Cover Image
close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in some Asian Countries (UNEP-IETC, 1998)
close this folderPart B - Technology profiles
close this folder3. Freshwater augmentation
View the document3.1 General rainwater harvesting technologies
View the document3.2 Rainwater harvesting for drinking water supply
View the document3.3 Rooftop rainwater harvesting for domestic water supply
View the document3.4 Rainwater harvesting for agricultural water supply
View the document3.5 Rainwater harvesting for irrigation water supply
View the document3.6 Rainwater harvesting for community water supply
View the document3.7 Rainwater harvesting for multiple purpose use technical description
View the document3.8 Open sky rainwater harvesting technical description
View the document3.9 Rainwater harvesting in ponds
View the document3.10 Artificial recharge of groundwater technical description
View the document3.11 Fog, dew and snow harvesting
View the document3.12 Bamboo pipe water supply system
View the document3.13 Hydraulic ram technical description
View the document3.14 Development and protection of natural springs
View the document3.15 Restoration of traditional stone spouts

3.1 General rainwater harvesting technologies

Rainwater harvesting, in its broadest sense, can be defined as the collection of runoff for human use. The collection processes involve various techniques such as the collection of water from rooftops and the land surface, as well as within water courses. These techniques are widely used in Asia both for meeting drinking water supply needs and for irrigation purposes.

Technical Description

Rainwater harvesting is a technology used for collecting and storing rainwater from rooftops, the land surface or rock catchments using simple techniques such as jars and pots as well as more complex techniques such as underground check dams. The techniques usually found in Asia and Africa arise from practices employed by ancient civilizations within these regions and still serve as a major source of drinking water supply in rural areas. Commonly used systems are constructed of three principal components; namely, the catchment area, the collection device, and the conveyance system.

· Catchment Areas

Rooftop catchments: In the most basic form of this technology, rainwater is collected in simple vessels at the edge of the roof. Variations on this basic approach include collection of rainwater in gutters which drain to the collection vessel through down-pipes constructed for this purpose, and/or the diversion of rainwater from the gutters to containers for settling particulates before being conveyed to the storage container for the domestic use. As the rooftop is the main catchment area, the amount and quality of rainwater collected depends on the area and type of roofing material. Reasonably pure rainwater can be collected from roofs constructed with galvanized corrugated iron, aluminium or asbestos cement sheets, tiles and slates, although thatched roofs tied with bamboo gutters and laid in proper slopes can produce almost the same amount of runoff less expensively (Gould, 1992). However, the bamboo roofs are least suitable because of possible health hazards. Similarly, roofs with metallic paint or other coatings are not recommended as they may impart tastes or colour to the collected water. Roof catchments should also be cleaned regularly to remove dust, leaves and bird droppings so as to maintain the quality of the product water. Figure 1 shows a schematic of a rooftop collection system.

Figure 1. Rooftop Catchment System.

Land surface catchments: Rainwater harvesting using ground or land surface catchment areas is less complex way of collecting rainwater. It involves improving runoff capacity of the land surface through various techniques including collection of runoff with drain pipes and storage of collected water (Figure 2). Compared to rooftop catchment techniques, ground catchment techniques provide more opportunity for collecting water from a larger surface area. By retaining the flows (including flood flows) of small creeks and streams in small storage reservoirs (on surface or underground) created by low cost (e.g., earthen) dams, this technology can meet water demands during dry periods. There is a possibility of high rates of water loss due to infiltration into the ground, and, because of the often marginal quality of the water collected, this technique is mainly suitable for storing water for agricultural purposes. Various techniques available for increasing the runoff within ground catchment areas involve: i) clearing or altering vegetation cover, ii) increasing the land slope with artificial ground cover, and iii) reducing soil permeability by the soil compaction and application of chemicals.

Figure 2. Ground Catchment System.

Clearing or altering vegetation cover: Clearing vegetation from the ground can increase surface runoff but also can induce more soil erosion. Use of dense vegetation cover such as grass is usually suggested as it helps to both maintain an high rate of runoff and minimize soil erosion.

Increasing slope: Steeper slopes can allow rapid runoff of rainfall to the collector. However, the rate of runoff has to be controlled to minimise soil erosion from the catchment field. Use of plastic sheets, asphalt or tiles along with slope can further increase efficiency by reducing both evaporative losses and soil erosion. The use of flat sheets of galvanized iron with timber frames to prevent corrosion was recommended and constructed in the State of Victoria, Australia, about 65 years ago (Kenyon, 1929; cited in UNEP, 1982).

