|The Courier N° 145 - May - June 1994- Dossier : European Union: the Way forward - Country Report: Ethiopia (EC Courier, 1994, 104 p.)|
|Ethiopia: Emerging from a long Dark Age|
Area: 1.13 million km²
Population: 53m. Growth rate 3.5% p.a. Rural population 85%.
Average life expectancy :46 years
Infant mortality: 125 per 1000 live births
Literacy rate: Estimated at between 23% and 62% (including Eritrea)
Capital: Addis Ababa (population estimated at 2.5m)
Other main towns: Harar, Dire Dawa, Makelle, Dessie
Religion: Orthodox Christian, Muslim, Animist
Languages: Amharic, Oromo, Tigre, Somali, Afar and numerous others; English widely taught
Political structure: Unitary republic with 14 regions. The Transitional Charter approved in July 1991 provides for a Council of Representatives of 87 members and a Council of Ministers. Elections for regional governments were held in June 1992. National elections are due in June 1994.
Head of State: Meles Zenawi, leader of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front and President of the Transitional Government
Currency: Birr(B6.97 = ECU1,B5.13 = $1 in April 1994)
Inflation rate: (January 1994) 10%
GDP: $6.0 billion (1991)
Real GDP growth: 7.6% (1992/3 fiscal year starting on 7 July)
GNP per capita: $120 (1991)
Principal exports: Coffee (62%), hides and skins (21 %), gold, vegetable products (1990; includes Eritrea)
Principal imports: Machinery (44.5%), motor vehicles (28%), crude petroleum (27.5%) (1989; includes Eritrea)
Total value of exports: $177m (1992; includes Eritrea)
Total value of imports: $1.03 billion (1992; includes Eritrea)
Public finances: 1993/4 budget:
Expenditures: 8.4bn birr, broken down as follows:
- operating expenditure B4.578bn, investment B3.847bn, or
- central government B5.3bn, regional governments B3.1bn, or
- B1.49bn administrative and general services;
B3.67bn economic services; B1.74bn social services;
B1.57bn miscellaneous expenditure.
B3.8bn from revenues, indirect taxes, import duties, government
B2.12bn from foreign cash grants, counterpart funds and technical assistance;
B2.3bn from capital revenues: local sources, foreign loans, counterpart funds.