preservice procedures:

1. Remove, clean, inspect, and properly gap spark plugs. Replace defective plugs. (Use new gaskets and tighten the plugs to the manufacturer's recommendations.)
2. Remove oil level plug from gearcase and check for proper oil level.
3. Thoroughly clean and refinish engine surface, as necessary. Undercoat bare metal with anodyzing primer (such as zinc chromate), then paint with marine enamel.
4. Check battery for full charge and clean terminals. Clean and inspect battery cables. Cover cable connections with grease to prevent corrosion.
5. If possible, run motor in test tank prior to installing on boat. Check water pump and thermostat operation.

Inservice checkout.

1. Drain and flush gearcase. Refill to correct level, using manufacturer's recommended lubricant.
2. Remove and clean fuel filter bowl. Replace fuel bowl element. Always use new filter bowl gasket.
3. Clean and regap spark plugs to recommended gap. Replace worn, cracked, or burnt spark plugs. (Use new gaskets and tighten plugs to manufacturer's recommendations.)
4. Check propeller for correct pitch. Replace if propeller is badly worn, chipped, or bent.
5. Lubricate all grease fittings using manufacturer's recommended lubricant.
6. Check remote control box, cables, and wiring harness. Shift lever should move through full range from reverse to forward. Throttle lever should move smoothly from low idle to full open. Lubricate exposed movable lengths of control cables. Adjust lever tension on control box so levers operate smoothly yet remain where positioned when you take your hand off.
7. Check steering controls for smooth movement without slack; lubricate mechanical steering.
8. Lubricate all carburetor and magneto linkages with manufacturer's recommended lubricant.
9. Adjust tension on magneto and/or generator drive belts.
10. Clean and coat battery terminals with grease.
11. Check thermostat and water pump operation. Engine, when in neutral, should pump warm spray of water (not more than 160° F, or 71° C) from hole in exhaust tower.
12. Check breaker points condition and timing.
13. Check carburetor and ignition synchronization.
14. Check carburetor adjustment. On most models, turn high speed adjustment slowly clockwise until engine loses speed or dies, then counterclockwise (about 1/8 turn) until engine returns to highest speed. Turn low speed adjustment slowly clockwise until engine idles roughly or dies, then counterclockwise until it returns to smooth idle.


Proper transom height and engine tilt are critical to good performance. If the motor is mounted too high above the water, the propeller will slip, churn, and cavitate with little useful power. If mounted too close to the water, the motor will drag, kick up excess spray, and tend to submerge in a following sea. Wrong angle or tilt of the motor pushes the bow or stern down, slows the boat, and wastes fuel. Most installations are just right when the lower unit is vertical at full boat speed, but you will probably want to experiment for best performance.


Propeller selection (see figure 2) is generally an easy matter for the outboard owner. If the motor is used on an average runabout, the standard propeller is usually adequate.

For other than average conditions, you may want to change to a different pitch propeller. Pitch is the theoretical distance that the propeller would travel in a solid substance if it made one complete revolution without slippage (figure 3). Increasing the pitch reduces rpm at full throttle, while reducing the pitch will increase rpm at full throttle. If your boat is large and slow, you may do better with a lowpitch propeller; if your boat is light and fast, higher pitch will help. An important point is to use a propeller that allows the engine to spin within rated speed range at full throttle.

Spark plugs

Regular spark plug service is important because outboards are tough on plugs. Use exactly the recommended plugs, clean and adjust gaps regularly, keep outside porcelain dry, and always carry a spare set of plugs. Remember to use a good gasket when replacing the plugs. The gasket not only prevents loss of compression but is also responsible for keeping the plug electrode at design temperature.

Figure 2. - Propeller diameter, one of two common dimensions wed to describe propellers.

Figure 3. - Propeller pitch, the second common dimension used in describing propellers.

Saltwater care

Motors that are used in saltwater present special problems and require meticulous care. Aluminum alloys used in outboard motors are highly resistant to corrosion by oxidation (breakdown of metal, caused by its combination with oxygen) but very susceptible to galvanic action (electrical process of depositing atoms of one metal, in solution, on the surface of a different metal).

Although oxidation cannot occur under water, it is very prevalent in humid environments. Aluminum parts are protected from galvanization by anodizing (the process of coating metal with a hard shell of aluminum oxide). But this covering is only protective if it remains unbroken. Here are some tips for care of all motors used in saltwater:

1. After each use, tilt the motor out of the water and flush out the entire motor with coot fresh water. Flush for 1 to 2 minutes and do so within 1 to 2 hours of use to prevent salt buildup inside the motor. A garden hose with a flushing attachment is convenient for rinsing saltwater out of the motor.

