Cover Image
close this bookAnimal Disease Control and Treatment (IIRR, 1996, 60 p.)
View the documentForeword
View the documentDisease causes and symptoms
View the documentDiseases of ruminants
View the documentDiseases of pigs
View the documentDiseases of chickens
View the documentDiseases transmissible to people

Diseases transmissible to people


Anthrax is an acute infectious that causes severe hemorrhaging. It causes rapid death of infected animals. Cattle and water buffaloes are more susceptible to anthrax than any other animals. Chickens are not usually affected. Outbreaks may occur after a heavy rain.

Some diseases, like anthrax, brucellosis and trichinosis infection, can be transmitted from animals to humans. Take precautions when handling infected animals.

Anthrax in animals

Clinical symptoms vary due to virulence of the organism and species of animal affected. It may occur in peracute, acute and subacute or chronic forms.

Peracute form

· Animal usually found dead, with dark-colored blood coming from its nose, mouth and anus.
· Incoordination.
· Labored beathing.
· Convulsions.

Acute and subacute form

This form is most common in cattle, water buffaloes goats. Other symptoms include:

· High fever.
· Muscular tremors.
· Diarrhea that may have blood in it.
· Swelling in the neck chest and abdomen.
· Convulsions and death in 10-36 hours.

Chronic form

This is most common in pigs, although they can also be affected by the acute form. Other symptoms include:

· Swelling in the throat, which interferes with swallowing and breathing.
· High fever.
· Blood-stained, frothy material in the mouth.
· Vomiting.

Pigs may recover but remain carriers of the disease


Inject Penicillin into the muscle of the animal (3-15 cc for ruminant or 3-10 cc for swine, depending on the size of the animal). Repeat the injection for 2-3 days, if do is seen aDer 2-3 days.


· Keep animals away from infected areas.
· Burn contaminated bedding and manure.
· Isolate and treat sick animals.
· Bum animals which die from anthrax.

Anthrax in humans

Humans can be infected by spores. Spores can enter through breaks in the skin, or can be inhaled or ingested.


Anthrax occurs as an infection of the skin, producing painful, localized, pus-filled lesions. A small, red, slightly raised spot appears where the spores have entered. The lesion enlarges rapidly to form an itchy blister, then becomes an ulcer.


Anthrax is very dangerous in humans but usually responds favorably to antibiotics if identified soon enough. If you suspect anthrax, consult a doctor immediately.


Brucellosis is a contagious, bacterial disease primarily affecting cattle, water buffaloes, goats and pigs. It is known as undulant fever in humans.

Brucellosis in animals

Symptoms in females

· Abortion.
· Infertility.
· Increased incidence of retained placenta.
· Sticky, rust-colored, odorless discharge from the uterus.

Symptoms in males

· Inflammation of testicle (orchitis).
· Infection of other sex glands, like prostate glands.
· Infertility.


· There is no effective for brucellosis.


· Observe proper hygiene and sanitation.
· Buy animals from reputable sources.

Brucellosis in humans

Humans can be infected through:

· Drinking raw milk from an infected animal. Eating raw butter or cheese made from the milk of an infected animal.

· Eating partially cooked flesh of an infected animal.

· Contact with the body of an infected animal.

· Contact with infected materials such as uterine discharges, afterbirth and aborted fetuses.


Early stage

Acute to chronic



Loss of appetite.



Swollen and painful joints.

Increasing fever.

Patient feels better in the


morning then in the



Night sweats.



The disease responds to several antibacterial drugs.


· Use only milk and milk products which have been pasteurized (thoroughly boiled).
· Eat meat which is thoroughly cooked.
· Make a fire on the place where an animal abortion has occurred.


Erysipelas is an infectious disease which attacks pigs of all ages, but is most common in young and growing animals. The disease may affect other animals and people.

Erysipelas in animals


Acute form

Chronic form

High fever.

Stiffness of gait.


Enlarged bones.

Arched back.

Animal walks on its toes.

Irregular red patches, roughly diamond shaped on lighter parts of the skin.


Inject Penicillin into the muscle of hip or neck. Repeat the injection for 34 days.


· Disinfect the stalls and feeding troughs of infected animals.
· Separate infected animals from sick animals.

Erysipelas in humans

· High fever.
· Skin shows a glazed appearance (usually the face)
· Affected area itches and bums.
· Swollen area feels firm and hot to the touch.
· Joint and back pains.
· Abortion in pregnant women.


Penicillin is the most successful remedy.


· Person nursing the patient must wear rubber gloves.
· Ice bags and other things used by the patient should be disinfected.


Leptospirosis is an infectious disease which attacks cattle, hogs and humans. All ages are susceptible but the young suffer a higher rate of mortality. The disease spreads rapidly where animals are densely stocked. It can spread in flowing water at breeding time and through the urine.

Leptospirosis in animals


· Pregnant animals abort.
· Fever.
· Thick yellowish milk.
· Marked drop in milk flow.
· Jaundice.
· Urine is coffee-colored.
· Abortion during the latter stage of gestation.


· Treatment severe cases of leptospirosis is often unsuccessful because the course of the disease is extremely short.


· Bum or bury beddings used by infected animals.
· Bury aborted fetuses deep.
· Keep infix ted animals away from streams and ponds.
· Isolate animals that show signs of leptospirosis.

Leptospirosis in humans

Humans can become infected through cuts or by consuming food or drink contaminated with rat urine.


· Chills.
· Nausea and vomiting.
· Headache.
· Muscle and abdominal pains.
· Fever.
· Thirst.
· Dilated blood vessels of eyeballs.
· Jaundice.


· Treatment of severe cases is often unsuccessful.


· Exterminate rats. Avoid swimming or caning into contact with water that might be contaminated with the disease organism.


The disease is caused by small roundworms that become embedded in the muscles of animals. It is spread by eating infected meat that has not been sufficiently cooked or treated. The disease is common among garbage-fed pigs.

Trichinosis in animals


Animals with trichinosis parasites usually do not display symptoms. Symptoms, when they do appear, can be confused easily with other diseases.


· Avoid feeding uncooked swill to pigs.

· Exterminate rats. Rats are often infected with the parasites. Never throw dead rats or mice into pig pens.

Trichinosis in humans


In humans, symptoms appear within 9-10 days after infected meat has been eaten. A person suffering from trichinosis suffers intense pain in the muscles of arms and legs. There is difficulty in breathing because the tongue is also affected. Severity of the disease is dependent upon the number of worms in the body. Worms concentrate in the diaphragm.

Mild case

· Symptoms hardly hardly
· Pains in muscles of arms and legs.
· Inflamed eyeballs.
· Difficulty in chewing, swallowing and breathing.
· Profuse sweating,
· Fever.


There is no effective treatment for the disease in humans
and animals.


Eat only pork that has been cooked thoroughly.