Annex 6 - State Practice on Intervention
The standard list of precedents collected by D. J. Scheffer is
1. Intervention to protect religious or ethnic minorities.
a) Greece (1827-1830). Great Britain, France and Russia
intervened. Greece gained independence in 1830.
b) Syria (1860-1861). France intervened in Syria to restore law
and order, and to protect the Christian population.
c) Bosnia, Herzegovina and Bulgaria (1877-1878). Russia
intervened with the consent of Austria, Prussia, France and Italy to protect the
Christian population in the Ottoman empire.
d) Macedonia (1903). Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia intervened in
order to protect the Christian population.
2. Intervention to end internal aggression or human rights
a) East Pakistan (1971). India invaded East Pakistan in order to
redress widespread human rights violation, but claimed self defence.
b) Cambodia (1978). Vietnam intervened to end the genocide which
took place under the government of Pol Pot (Khmer Rouge). Vietnam claimed
self-defence and the occupation lasted until 1989.
c) Uganda (1979). In 1979, Tanzania invaded Uganda claiming self
defence in reaction to earlier Ugandan attempts to attack Tanzania. After the
intervention Tanzania invoked humanitarian intervention.
3. Intervention to rescue or protect citizens abroad and other
endangered individuals (strictly speaking this is not humanitarian intervention
but the exercise of self-defence).
a) The Congo, Stanleyville (1964). Belgium intervened and freed
2,000 foreign residents on the invitation of the Congo government, which could
not control the rebellion.
b) The Dominican Republic (1965). The United States
"To preserve the lives of American citizens and citizens of a
good many other nations - 46 to be exact, 46 nations". Dep't State Bull.20
c) Entebbe, Uganda (1975). Israeli commando forces rescued
Jewish and other passengers.
d) Grenada (1983). The United States and forces of six Caribbean
states intervened on the basis of: "The narrower well-established ground of
protection of United States nationals". Letter from the Legal Adviser, United
States Department of State, 18 Int'1 Law, pp.381, 386 (1984).
4. "Other" rescue operations:
a) Panama (1989). According to the United States to protect U.S.
nationals. In effect it resulted in the overthrow of the military regime of
General Manuel Noriega.
b) Rwanda (1990). On a request by the Rwandan President, Belgium
and France agreed to militarily assist the Hutu government against Tutsi
c) Chad (1990). France intervened to evacuate 1,200 foreigners.
d) Liberia (1990). The United States rescued 125 foreigners.
e) Zaire (1991). France and Belgium intervened and rescued their
nationals and other