2. If possible, periodically flush the motor with fresh water, following manufacturer's recommendations.

3. Be sure the motor is adequately protected with an approved paint. Check regularly for chips and scratches. NOTE: Do not use antifouling paint, since it contains copper or mercury and can hasten galvanic corrosion, unless the manufacturer states that it is intended for use on aluminum.

4. Check frequently to be sure that no aluminum parts are left unprotected. Protect bare metal quickly with an anodizing primer and marine enamel topcoat.

5. A small self-sacrificing block of unpainted corrosion-susceptible metal - a "zinc" - mounted near the part to be protected will sometimes spare a valuable part from corrosion. Zincs can be mounted on the flat cavitation plate, after stripping the finish down to bare metal, with stainless steel or hot-dipped galvanized screws. All surfaces around the block must be protected with paint. NOTE: Consult a dealer before attempting to install such a device.

For further reading

Chilton's Repair and Tune Up Guide for Outboard Motors 30 Horsepower and Over, published by Chilton Book Co., Radnor, Pa. 19809.

Outboard Motor Service Manual, published by ABOS Marine Publications, 9221 Quivira Rd.,
Overland Park, Kans. 66212.


Extension Service, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Henry A. Wadsworth, director. This publication was produced and distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. Extension work is a cooperative program of Oregon State University, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Oregon counties. Extension's Marine Advisory Program is supported in part by the Sea Grant Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Extension invites participation in its activities and offers them equally to all people, without discrimination.

Session T-8: Individual interviews/net mending

Time: 20 to 30 Minutes per Person


· To give each trainee individual time with trainers
· To give feedback to each trainee on their progress
· To review the assessment dimensions
· For trainees to practice net mending


In this session trainees are given formal feedback by the staff, based on staff consensus. Trainees are asked if they have any feedback for staff. Personal concerns that trainees may have are checked for. This time is seen as a time for building trust between the staff and trainee. This is basically a time for net mending practice and trainees are called out of practice for interviews.




1. Trainees are assembled at their net mending site. Trainers conduct interviews nearby but in a private place. The following format is recommended for this weeks interviews:

o Do you have any concerns that you want to talk about?

o On a scale of 1-10 and based on the eight week training design

content, how would you rate your technical skills?

o Do you have any questions about the assessment dimensions?

o Where are you in your decision to go?

o Anything you want the staff to be aware of?

Trainer's Notes:

You should allow yourself a few minutes between interviews to record "quotes" and impressions from interviews. This early in the training program you will want to record all data and information.

Session T-9: Values clarification

Time: 7:30 PM


· For trainees to get in touch with their own value system
· To see what we have learned so far about Purero Rican cultural values
· To explore commonalties and differences
· To find ways of accepting cultural differences


In this session, trainees will be asked to list their own cultural values. The purpose is to see how many more of their own values they have identified since living in Puerto Rico and to look at Puerto Rican cultural values, so that trainees can begin to see commonalties and differences. Finally, trainees will be seeking ways to accept the differences. This lays the ground work for extension work training later in the program.


1. Cultural value explorations: mine, ours, theirs, acceptance.


· Flip charts, marker pens, tape

EXERCISE 1 - Cultural Values: An Exploration- Mine, Ours, Theirs, Acceptance Total Time: l Hour 45 Minutes


To explore different cultural systems. Find ways to accept the differences.




5 Minutes

1. Trainer posts on newsprint the following diagram:





Give a brief lecture stating that values are not good or bad, they just are. The reason we want to take a good look at our cultural values in this session is to start at just basically a very general point culture. The unique lifestyles of a particular group of people is a learned behavior that is communicable. We are able to see two very key concepts of culture. It is communicable, thank goodness. It means you can learn something about it. Because if it were not communicable, we would have nothing to do here today or for the rest of your volunteer service. To learn about the behavior of others is also very meaningful, not only in a social sense, but also in a management sense, because I think it is important for people to understand the influence that environment has on culture, on you and understand that you are not "born" with a culture. You can be born into a culture but you are not born a culture, if I could make that distinction. Another positive aspect of learned behavior says to us that we can also not only broaden our appreciation of other cultures, but also broaden our ability to participate in other cultures, in other cultural milieu. To start our participation in this culture, we need to go back to ourselves and then come forward.

