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close this bookAssessment of Experience with the Project Approach to Shelter Delivery for the Poor (HABITAT, 1991, 52 p.)
close this folderVII. Conclusions and recommendations
close this folder7.4 A framework for assessing the efficiency of project components
View the document(introduction...)
View the document7.4.1 Elements provided by projects
View the document7.4.2 Provision of other elements
View the document7.4.3 Guidelines for preparing and assessing future shelter projects


The above sections have described some types of projects that deserve emphasis. The selection of specific options will depend on local conditions, priorities and resources. Turner (1990: 181-191) has proposed a framework for assessing project component efficiency. This framework could easily be adapted to enable priorities to be decided on an annual, or other more convenient, basis. The framework consists of a basic series of project elements, such as land, finance, services and buildings, which can be disaggregated as required. For each element, the options available for low-income groups are identified, irrespective of their legal status.

Comparison of these elements can then be used to identify major constraints, or bottlenecks, in the shelter sector at any level (national, provincial, or local), and therefore the priorities that need to be addressed. In a situation where the range of options for obtaining finance, for example, is restricted, it could be expected that market distortions would be greater than when many options existed. New projects may therefore be selected that focus on new mechanisms for generating and allocating finance for housing and monitoring their impact on the shelter market at the appropriate level. Subsequent exercises may then reveal that other bottlenecks have become more critical, and these could become the next priorities for project development. An additional merit of this framework applied over time is that it can ensure that the development of the project approach is continually related to structural issues in the shelter sector.

Within this framework, projects that put all human, financial and technical resources to the most intensive use possible, will invariably prove the most successful. In practice, this will mean developing high-density, mixed land-use schemes with minimal initial standards (and costs) of provision, arranged in such a way as to stimulate and reward further investment and development by the residents.