|Initial Environmental Assessment: Plant Protection - Series no 13 (NORAD, 1995)|
|Part I: General account|
|1 Characteristics of plant protection projects|
1.3.1 Use of chemical pesticides
Projects and activities connected to the use of pesticides can generally be categorised as follows:
· Ordinary measures: This may include measures related to agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fisheries, aquaculture, where pesticides are used to increase production or reduce losses in the field or in storage. The use of pesticides may be repeated at different times or at different phases of the production to prevent damage to crops and products.
· Extraordinary measures: These include measures to control particular pests and weeds. Generally this means extraordinary or isolated measures. Examples are special measures to control migratory grasshoppers, or to prevent the spread of diseases to humans (for example malaria), or measures taken to remove unwanted vegetation by various development programmes, such as the construction of transport arteries.
· Technical, professional and financial improvement of institutions and authorities to ensure training of personnel and secure the use and management of pesticides.
Projects and measures may also include research and legislation.
Choice of technology and type of project may vary depending on the activity where the use of pesticides is involved, on the type of weed or pest to be controlled, as well as on local environmental, economic, technological, institutional and socio-economic conditions. Experience shows that the conditions in many developing countries may require other kinds of solutions than those being practiced in industrialised countries.
1.3.2 The use of non-chemical plant protection agents
Projects and activities in this category may include biological control agents and preventive measures, and can be categorised as follows:
· Practical organisation: This includes the organization of biological control methods, including IPM (Integrated Pest Management). Such measures can be the planning of IPM projects in co-operation with the users, or the training of personnel.
· Support to regional plant protection organisations: Such organisations can co-ordinate lists of weeds and pests defines as hazardous, quarantine arrangements and other plant protection measures.
· Research and development, which can include the development of cultivated plants which will be resistant to common diseases and pests, or improve the understanding of how the elements in the local agro-economical system interact.