15 Minutes

2. Trainer asks trainees to make a list of their own cultural values. You may have done this before, so it will be easy. You may also notice that you have gotten in touch with values you were unaware of since coming to Puerto Rico.

30 Minutes

3. Trainer now asks participants to form groups of four. 0Share their lists of cultural values and look for similarities and differences in their lists.

15 Minutes

4. Trainer now asks group to share their differences and write them on newsprint. Then asks for ways in which we accept differences in our own culture.

20 Minutes

5. Trainer now asks groups to list as many cultural values of Puerto Rico as they can. Trainer asks that after they have completed this list, they once again check for commonalties and differences.

15 Minutes

6. Trainer now asks the groups to make a list on news print of ideas they may have for accepting these differences.

Trainer's Notes

List is included as a guide.

15 Minutes

7. Trainer now requests that small groups share with large groups their ideas.

Trainer now leads discussion of how these ideas can be used in the volunteer experience.

List of Ways of Accepting Differences
- Adjust to environment
- Have respect for culture and customs
- Cultural sensitivity
- Patience
- Be outgoing
- Empathy
- Introspection
- Be flexible enough to (tolerate, accept) values different from our own
- Educate ourselves to explain motives for values
- Realize our values are as different to them as theirs to us
- Conformity/compromise
- Understanding that the differences are deep-rooted and cultural
- Ability to modify outward behavior without modifying inward values
- Keep an open mind - culturally and personally
- Good sense of humor (able to laugh at self)

Session T-10: Outboard engine trouble shooting

Time 7:30 AM


· For trainees to become oriented to trouble-shooting techniques necessary in outboard engine maintenance, repair and operation

· For trainees to do actual maintenance work

· For trainees to be checked out in small boat handling skills


During this session trainees learn about outboard engine troubleshooting. They will learn how to do simple maintenance tasks and the importance of doing these tasks regularly. During this session each trainee will go out in a small boat with technical trainer to be "checked out" in their ability to handle a small boat.

Materials and Equipment:

· Outboard engine, new parts, spark plugs, starter cord, fuel filter, transmission oil, propeller, grease gun, WD 40/Solvent, OB engine tool kit Procedures



2 Hours

1. Technical trainer asks for trainees to volunteer to do one of the following maintenance functions on the demo outboard engine Ignition systems

- remove spark plugs, clean and/or replace

- use spark plug wrench correctly

Starter Cord

- remove starter cord housing

- remove starter cord

- replace with new starter cord

- check main spring for cracks

- lubricate and replace starter cord housing


- adjust idle valve/screw (for rich and/or lean fuel mix, one quarter turn for each


Fuel Filter and Transmission Oil

- remove filter and clean with gasoline, replace filter

- transmission oil/drain old oil, replace lower unit housing transmission oil

Engine Housing Maintenance

- clean upper and lower unit with fresh water. Wipe salt water from unit with clean rag after use

- clean inside of upper unit with clean cloth soaked in solvent and/or WD 40.

- flush water cooling intake with fresh water, to clean out collected salts and prevent marine corrosion


- remove and or replace propeller, locate nicks and/ or cracks in propeller and file down

- remove propeller and replace shear pins Grease

- properly grease all bearings and/or grease valves Corrosion

- locate pitting and/or corroded surfaces, clean, file down do bare metal, repaint with anti-fouling compound paint. Use only approved paints for aluminum surfaces.

2. Technical trainer announces that all trainees will have to be able to perform all of these maintenance functions within a week. They are free to practice on demo, but will be expected to do a complete maintenance check on one of the local fishermen's outboard engines.

Trainer's Notes:

Trainee will have to make own arrangements to do free maintenance on fishermen's O.B. engines. It is advisable to have one of the trainees who understands O.B. functions to check out those who are doing maintenance for first time. Every trainee must be able to perform all functions. It is important for you to emphasize that O.B. engines will last a long time with proper maintenance, and that one of the biggest problems found in developing countries is that maintenance functions are not demonstrated thoroughly to fishermen. Consequently, there are many unnecessary costly repairs incurred by the small-scale fisherman.

20 Minutes/ trainer

3. While trainees continue to practice maintenance trainee functions technical checks out trainees in small boat handling.

