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close this bookGuide Book for TVE Teacher Education Curriculum Development and Adaptation (NITE - UNESCO, 1996, 32 p.)
View the documentAUSTRALIA
View the documentBANGLADESH
View the documentCHINA
View the documentINDIA
View the documentJAPAN
View the documentPAKISTAN
View the documentPHILIPPINES
View the documentSRI LANKA
View the documentTHAILAND


Australia has both a Commonwealth and State Government responsibility for TVE Teacher Training. The Commonwealth, through the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) is responsible for establishing policy and strategic directions for TVE in Australia. The States are responsible for using these strategic directions and customizing them to meet the local needs of the different States and Territories. TVE Teachers throughout Australia come to their jobs because of their 'technical' skills and experience rather than their educational methodology expertise. Very little TVE Teachers training is conducted pre-service because of this fact. Most TVE Teachers Training is therefore conducted inservice.

In 1990 the 'Teaching and Learning' programme was developed as a National initiative. The curriculum was designed by gaining advice and expert from industry, unions, university staff, and practitioners. Teachers who complete this 80 hour on and off the job training programmer gain credit in the University Bachelor of Teaching.

The programme has been running for 5 years and is currently being reviewed using a consultative approach.

The current trend in curriculum development is that programmes have the following characteristics: flexible, relevant, work-based and assessed in the real work situation, part of a structured training programme which is recognized and leads to further study and provides recognition of prior learning.

For long standing TVE teachers who need to keep up with new methodologies, a Graduate Certificate in Training - Action learning has been developed by ANTA. This programme of 240 hours is a post graduate award and encourages TVE teachers to update their knowledge and skills in flexible on the job action learning.

The challenges for TVE Teachers in the next 5 years are:

¨ working collaboratively with industry,
¨ internationalization of education
¨ implementation of general key competencies
¨ implementation of flexible delivery and on line delivery using technology
¨ managing/facilitating learning experiences
¨ developing a customer focused culture
¨ using/customizing curriculum and packaged learning materials.

The provision of TVE by a range of providers including Industry/Enterprise, Schools and Universities belong with Institutes of Technical and Further Education (TAFE) has brought about the need to develop Work-place Trainer Competency Standards and Curriculum for training. Providers who want to be registered must comply with the requirements with regard to teacher qualifications. The minimum standard is Work-place Trainer Category 2. Collaboration between TAFE and non-TAFE providers is encouraged to ensure that the training delivered and assessed in the work-place has both content and methodology integrity.

The review of the 'Teaching and Learning' programme will ensure articulation between it and the Work-Place Training programme and the Bachelor of Teaching in Education and Training of Adults. The articulation is necessary and demanded by both the training system and the participants.

Under the auspices of ANTA which provides policy and strategic directions, the Commonwealth and State governments share the responsibility of TVE teacher training. The pre-service modality is much less prevalent than the inservice. The current trend in curriculum development includes the principles of flexibility, relevance, work based orientation and is assessment in real work situation. It also includes the recognition of prior learning. The training programmes are competency based. There are many providers of TVE teacher training such as TAFE industries, school and other non TAFE institutions.


The main purpose of teacher training is to improve the competence of the TVE teachers up to the implementation requirement of the curriculum. Vocational and polytechnic teachers training programmes are in operation with the following objectives:

¨ To organize and conduct training for all round development of the TVE teachers.

¨ To maintain close contact with relevant industries and institutions offering vocational training and to offer vocational training programmes.

¨ To design, develop, monitor, implement and evaluate vocational training curriculum.

¨ To undertake research and development work on curriculum processes, teaching methods, instructional materials and such other issues relevant to vocational training programme.

¨ To prepare and preserve information and statistics on vocational training programmes and arrange for their dissemination.

¨ To offer award bearing courses with qualifications for teachers in support of career mobility.

¨ To offer consulting services to other technical-vocational institutions and the training wings of industries.

¨ To provide inspiration, standards and guidance to the teachers and other staff in order to enable them to sustain professional commitment to the technical-vocational education system.

The following teacher training programmes are in operation:-

¨ Certificate in Vocational Education.
¨ Diploma in Vocational Education.
¨ Diploma in Technical Education.
¨ B Sc (Technical Education).

The schemes of study contain pedagogy, industrial attachment and subject upgrading.


Development and adaptation of TVE Teacher Education Curriculum is based on the needs of different provinces and implemented on a provincial basis. Underlying principles for the development process are given below:

¨ Identification of curriculum is through a method of occupational analysis.

¨ Structure of a curriculum is based on Natural Activities Process.

¨ Instructional time and periods are based on activity frequency and their relative importance.

¨ Curriculum based on required knowledge, skills, attitudes, disposition and further based on competency requirement.

Emphasis on following will also be taken into consideration in developing the relevant curriculum.

¨ Student's entry level
¨ Character of TVE Teacher Education
¨ Relation to compulsory courses
¨ Relation between the Elective course and Compulsory course

The following steps are being adopted in developing such a curriculum.

¨ Occupational Analysis
¨ Job Analysis
¨ Instructional Analysis
¨ Instructional Material Design and Develop suitable Instruction Medium
¨ Adaptation and Modification


India has recently set up the National Council of Teacher Education through an Act of Parliament with statutory powers covering all stages and categories of teacher preparation. As of now pre-service training modality is virtually non existent and would take at least a decade to have its impact felt on the ground in view of its long gestation period and very large size of clientele.