Soil compaction by physical means: This involves smoothing and compacting of soil surface using equipment such as graders and rollers. To increase the surface runoff and minimize soil erosion rates, conservation bench terraces are constructed along a slope perpendicular to runoff flow. The bench terraces are separated by the sloping collectors and provision is made for distributing the runoff evenly across the field strips as sheet flow. Excess flows are routed to a lower collector and stored (UNEP, 1982).

Soil compaction by chemical treatments: In addition to clearing, shaping and compacting a catchment area, chemical applications with such soil treatments as sodium can significantly reduce the soil permeability. Use of aqueous solutions of a silicone-water repellent is another technique for enhancing soil compaction technologies. Though soil permeability can be reduced through chemical treatments, soil compaction can induce greater rates of soil erosion and may be expensive. Use of sodium-based chemicals may increase the salt content in the collected water, which may not be suitable both for drinking and irrigation purposes.

Figure 3. Rock Catchment System.

Rock catchments systems: The presence of massive rock outcrops provides suitable catchment surfaces for freshwater augmentation (Figure 3). In these systems, runoff is channelled along stone and cement gutters, constructed on the rock surface, to reservoirs contained by concrete dams. The collected water then can be transported through a gravity fed pipe network to household standpipes.

· Collection Devices

Storage tanks: Storage tanks for collecting rainwater harvested using guttering may be either above or below the ground. Precautions required in the use of storage tanks include provision of an adequate enclosure to minimise contamination from human, animal or other environmental contaminants, and a tight cover to prevent algal growth and the breeding of mosquitos. Open containers are not recommended for collecting water for drinking purposes. Various types of rainwater storage facilities can be found in practice. Among them are cylindrical ferrocement tanks and mortar jars. The ferrocement tank consists of a lightly reinforced concrete base on which is erected a circular vertical cylinder with a 10 mm steel base. This cylinder is further wrapped in two layers of light wire mesh to form the frame of the tank. Mortar jars are large jar shaped vessels constructed from wire reinforced mortar. The storage capacity needed should be calculated to take into consideration the length of any dry spells, the amount of rainfall, and the per capita water consumption rate. In most of the Asian countries, the winter months are dry, sometimes for weeks on end, and the annual average rainfall can occur within just a few days. In such circumstances, the storage capacity should be large enough to cover the demands of two to three weeks. For example, a three person household should have a minimum capacity of 3 (Persons) × 90 (l) × 20 (days) = 5 400 l.

Rainfall water containers; As an alternative to storage tanks, battery tanks (i.e., interconnected tanks) made of pottery, ferrocement, or polyethylene may be suitable. The polyethylene tanks are compact but have a large storage capacity (ca. 1 000 to 2 000 l), are easy to clean and have many openings which can be fitted with fittings for connecting pipes. In Asia, jars made of earthen materials or ferrocement tanks are commonly used. During the 1980s, the use of rainwater catchment technologies, especially roof catchment systems, expanded rapidly in a number of regions, including Thailand where more than ten million 2m3 ferrocement rainwater jars were built and many tens of thousands of larger ferrocement tanks were constructed between 1991 and 1993. Early problems with the jar design were quickly addressed by including a metal cover using readily available, standard brass fixtures.

The immense success of the jar programme springs from the fact that the technology met a real need, was affordable, and invited community participation. The programme also captured the imagination and support of not only the citizens, but also of government at both local and national levels as well as community based organizations, small-scale enterprises and donor agencies. The introduction and rapid promotion of Bamboo reinforced tanks, however, was less successful because the bamboo was attacked by termites, bacteria and fungus. More than 50 000 tanks were built between 1986 and 1993 (mainly in Thailand and Indonesia) before a number started to fail, and, by the late 1980s, the bamboo reinforced tank design, which had promised to provide an excellent low-cost alternative to ferrocement tanks, had to be abandoned.

The design considerations vary according to the type of tank and various other factors have to be considered while designing the rainwater tanks (Latham and Gould, 1986; Gould, 1992) which are:

- A solid, secure cover to keep out insects, dirt and sunlight which will act to prevent the growth of algae inside the tank.