Trainer's Notes:

For some of the trainees this will be the first time handling a small boat. Technical trainer will give these trainees initial instruction and allow them to operate the boat in open water. Trainees will have to find practice time, and until they check out will have to go out in boat with one of the trainees who can operate a boat safely and correctly. Once again trainees have only one week in which to acquire this skill and be checked out. When they feel they are ready, it is up to them to ask to be checked out.

1. Trainee check out list:
- Overview of check-out
- Starting
- Reverse
- Low speed (no wake zone)
- High speed
- Wide circle
- Tight small circle
- Bay entrance
- Stop engine
- Start engine
- Return to dock
- Low speed (no wake zone)
- Docking
- Night navigation/operation

Session T-11: Tropical photography - extension

Time: 4 PM - 5 PM


· To provide information regarding camera care in a tropical environment
· To suggest alternative ways to photograph subjects in the tropics
· To provide technical transfer and workshop skills to the trainee presenting the session


This session is presented as a special project by a trainee. The need to document work is important, especially when dealing in technical areas. The opportunity for the PCV in the field to record workshops and/ or special projects is only limited by expertise as a photographer. In the tropics, there are special considerations that must be adhered to; it is these "rules" that this presentation of tropical photography deals with.




1 Hour

1. Trainee presents an overview of photography and brings into focus the relevant procedures for insuring quality photographs in a tropical environment.

2. Trainee presents a list of resources for additional information on the above.

Materials and Equipment:

· Flip chart, pens, misc. cameras and camera equipment


· Eastman Kodak Co. Rochester, N.Y. 14560 Notes on Tropical Photography, 1978
· Photographing Tidepools, Velma Bosworth, Oregon State University Sea Grant, 1978

Notes on Tropical Photography

Suggestions for Residents:

The instructions in the following sections are intended for photographers who work in tropical climates either as residents or on location for a considerable time. The precautions may or may not be necessary, depending on the particular climate and on the facilities available. Today, many buildings in the tropics are air-conditioned, and such appliances as humidifiers, dehumidifiers, and refrigerators-portable or otherwise- are either available locally or they can be shipped in and used where there is a supply of electricity.

Care of Photographic Equipment:

Moderately high temperature is not in itself detrimental to cameras and accessories, but intense heat should be avoided except for those times when the equipment is in actual use. When high temperatures is coupled with high humidity, the growth of fungus on bellows, camera cases, fabrics and even lenses is a certainty.

Do not leave cameras and accessories either in hot sunshine for longer than is necessary or in enclosed spaces, such as the glove compartment or the trunk of a car that is standing in the sun. Remember that a white surface reflects heat as well as light. For this reason, a white-painted enclosure remains cooler in sunshine than a dark-colored one.

Abrasive dust is a major problem in many tropical climates. There are few enclosures that can exclude it altogether. Enclosing the camera and auxiliary lenses in plastic bags is helpful, but in a humid atmosphere the stagnant air in the bag promotes the rapid growth of fungus. Equipment should not be kept enclosed in this way for longer than a few hours.

Constant cleaning of the camera parts before and after use is a necessary procedure. Special care must be taken with lenses; the abrasive action of gritty dust is a serious threat to the glass surfaces, and consequently, to the photographic image. Clean lenses by gently brushing or blowing off dust. Any wiping or cleaning with fluid or tissue must be done with the greatest care and as infrequently as possible. Keep both ends of lenses capped when not in use.

Some photographers mount a haze filter or a piece of optical glass permanently on the lens as protection against abrasion by dust. A scratched filter can be renewed at moderate cost if necessary. A Haze filter has no appreciable effect on exposures.

Storage of Photographic Materials:

Sensitized photographic materials are perishable products under practically any conditions. Proper storage is therefore important at all times, especially in tropical climates, because deterioration is rapid in a hot and humid atmosphere.

Black-and-white materials withstand moderate heat without serious changes in their characteristics. Color films intended for amateur use (sometimes called "consumer" films) should be stored where the temperature will not rise above 24°C (75°F) for more than a few days. Kodak color films intended for professional use (they have the word "professional" in the film name) should always be stored in a refrigerator at 13°C (55°F) or lower.

