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close this bookMaternity Protection at Work: Revision of the Maternity Protection Convention (ILO, 1997, 122 p.)
close this folder6. Health protection of mother and child
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1 For a full discussion of these trends and issues, see ILO: Special protective measures for women and equality of opportunity and treatment. Meeting of Experts on Special Protective Measures for Women and Equality of Opportunity and Treatment, document no. MEPMW/1989/7 (Geneva, 1989).

2 The Protocol of 1990 to the Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948 (No. 89), retained the prohibition of night work for women workers during a period before and after childbirth of at least 16 weeks, of which at least eight weeks must be before the expected date of childbirth, but allowed for the lifting of this prohibition at the express request of the woman worker concerned on the condition that neither her health nor that of her child would be endangered.

3 Conditions of Work Digest. Woman workers. Protection or equality? (Geneva, 1987), Vol. 6, No. 2.

4 Council Directive 92/85/EEC of 19 October 1992 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health at work of pregnant workers and workers who have recently given birth or are breast-feeding, in Official Journal of the European Communities (Brussels, 28 November 1992), Vol. 35, No. L.348, pp. 1-7.

5 Originally adopted in 1951 and still valid today.

6 Council Directive 92/85/EEC of 19 October 1992 and its annexes, op. cit.

7 International Atomic Energy Agency: International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. Safety Series No. 115 (Vienna, 1996), pp. 35-36. These standards were jointly sponsored by the ILO, FAO, IAEA, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO.

8 United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Reproductive hazards at, 14 March 1997,3 pages.

9 See ILO: Protection of workers’ personal data: An ILO code of practice, Geneva, 1997. For an extensive review of policies and practice with regard to privacy issues, see ILO: Conditions of Work Digest, three-part series on workers’ privacy [Part I: Protection of personal data (Vol. 10, No. 2, 1991); Part II: Monitoring and surveillance in the workplace (Vol. 12, No. 1, 1993): and Part HI: Testing in the workplace (Vol. 12, No. 2. 1993)].

10 The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be fed exclusively on breastmilk from birth up to the age of 4 to 6 months: they should be given no other liquids or solids than breastmilk (not even water) during this period.

11 P. van Esterik and L. Menon: Being mother-friendly: A practical guide for working women and breast-feeding (Penang, World Alliance for Breastfeeding Action, 1996), pp. 10-12.

12 “Costs of NOT breast-feeding: Kaiser Permanente Study”, at, 29 April 1997, 4 pages.

13 Wellstart Intl. and UNICEF: Investing in the future: Women, work and breast-feeding, video presentation on lactation support programmes in the workplace (Washington, 1995).