- A coarse inlet filter for excluding coarse debris, dirt, leaves, and other solid materials. An overflow pipe.

- A manhole, sump and drain for cleaning.

- An extraction system that doesn't contaminate the water (e.g., a tap or pump). A lock on the tap.

- A soakaway to prevent spilled water from forming puddles near the tank.

- A maximum height of 2 m to limit the water pressure acting on the container to minimize burst tanks.

- A device to indicate the level of water in the tank. A sediment trap, tipping bucket or other fouled flush mechanism.

- A second, clear water storage tank if the rainwater has to be subjected to some form of water treatment, such as desalination using a density stratification process in the first tank.

· Conveyance Systems

Conveyance systems are required to transfer the rainwater collected on the rooftops to the storage tanks. This is usually accomplished by making connections to one or more down-pipes connected to the rooftop gutters. When selecting a conveyance system, consideration should be given to the fact that, when it first starts to rain, dirt and debris from the rooftop and gutters will be washed into the down-pipe. Thus, the relatively clean water will only be available some time later in the storm. There are several possible choices to selectively collect clean water for the storage tanks. The most common is the down-pipe flap. With this flap it is possible to direct the first flush of water flow through the down-pipe, while later rainfall is diverted into a storage tank. When it starts to rain, the flap is left in the closed position, directing water to the down-pipe, and, later, opened when relatively clean water can be collected. A great disadvantage of using this type of conveyance control system is the necessity to observe the runoff quality and manually operate the flap. An alternative approach would be to automate the opening of the flap as described below.

A simple and effective method of diverting rainwater without the need for supervision is depicted in Figure 4. A funnel-shaped insert is integrated into the down-pipe system. Because the upper edge of the funnel is not in direct contact with the sides of the down-pipe, and a small gap exists between the down-pipe walls and the funnel, water is free to flow both around the funnel and through the funnel. When it first starts to rain, the volume of water passing down the pipe is small, and the "dirty" water runs down the walls of the pipe, around the funnel and is discharged to the ground as is normally the case with rainwater guttering. However, as the rainfall continues, the volume of water increases and "clean" water fills the down-pipe. At this higher volume, the funnel collects the clean water and redirects it to a storage tank. The pipes used for the collection of rainwater, wherever possible, should be made of plastic, PVC or other inert substance, as the pH of rainwater can be low (acidic) and could cause corrosion, and mobilization of metals, in metal pipes.

Figure 4. Typical Conveyance System

In order to safely fill a rainwater storage tank, it is necessary to make sure that excess water can overflow, and that blockages in the pipes or dirt in the water do not cause damage or contamination of the water supply. The design of the funnel system, with the drain-pipe being larger than the rainwater tank feed-pipe, helps to ensure that the water supply is protected by allowing excess water to bypass the storage tank. A modification of this design is shown in Figure 5, which illustrates a simple overflow/bypass system. In this system, it also is possible to fill the tank from a municipal drinking water source, so that even during a prolonged drought the tank can be kept full. Care should be taken, however, to ensure that rainwater does not enter the drinking water distribution system.

Figure 5. Typical Distribution System

Calculating the Amount Available: When using rainwater for water supply purposes, it is important to recognize the fact that the supply is not constant throughout the year and plan an adequately-sized storage system to provide water during dry periods. A knowledge of the rainfall quantity and seasonality, the area of the collection area and volume of the storage container, and quantity and period of use during which water is required for water supply purposes is critical. For example, in Tokyo, the average annual rainfall is 1 800 mm, and, assuming that the effective collection area of a house is equal to its roof area, the typical collection area is about 100 m2. Thus, the average annual volume of rainwater falling on the roof may be calculated as the product of the collection area, 100 m2, and rainfall amount, 1 800 mm, or 180 m3. However, in practice, this volume can never be achieved since a portion of the rainwater evaporates from the rooftop and a portion, including the first flush, may be lost to the drainage system. Additional rainwater volume may be lost as overflow from the storage container if the storage tank is of insufficient volume to contain the entire volume of runoff. Thus, the net usable or available amount of rainwater from a tiled roof would be approximately 70% to 80% of the gross volume of rainfall, or about 130m3 to 140m3 if the water container is big enough to hold that quantity of rainwater available. Such a volume would be sufficient to save a significant amount of freshwater and money.

