The CBCRM cycle
The CBCRM cycle has four major phases: planning, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation (PIME). The phases vary in length and level of
complexity depending on the capability of the community to undertake the
activities in each phase. This is a continuous process which the community
undertakes with or without assistance from an external facilitator. The process
discussed in the text below is for a comprehensive CBCRM cycle, but there can be
smaller, focused cycles for specific projects (e.g., mangrove rehabilitation).
Assessment or pre-planning
During the assessment phase, a comprehensive coastal community
profile is compiled to serve as the basis for planning activities and, at the
same time, to provide baseline data for future monitoring and evaluation. The
data can be broadly categorized into ecological, social, economic, institutional
and cultural aspects of the coastal community. The type and extent of
information collected must serve the basic needs of future resource management
processes but must also reflect community priorities that arise during problem
and issue analysis. In CBCRM, social and economic issues are seen as part of
resource management challenges, not as separate issues.
Secondary data is collected, and a participatory analysis of these
data is conducted at the community level to validate the existing information
and identify data gaps and further information needs. Through this process of
interaction and collaboration, community leaders and key sectors (e.g., fishers'
organizations) may be identified. These leaders or key sectors may be given
additional training and can be encouraged to play key roles in CBCRM. Initial
environmental education can be conducted during the assessment stage.
The data gaps/needs are filled using a variety of different
participatory methods and techniques. The participatory methods to be used
depend on the capability of the community and/or facilitators. Different
community sectors are encouraged to share their knowledge and experiences.
At the end of this stage, there should be sufficient information
available to prepare a comprehensive coastal community profile. The community
may also start to identify potential options for developing CBCRM.
Once the coastal community profile has been consolidated, the
CBCRM facilitator focuses on participatory methods that assist the community to:
· identify issues and problems of common
· identify strategic objectives (desired
Coastal community profile
· Assessment of existing coastal habitats and resources
(land and sea)
· Bio-geographical features, presence of watersheds and
other connecting ecosystems
· Climate, conditions, oceanographic
· Polluting industries and other major impacts in the area
· Religion, history and culture
· Economy (household
and community levels)
· Peace and order
· Gender roles
Resource use data
· Resource-based livelihoods (fishers, farmers,
· Commodity flows, marketing
· History of resource use
and analysis of trends
Institutions and legal framework
· Land ownership and tenure
· Coastal resource
access and existing management
· Existing support services,
institutions and organizations
· Community structure, political
In this phase, the coastal community uses the information
generated to formulate various plans using participatory methods. These plans
should be structured around the four CBCRM components (capability building,
sustainable livelihood development, resource tenure improvement, environmental
A long-term community development plan (e.g., a 3-5 year strategic
development plan) is prepared first. This plan should reflect in operational
terms the community's vision and goals. It should also contain its strategic
objectives and targets. The community must determine whether the plan is
feasible and if the impacts/risks (environmental and socio-economic) are
manageable and/or acceptable. Any additional data needed for this risk and
feasibility assessment should be gathered using participatory methods.
The community development plan is then translated into specific
action plans that describe the different activities to be undertaken over
shorter periods of time.
The community must be able to identify sources of funds and
potential partners (e.g., non-government organizations, government, academe,
donor agencies) for their plans and activities.
During this stage, the community members execute their CBCRM
action plans. This can include community capability building activities,
environmental education, resource and ecosystem conservation initiatives and
sustainable livelihood development projects. Identified appropriate strategies
and technologies are researched, developed, tested, and when successful, adopted
and replicated. Education and other technical inputs are often required to
successfully implement the CBCRM plan.
Implementation mechanisms, either in the form of task forces or
committees or multisectoral councils, should be put in place. Program management
systems must also be installed (e.g., communication, finance, administrative
Networking and establishing linkages between the community and
external organization/individuals must be initiated to lend additional support
to CBCRM activities.
Monitoring is done to record the progress of the project or
certain changes in particular indicators at certain regular intervals during the
project implementation. It allows adjustments to be made in the targets and
plans, or to employ appropriate interventions midstream, if necessary, in order
to achieve certain targets on time.
Key to effective monitoring is the selection of appropriate
indicators earlier on during the planning phase. The indicators will eventually
define the degree of success achieved (or not achieved) by the program or
The evaluation stage aims to establish the effectiveness of the
CBCRM process by assessing the capability of the coastal community and the
accomplishment (or if sufficient time has passed, the impact) of the individual
projects/activities measured against the project's objectives and targets. It
allows for critical changes to be done following the analysis of end results vis
a vis the program targets and objectives.
Various aspects of monitoring and evaluation are usually carried
out by different organizations, committees, volunteers and external
facilitators. Training on participatory monitoring and evaluation methods will
be needed by these different groups. All of the groups will need to feedback the
monitoring and evaluation results to the wider community.
At the end of the CBCRM project cycle, there may be a more
extensive strategic evaluation to look at more qualitative indicators or impact.
Failures should not be hidden. The community should analyze these
to ensure that the mistakes are not repeated and to gain insights into how they
can adjust and improve. Lessons learned from the successes and failures should
be incorporated into the planning cycle and shared with other