Extremes of relative humidity are a serious threat to all photographic materials, even at moderate temperatures. At high temperatures, the effects of humidity are greatly accelerated. Not only are the sensitometric characteristics of the material impaired, but physical damage occurs as well. Sheets of film may stick together or become glazed in patches where they touch one another. Rolls of film may "block" or stock so that they cannot be unwound, or the outside edges of the roll may be affected more than the inside so that the film buckles. Moreover, cardboard cartons swell and break open, labels drop off, and cans rust. These effects can be expected if the relative humidity remains above 60 percent. Extremely low relative humidity, on the other hand, is not quite so serious, but if it falls below 15 percent for a considerable time, an electric humidifier should be installed and set to maintain a relative humidity of 40 to 50 percent in the storage area.

Storage of Films and Color Papers: These materials are supplied in packages incorporating a barrier to protect them against moisture vapor. Only when the relative humidity is above 60 percent for most of the time is it necessary to protect the packages against dampness. Black-and-white films and papers can be stored at normal room temperatures in an air-conditioned room, for example Professional color materials should be stored in a refrigerator until the seal is broken.

When the seal has been broken, films should be used as soon as possible. Since the air in a refrigerator is moist, partially used packages should be returned to the refrigerator in a sealed can together with a desiccant to absorb the moisture within the container. When partially used packages of color paper are stored in a refrigerator, press out excess air from the foil envelope, make a double fold at the open end, and seal with adhesive tape.

In general, do not keep more film and paper than necessary in stock, particularly when good storage conditions are not available. Photographic materials are also affected by chemical activity of fumes and gases. These include some plastic formulations, paints, lacquers, exhaust from internal combustion engines, and sulfide toning solutions. In a hot atmosphere, the solvents in paints, lacquers, etc, evaporate and permeate the air in an enclosed space much more rapidly than they do at normal temperatures. Consequently, do not store papers and films in newly painted rooms or cabinets, and keep the materials as far away as possible from the kind of containment mentioned above.

Storage of Black-and-White Photographic Paper: Although Kodak black-and-white papers are very stable materials, their photographic and physical properties deteriorate when they are stored for considerable periods under conditions of high temperature and high relative humidity.

Ideally, black-and-white paper should be stored at temperatures between 5 and 10°C (41 and 50°F). However, paper intended for use within a few months can be kept in an air-conditioned room at normal temperature. Unlike films and color papers, black-and-white papers are not sealed against moisture; they should, therefore, be kept in a place where the relative humidity is not too high. Remember that in a hot and humid climate, the relative humidity will be even higher in a basement or other place where the temperature is lower than that of surrounding areas. A refrigeration dehumidifier installed in the storeroom will help keep the humidity within acceptable limits. If the relative humidity is below 25 percent most of the time, photographic paper will dry out and become brittle and difficult to handle in use. Then an electric humidifier should be installed and set to maintain a relative humidity of about 45 percent.

As a general rule, do not stock more paper than you expect to use within a few months. However, if large stocks of paper must be maintained, it would probably be economical to provide the best possible storage conditions. A conditioned room or chamber in which the temperature and the relative humidity can be controlled is ideal.

Warm-up Times:

When films are taken from cold storage or from an air-conditioned room into a warmer atmosphere, allow sufficient warm-up time before opening the heat-sealed envelope or other moisture barrier. Otherwise, moisture condensation forms on the surfaces if the film temperature is below the dewpoint of the surrounding air.

Care of Exposed Films:

When a film has been removed from the moisture-resistant package, it is immediately subject to deterioration in a hot and humid climate.

When the film has been exposed, the latent image will also deteriorate. Color films are particularly susceptible in this respect. Consequently, all films should be processed as soon as possible after exposure. If processing facilities are not available in your vicinity, mail the film to the most convenient processing station immediately. If you are unable to do this for some reason, enclose the films in an airtight jar or can together with a desiccant and place them in a refrigerator. Exposed films can be kept for several days in this way.


Although it has often been said that less exposure is needed in the tropics as a general rule, this is not necessarily so. Measurements made in various parts of the world have shown that when atmospheric conditions are similar and when the sun is at the same elevation in the sky, the intensity of illumination is practically the same regardless of geographical location. Since the sun reaches a higher elevation in the tropics than elsewhere, the light intensity is extremely high when the sun is at its zenith. This in itself is not a difficulty--exposure can easily be adjusted for the higher light intensity. However, when the atmosphere is clear and the sky cloudless, the lighting contrast is also extremely high. In these conditions, shadows tend to lack detail even though the highlights are correctly exposed or perhaps overexposed.