Estimation of the Required Volume of Water: The individual daily rate of water consumption per person tends to be variable and may be difficult to calculate. Statistics vary from 130 l to 175 l per person per day in developing countries. Of this volume, at least half is used for purposes for which water of a lesser quality would suffice. Indicative volumes are shown in Table 9, which summarizes the volumes of water used for household purposes, and indicates possibilities for the use of rainwater to supplement a municipal supply. Table 9 clearly shows that approximately 80 to 95 l of the average daily volume of water consumed per person could be provided by the use of rainwater.

TABLE 9. Typical Per Capita Volume of Daily Water Consumption

Municipal Water Utilization

Possible Rainwater Utilization

Highest quality

High quality

Low quality

Drinking/Cooking: 3-6 l

Washing dishes: 8-10 l

Toilet/Sanitation: 40-50 l

Body care: 8 l

Washing clothes: 16 l

Other uses: 12 l

Shower/Bath: 40-50 l

Watering garden: 7 l

Total: 50-65 l

Total: 30-33 l

Total: 52-62 l

Indicative Rate of Water Use

1 flushing of toilet:

9 l

1 bathtub full:

140 l

1 washing machine load:

60 l

1 shower:

40 l

Extent of Use

The history of rainwater harvesting in Asia can be traced back to about the 9th or 10th Century and the small-scale collection of rainwater from roofs and simple brush dam constructions in the rural areas of South and South-east Asia. Rainwater collection from the eaves of roofs or via simple gutters into traditional jars and pots has been traced back almost 2 000 years in Thailand (Prempridi and Chatuthasry, 1982). Rainwater harvesting has long been used in the Loess Plateau regions of China. More recently, however, about 40 000 well storage tanks, in a variety of different forms, were constructed between 1970 and 1974 using a technology which stores rainwater and stormwater runoff in ponds of various sizes (see case studies in Part C, Chapter 5). A thin layer of red clay is generally laid on the bottom of the ponds to minimize seepage losses. Trees, planted at the edges of the ponds, help to minimize evaporative losses from the ponds (UNEP, 1982).

Rainwater Harvesting Project in The Philippines

In The Philippines, rainwater harvesting was initiated in 1989 with the assistance of the IDRC, Canada. About 500 rainwater storage tanks were constructed in the Capiz Province during this project. The capacities of the tanks varied from 2 to 10 m3, and the tanks were made of wire framed ferrocement. The construction of tile tanks involved building a frame of steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and wire mesh on a sturdy reinforced concrete foundation. The tanks were then plastered both inside and outside simultaneously, which reduced their susceptibility to corrosion when compared with metal storage tanks.

The Philippine rainwater harvesting system was implemented as a part of the income generating activities in the Capiz Province. Initially, loans were provided to fund the capital cost of the tanks and related agricultural operations. Under this arrangement, the project participant took a loan of $200, repayable over a three year period, and covering the cost not only of the tank but also for one or more income generating activities such as purchase and rearing of pigs costing around $25 each. Mature pigs can sell for up to $90 each, which provided an income generating opportunity that could provide sufficient income to repay me loan. This innovative mechanism for financing rural water supplies helped to avoid the type of subsidies provided by many water resources development projects in the past.

(Source: Gould, 1992)

Operation and Maintenance

Maintenance is generally limited to the annual cleaning of the tank and regular inspection of the gutters and down-pipes. Maintenance typically consists of the removal of dirt, leaves and other accumulated materials. Such cleaning should take place annually before the start of the major rainfall season. However, cracks in the storage tanks can create major problems and should be repaired immediately. In the case of ground and rock catchments, additional care is required to avoid damage and contamination by people and animals, and proper fencing is required.

Level of Involvement

Various levels of governmental and community involvement in the development of rainwater harvesting technologies in different parts of Asia were noted. In Thailand and The Philippines, both governmental and household-based initiatives played key roles in expanding the use of this technology, especially in water scarce areas such as northeast Thailand.


The capital cost of rainwater harvesting systems is highly dependent on the type of catchment, conveyance and storage tank materials used. However, the cost of harvested rainwater in Asia, which varies from $0.17 to $0.37 per cubic metre of water storage (Table 10), is relatively low compared to many countries in Africa (Lee and Vissher, 1990).

