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close this bookLaw in Humanitarian Crises, Volume II : Access to Victims: Right to Intervene or Right to Receive Humanitarian Assistance? (ECHO)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderHumanitarian Intervention and Humanitarian Assistance: An Echo from the Past and a Prospect for the Future
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentI. Introduction
View the documentII. Approach and Restrictions
View the documentIII. Humanitarian Intervention in the Post-1945 Period
close this folderIV. Humanitarian Assistance
View the document1. Humanitarian ''Assistance'' in International Humanitarian Law
View the document2. Humanitarian ''Assistance'' in the Context of Enforcement Measures
View the documentV. Some Concluding Observations
close this folderAnnex
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAnnex 6 - State Practice on Intervention
View the documentAnnex 7 - Charter of the United Nations (excerpts)
View the documentAnnex 8 - Maastricht Treaty (excerpts)
View the documentAnnex 9 - Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
View the documentAnnex 10 - EP Resolution A3-0227/94
View the documentAnnex 11 - Cannes European Council, 26 and 27 June 1995 Presidency Conclusions (excerpts)
View the documentAnnex 12 - CSCE - Budapest Document 1994 (excerpts)
View the documentAnnex 13 - Lisbon Declaration (excerpts)
View the documentAnnex 14 - Progress Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda
View the documentNotes on the Contributors
View the documentAbbreviations

2. Humanitarian ''Assistance'' in the Context of Enforcement Measures

The second situation where the term "humanitarian assistance" is quite often used, is a situation as referred to under III.1.- III.3. This is a relatively new use of the term "assistance" and it may be useful to enumerate the various manifestations of "humanitarian assistance" as they appeared in the Security Council's practice since the adoption of SC Res. 688.

For practical reasons this overview will be limited to the resolutions mentioned above.

The concept of "humanitarian assistance" appeared in various manifestations; some of the resolutions mentioned the concept of "humanitarian assistance" without further qualifications (SC Res. 767, SC Res. 794, SC Res. 819, SC Res. 836), others referred to "humanitarian relief assistance" or "humanitarian relief operations/activities", (SC Res. 794, SC Res. 814), or simply to the "delivery of humanitarian relief" (SC Res. 836) and "assistance" (SC Res. 688). In some resolutions not adopted under Chapter VII the element of "co-operation" between the State (SC Res. 688; Iraq) and with the United Nations, or with the various parties and factions on the one hand and the United Nations, its specialized agencies, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and the ICRC on the other, was stressed (SC Res. 767).

With regard to the manifestations of "humanitarian assistance" - the rather consistent used generic term by the Security Council -, various "types" of assistance may be distinguished.

In some resolutions the problems relating to "access" or obstruction to the delivery of humanitarian assistance were dealt with, like, inter alia in SC Res. 688 ("access to all those in need',), SC Res. 824 (access to "safe areas'') and SC Res. 836 ("obstruction " to the delivery of humanitarian assistance.

Other resolutions demanded the need for an urgent delivery of the humanitarian assistance to the civilian population (SC Res. 767) and indicated that impediments to such activities, in particular the delivery of food and medical supplies, would not be tolerated and are a violation of international humanitarian law (SC Res. 794, SC Res. 819).

The safety of the personnel engaged in the delivery of such humanitarian assistance (both UN personnel, intergovernmental and non-governmental as well as ICRC personnel) and the ensuing obligation to "take all measures necessary byby the target State and/or parties, was repeatedly stressed by the Security Council (SC Res. 794, SC Res. 814, SC Res. 819, SC Res. 824). SC Res. 836 indicated that this extended to so-called 'protected convoys".

Three resolutions contained language indicating that the humanitarian "assistance" also extended to operations relating to the protection and repatriation of refugees and resettlement of displaced persons (SC Res. 688, SC Res. 929, SC Res. 814), whereas another three resolutions were devoted to the creation of "safe areas" (SC Res. 819, SC Res. 824, SC Res. 836) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was demanded that those areas be given full respect by the warring parties, whereas the areas would be protected by UNPROFOR "with the agreement of the Governments contributing forces" (SC Res. 836).

It follows from this enumeration that the scope and limits of the concept of humanitarian assistance have not been fully defined. Under the rather recent enforcement measures of the Security Council various manifestations of humanitarian assistance have appeared; sometimes already existing under international humanitarian law, sometimes hitherto unknown in international law.

The concept of humanitarian assistance is still developing and it may still be too soon to draw firm conclusions about possible new manifestations of "assistance". It is, however, beyond any doubt that the concept offers promising prospects for the future.