Greater emphasis is, therefore, placed on in-service modality. The content covers the theory and practice in terms of technical competencies needed in teachers. The industry exposure and orientation of TVE teachers is a weak area but of great concern as a future training strategy. Open learning is also seen as an area of great potential in view of very large numbers, diversity and geographical features of the country. Finances to organise the teacher training programme for a very large TVE teacher population is a major constraint.


There is a well structured system of TVE teacher preparation in Japan which is reflected in the high quality of teaching in school. It is based on a certification system and carried out in universities or junior colleges. Pre-service training is offered by any university approved by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture which also determines the numbers of credits in specialised subjects and in pedagogy.

For the upper secondary teaching more credits have to be acquired in specialised subjects. There are other bodies approved by the Ministry which also offer teacher certification. Besides teacher certification through pre-service courses, in-service training and student teaching practice are also used to maintain quality in teaching profession.

Education Personnel Certification Law requires any person undergoing teacher certification to go through Student Teaching Practice. This gives the trainees an opportunity to have on-the-job training. The law also requires teachers to pursue refresher in-service training.


Technical Teacher Education for Technical and Vocational Education and Training exists separately but mostly as in-service programme. Structured courses, based on a credit system exist for the Certificate and Diploma in Technical Teachers' Education and the Graduate Diploma in Technical Teacher Education. These courses are offered mainly under the Labour and Manpower Department for Vocational Teachers, and under the Ministry of Education and Provincial Directorates of Technical Education for Technical Education Teachers.

Formal courses for various entry-level teachers, are based on a need assessment study and expected profile of Technical Teachers. The courses are periodically revised (or at least reviewed). Main areas of the courses include subject upgrading/updating, supervised Industrial Training, Pedagogy (Education), with an overall emphasis on pedagogy (60-100%) depending upon the course.

Short courses form a regular feature of in-service staff-development efforts as per needs of the situation. With a major revision of the courses at Diploma of Associate Engineer (DAE), major efforts for such courses come as Computer Applications, skill and subject upgrading for new areas of technology and some workshop courses, and management courses.

There is a need for another major revision of Teacher Training Courses, regular courses in B.Ed. (Tech), and Higher Diploma Courses, and conversion to a modular system. Some courses are already being offered on modular basis.


The current arrangement for teacher education in Technical and Vocational Education was designed to train prospective teachers of Industrial Arts at the elementary level, home economics at the Secondary Level, and Vocational and Technical Education in trade and industries, agriculture, fisheries, business and other technology courses at the Post Secondary non-degree and degree level. These courses are designed to provide basic theory and practice in preparing teachers for the overall programmes.

The policy of curriculum development for technical and vocational education is currently shifting towards competency based approach as an departure from the earlier practice of a specialization approach. On the other hand, the job analysis approach of curriculum development looks closely at each job title in a given field of study to specify the duties and tasks required. These are sequenced by level of position in the Manpower structure and the subjects to be taught follows sequencing.

These competencies become the same template for instructional delivery, evaluation and placement.

These are the same competencies tested for proficiently classification in the trade test, the certificate required for entry into the workforce.

The curriculum materials in competency based vocational education are modularized which facilitates the openness of exit and entry points in the trainees may select only one module to complete or selected modules or all the modules in an entire course.


Four State Sector Institutes are involved in TVE Teacher Education Programmes and Development of required Curriculum for such programmes.

They are:

National Institute of Technical Education (NITE-Sri Lanka)
National Apprenticeship and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA)
Institute of Construction Training and Development (ICTAD)
German Technical Education Project (GTZ)

National Institute of Technical Education (NITE Sri Lanka) ITE of Sri Lanka uses the systems approach model in developing curriculum for TVE Teaching Education Programmes. The Process involved in the systems approach is given below:

¨ Selection of Tasks to be learnt in consultation with Industry
¨ The Development of Instructional Objectives for these tasks
¨ Preparation of comprehensive instructional materials
¨ Preparation of testing plan and appropriate examination
¨ Implementation of the course

Key aspects of the approach are:

¨ Industrial Liaison
¨ Task analysis
¨ Instructional Material Development
¨ Testing
¨ College Liaison

National Apprenticeship and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) adopts the competency based training programmes for TVE Teachers under a special project to develop their staff and other relevant Public and Private Sector Instructional Staff. The Project currently trains about 150 Trainers annually.

The German Technical Education Project (GTZ) Project produces, TVE Teacher Education Programmes for TVE Teachers in the Institutes which has been established under GTZ funding and assistance. The characteristic of these programmes and development of curricula are based on:

¨ Pedagogic training
¨ Technical Skills upgrading
¨ Industrial training


These are two distinct streams of Technical Teachers:

1. Technical Teachers

Structured, pre-service programmes are offered for teachers with various entry qualifications. Formal degrees leading to Bachelor of Technical Education in various disciplines are offered as regular as well as continuing (part-time) programme. This is followed by 'Master of Technical Education' degree.

2. Vocational Education Teachers

Formal and pre-service, structured programmes of various duration are offered for the intending teachers of various qualifications, leading to certificate and Diploma in Vocational Education, and Higher Diploma in Technical Education (equivalent to Bachelor Degree in Technology). Both regular and continuing programmes are offered but the Higher Diploma is offered as continuing (part-time only), covering Technology, Commerce, Agriculture and Fishery, and Home-Economics.

Short in-service courses are offered regularly as per requirements.