Compared to deep and shallow tubewells, rainwater collection systems are more cost effective, especially if the initial investment does not include the cost of roofing materials. The initial per unit cost of rainwater storage tanks (jars) in Northeast Thailand is estimated to be about $1/l, and each tank can last for more than ten years. The reported operation and maintenance costs are negligible.

TABLE 10. Costs of Rainwater Catchment Tanks in Asia (Lee and Vissher, 1990)


Vol m3

Cost $

Annual Equivalent Cost $/m3


Reinforced Cement Jar





Concrete Ring





Wire Framed Ferrocement





Wire Framed Ferrocement





Effectiveness of the Technology

The feasibility of rainwater harvesting in a particular locality is highly dependent upon the amount and intensity of rainfall. Other variables, such as catchment area and type of catchment surface, usually can be adjusted according to household needs. As rainfall is usually unevenly distributed throughout the year, rainwater collection methods can serve as only supplementary sources of household water. The viability of rainwater harvesting systems is also a function of: the quantity and quality of water available from other sources; household size and per capita water requirements; and budget available. The decision maker has to balance the total cost of the project against the available budget, including the economic benefit of conserving water supplied from other sources. Likewise, the cost of physical and environmental degradation associated with the development of available alternative sources should also be calculated and added to the economic analysis.

Assuming that rainwater harvesting has been determined to be feasible, two kinds of techniques-statistical and graphical methods-have been developed to aid in determining the size of the storage tanks. These methods are applicable for rooftop catchment systems only, and detail guidelines for design of these storage tanks can be found in Gould (1991) and Pacey and Cullis (1986, 1989).

Accounts of serious illness linked to rainwater supplies are few, suggesting that rainwater harvesting technologies are effective sources of water supply for many household purposes. It would appear that the potential for slight contamination of roof runoff from occasional bird droppings does not represent a major health risk; nevertheless, placing taps at least 10 cm above the base of the rainwater storage tanks allows any debris entering the tank to settle on the bottom, where it will not affect the quality of the stored water, provided it remains undisturbed. Ideally, storage tanks should cleaned annually, and sieves should fitted to the gutters and down-pipes to further minimize particulate contamination. A coarse sieve should be fitted in the gutter where the down-pipe is located. Such sieves are available made of plastic coated steel-wire or plastic, and may be wedged on top and/or inside gutter and near the down-pipe. It is also possible to fit a fine sieve within the down-pipe itself, but this must be removable for cleaning. A fine filter should also be fitted over the outlet of the down-pipe as the coarser sieves situated higher in the system may pass small particulates such as leaf fragments, etc. A simple and very inexpensive method is to use a small, fabric sack, which may be secured over the feed-pipe where it enters the storage tank.

If rainwater is used to supply household appliances such as the washing machine, even the tiniest particles of dirt may cause damage to the machine and the washing. To minimize the occurrence of such damage, it is advisable to install a fine filter of a type which is used in drinking water systems in the supply line upstream of the appliances. For use in wash basins or bath tubs, it is advisable to sterilise the water using a chlorine dosage pump.


The augmentation of municipal water supplies with harvested rainwater is suited to both urban and rural areas. The construction of cement jars or provision of gutters does not require very highly skilled manpower.


Rainwater harvesting technologies are simple to install and operate. Local people can be easily trained to implement such technologies, and construction materials are also readily available. Rainwater harvesting is convenient in the sense that it provides water at the point of consumption, and family members have full control of their own systems, which greatly reduces operation and maintenance problems. Running costs, also, are almost negligible. Water collected from roof catchments usually is of acceptable quality for domestic purposes. As it is collected using existing structures not specially constructed for the purpose, rainwater harvesting has few negative environmental impacts compared to other water supply project technologies. Although regional or other local factors can modify the local climatic conditions, rainwater can be a continuous source of water supply for both the rural and poor. Depending upon household capacity and needs, both the water collection and storage capacity may be increased as needed within the available catchment area.


Disadvantages of rainwater harvesting technologies are mainly due to the limited supply and uncertainty of rainfall. Adoption of this technology requires a "bottom up" approach rather than the more usual "top down" approach employed in other water resources development projects. This may make rainwater harvesting less attractive to some governmental agencies tasked with providing water supplies in developing countries, but the mobilization of local government and NGO resources can serve the same basic role in the development of rainwater-based schemes as water resources development agencies in the larger, more traditional public water supply schemes.