With nearby subjects, fill-in flash is helfpul and the only remedy available for color pictures other than waiting for more favorable lighting conditions. In black-and-white work, you can give extra exposure to get more shadow detail and then reduce the development of the film to lower the highlight density. Another effect of taking photographs when the sun is directly overhead occurs in landscapes without high trees or buildings. The absence of shadow then yields a very flat, uninteresting picture. The only way to avoid this result is to photograph the subject either earlier or later in the day when shadows are longer.

Preservation of Negatives:

Because deterioration caused by residual chemicals in the emulsion takes place rapidly in a hot and humid atmosphere, always fix and wash films thoroughly. In handling negatives, wear Kodak Cotton Gloves to avoid finger marks. When the negatives are not in actual use, keep them in clean envelopes, because any greasy residue deposited on the surfaces by indoor atmosphere promotes the rapid growth of fungus, which eventually destroys the gelatin coatings on the film.

The most important consideration in storing negatives in a humid climate is to keep them dry. That is to say, maintain a relative humidity between 40 and 50 percent in the storage area. If a building is properly air-conditioned, the relative humidity will not be higher than this.

However, if it exceeds 55 percent for any considerable period, install an electric dehumidifier. If other means of keeping negatives dry are not available, they can be stored in a heated cabinet. Alternatively, they can be enclosed in a metal box with a desiccant.

For the best storage conditions, negative envelopes should conform to American National Standard Requirements for Photographic Filing Enclosures for Storing Processed Photographic Films, Plates, and Papers ANSI PH4.20-1958 (R1970). In a tropical climate, however, negatives should not be stored for a long time without inspecting their condition. Do this at regular intervals so that any deterioration that might have taken place can be remedied and more suitable storage conditions arranged.

Preservation of Prints:

In general, the same remarks apply to preserving prints as to preserving negatives. Careful processing and storage in a dry place are the principal requirements.

When black-and-white prints are used for decoration or display, hypo alum toning has been found helpful in preserving the prints from atmospheric effects and from attack by fungus. Color prints should be lacquered so that they can be wiped clean occasionally.

Prints should always be dry-mounted--many pastes and gums are hygroscopic, and they attract insects and fungus. Use photography-quality mounting board-impurities in ordinary cardboards may discolor the prints in a short time. This applies also to interleaving paper and album leaves.

At relative humidities below 60 percent, prints keep well in an album if the pages are large enough to allow a 3 1/2 inch border on all four sides of the prints. The closed album then gives a measure of protection against atmospheric effects and attack by insects or fungus, particularly when the prints have been treated with a fungicide such as Hyamine 1622.

If the relative humidity is above 60 percent, pack the prints or the album in a sealed container together with a desiccant. Single prints, whether mounted or unmounted, should be interleaved with good-quality paper. To be sure that-deterioration is not taking place, inspect valuable material periodically and renew the interleaving paper or any other packing material at these times.


Airborn spores of fungus are everywhere, and they exist in immense variety. Mold and mildew are the familiar kinds that fourish in warm, damp places. Generally, the type of fungus troublesome to photographers in the tropics grows most readily at temperatures between 24 and 29°C (75 and 84°F). It feeds on dead organic matter such as leather, cloth, wood, paper, and gelatin, but it will spread and damage other materials-the glass of lenses in cameras and binoculars, for example.

Moisture is essential to the growth of practically all varieties of fungus, and they thrive in darkness. Obviously, in a hot damp atmosphere, cameras, sensitized materials, negatives, and prints, as well as clothing and other fabrics, will be attacked. The only really practical way to prevent the attack of fungus is to keep the articles dry and clean as far as this is possible.

A heated box or a cabinet in which an electric light bulb or a small electric heater element is kept switched on can be used to keep cameras and other equipment dry. Adjust the temperature in this type of enclosure so that it is about 5.5°C (10°F) higher than the room temperature. Also, allow air to circulate through ventilation holes in the top and bottom of the box or cabinet. Do not keep films or photographic papers in enclosures such as that described above.

The best way to reduce the relative humidity in a room is by using a refrigeration-type dehumidifier. The room must, of course, be resistant to the passage of moisture through walls, ceiling, and floor, and it must be kept closed. Then the heated enclosure described above is not necessary. In this connection, remember that although a room-type air conditioner reduces the temperature, in doing so it may increase the relative humidity. Some units are more efficient in dissipating moisture than others. In a properly air-conditioned building, however, the difficulty will not arise.

Notes on Tropical Photography Kodak Publication No. C-24