Cover Image
close this bookEnvironmentally Sound Technologies for Women in Agriculture (IIRR, 1996, 213 p.)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
close this folderAnimal husbandry and dairying
View the documentSelection and breeding of cattle buffaloes
View the documentSelection and breeding of goats and sheep
View the documentSelection and breeding of swine
View the documentCommunity pasture management
View the documentCattle feeding
View the documentMake hay to preserve fodder
View the documentMake silage to preserve green fodder
View the documentImprove dry fodder by adding urea
View the documentUrea-molasses liquid mixture
View the documentUrea-molasses-mineral lick
View the documentClean milk production
View the documentLivestock diseases
View the documentCommon maladies in cattle
View the documentProtect your cattle from poisoning
View the documentAdaptation of livestock
close this folderVegetables and post-harvest technologies
View the documentNutrition garden
View the documentPreserving nutrients
View the documentPreservation by fermentation
View the documentZero-energy cool chamber
View the documentBamboo iceless refrigerator
close this folderOrganic farming
View the documentOrganic farming
View the documentCompost making
View the documentVermi-composting
View the documentBio-inoculants
View the documentMultipurpose trees and shrubs
close this folderSeed production and storage
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentProduce your own wheat, rice and pulse seeds
View the documentStorage of grain and seed
View the documentSafe grain storage structures
View the documentImproved rodent-free grain storage
close this folderPests and pesticides
View the documentIntegrated pest management
View the documentNeem for plant protection
View the documentNeem oil as mosquito repellent
View the documentBiological control of malaria
View the documentNon-chemical methods of weed control
View the documentSafe use of pesticides
View the documentHazard of pesticides
View the documentPesticide facts and fiction
View the documentFirst-aid measures for pesticide poisoning
View the documentSave your crop from bird damage
View the documentBeekeeping
close this folderDrudgery reduction
View the documentDrudgery-reducing implements for farm women
View the documentFuel-efficient chulhas
View the documentSolar cookers
View the documentBiogas as a rural energy source
View the documentEfficient fuel energy utilisation
close this folderWater management for farm and home
View the documentSafe drinking water
View the documentMaintenance of community water sources
View the documentManagement of drinking water for the household
View the documentSome simple ways to purify drinking water
View the documentUse of indigenous plants for cleaning water
View the documentSoakage pit for proper disposal of waste water
View the documentEfficient use of irrigation water
close this folderFish production
View the documentIntegrated fish farming
View the documentComposite fish culture
View the documentPaddy - fish culture
View the documentCattle fish culture
View the documentDuck - fish culture
View the documentPig - fish culture
View the documentHorticulture on dykes
View the documentSolar drying of fish
close this folderAppendices
View the documentGlossary of local terms
View the documentBanned and not approved pesticides
View the documentImproved varieties of grasses and legumes in different regions
View the documentImproved varieties of vegetables for nutrition garden
View the documentWorkshop participants
View the documentAuthors/contributors
View the documentList of resource institutions
View the documentReferences

Efficient fuel energy utilisation

Energy for cooking is a basic requirement of daily life. Women in rural areas must travel long distances to collect fuel for cooking. Then they spend long hours cooking in smoke-filled kitchens. Here are some ways to make best use of fuel and minimize cooking time.

Proper pots

- Use round-bottomed pots on wood-burning chulhas. More heat can be transferred to these as compared to flatbottomed pots.

- The diameter of the pot must be 1.5- to 2-times bigger than the diameter of the chulha opening.

- Clean the pot bottom before use.

Fuel-saving cooking techniques

- Cook with the minimum quantity of water. If more water is required during cooking, add hot water if possible.

- Keep the pot or pan covered with a plate or pot lid while cooking.

- Soak pulses, rice, etc., in water for at least half an hour before cooking. Hard-coated legumes, such as lima beans, gram, and cowpea, should be soaked overnight.

- Do not allow flames to come out the chulha's fire door.

- When cooking is complete, quickly remove unused fuel from the fire chamber and douse the fuel with water. This wet fuel can be sun-dried and used again.

Remember to cover your pot.

Smart fuel use

- Chop wood into small pieces, about 3 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm.
- Do not over-feed the fire. Flames should not escape the fire box. This is a waste of fuel.
- Use dry fuel. Otherwise, energy is wasted removing moisture when the fuel is burned.

Place wood pieces at angles across the grate (if the chulha has a grate) to allow air circulation.

Stack wood pieces across each other for better circulation.

If you are using long fuel sticks which protrude from the fire box, keep them horizontal or tilted toward the centre of the grate by propping up their outside ends with a brick.

When using light fuels such as twigs and straw along with wood, bum the wood first to achieve a high temperature. Add the light fuels next for their good combustion.

Dung should be used for composting. However, if some part of your dung must be used for fuel, prepare fuel rods by coating dung over long sticks. After they are dried in the sun, these fuel rods burn more efficiently and produce less smoke than either wood or dung burned separately.

Producing fuel rods with dung and sticks