Water Quality Considerations and Local People's Preferences

Rain water harvesting systems, especially those sourced from rooftop catchments, can provide clean water for drinking purposes. The quality of the water, however, is largely dependent on the type of roofing materials used and the frequency of cleaning of the surface. A study carried out by Wirojanagud et al. (1989, as cited by Gould, 1992) on 189 rainwater tanks and jars in Thailand showed that only 2 of me 89 tanks sampled, and none of the 97 rainwater jars sampled, contained pathogens. Based on the results of bacterial analyses, 40% of the 189 tanks and jars sampled met the WHO drinking water standards. All of the tanks and jars sampled met me WHO standards for heavy metals, including the standards for cadmium, chromium, lead, copper and iron.

In northeast Thailand, where me groundwater, the only readily available source of water, is highly saline, me local people are aware of the water quality benefits to be had by using rainwater. Before the Thai government launched me rainwater harvesting program in 1986, the local people made use of rainwater harvested from matched roofs as well as groundwater obtained from shallow tubewells. During a recent field visit to the area, the local people stated mat they were afraid of drinking water from deep tubewells, even though the groundwater abstracted from the deep tubewells was reported to be less saline and suitable for drinking water purposes. When asked, the local people mentioned that they preferred shallow tubewell water because it had a nicer taste than the water from deep tubewells; however, they preferred water from the matched roofs because of sweet taste. After the Thai government launched me rainwater harvesting program in 1986, many villagers in this region of Thailand replaced me thatched roofs with zinc sheets to increase the volume of rainwater harvested. Every house now has 6 0001 capacity jars for rainwater collection, and the jar manufacturing industry has been commercialized in the area. The demand for jars remains greater than the ability of the manufacturing firm's capacity to supply.

Cultural Acceptability

Rainwater harvesting is an accepted freshwater augmentation technology in Asia. While the bacteriological quality of rainwater collected from ground catchments is poor, that from properly maintained rooftop catchment systems, equipped with storage tanks having good covers and taps, is generally suitable for drinking, and frequently meets WHO drinking water standards. Notwithstanding, such water generally is of higher quality than most traditional, and many of improved, water sources found in the developing world. Contrary to popular beliefs, rather than becoming stale with extended storage, rainwater quality often improves as bacteria and pathogens gradually die off (Wirojanagud et al., 1989). Rooftop catchment, rainwater storage tanks can provide good quality water, clean enough for drinking, as long as the rooftop is clean, impervious, and made from non-toxic materials (lead paints and asbestos roofing materials should be avoided), and located away from over-hanging trees since birds and animals in the trees may defecate on the roof.

Further Development of the Technology

Rainwater harvesting appears to be one of the most promising alternatives for supplying freshwater in the face of increasing water scarcity and escalating demand. The pressures on rural water supplies, greater environmental impacts associated with new projects, and increased opposition from NGOs to the development of new surface water sources, as well as deteriorating water quality in surface reservoirs already constructed, constrain the ability of communities to meet the demand for freshwater from traditional sources, and present an opportunity for augmentation of water supplies using this technology.

Information Sources

Gould, J.E. 1992. Rainwater Catchment Systems for Household Water Supply, Environmental Sanitation Reviews, No. 32, ENSIC, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok.

Gould, J.E. and H.J. McPherson 1987. Bacteriological Quality of Rainwater in Roof and Groundwater Catchment Systems in Botswana, Water International, 12:135-138.

Nissen-Petersen, E. (1982). Rain Catchment and Water Supply in Rural Africa: A Manual. Hodder and Stoughton, Ltd., London.

Pacey, A. and A. Cullis 1989. Rainwater Harvesting: The Collection of Rainfall and Runoff in Rural Areas, WBC Print Ltd., London.

Schiller, E.J. and B. G. Latham 1987. A Comparison of Commonly Used Hydrologic Design Methods for Rainwater Collectors, Water Resources Development, 3.

UNEP [United Nations Environment Programme] 1982. Rain and Storm water Harvesting in Rural Areas, Tycooly International Publishing Ltd., Dublin.

Wall, B.H. and R.L. McCown 1989. Designing Roof Catchment Water Supply Systems Using Water Budgeting Methods, Water Resources Development, 5:11-18.