|Action Against Child Labour (ILO, 2000, 356 p.)|
|1. National policies and programmes|
Experience shows that a "participatory approach" in formulating a policy framework, based on sound information and involving all concerned parties, can be a good consensus-building exercise to determine the priority target groups, the real nature of the problem and appropriate interventions. Participatory workshops focus on work in small groups, rather than long presentations of speakers, to enable all participants to share their experience and give their input.
The workshop agenda usually consists of a number of panel presentations, plenary discussions on key topics related to child labour, and more detailed discussions in small groups on the priority target groups, the core problems and the main strategies to address child labour, for example, in the main programme areas: 1) policy, legislation and law enforcement; 2) education; 3) advocacy and awareness-raising; and 4) social welfare and protection. Each group formulates a set of recommendations on the main programme area assigned to it. The results of the group work are subsequently discussed in plenary and provide the basis for the National Plan of Action on Child Labour.
Some ideas for leading the discussions in each work group are given below.2
2 There are, of course, various methods that can be used to facilitate the process of developing a plan of action. In many of the planning workshops on child labour supported by ILO-IPEC, variations of the ZOPP (Goal Oriented Planning for Projects) method were used. ZOPP was originally developed by the national aid agency, Deutsche Gesellschaft fhnische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Germany.
Group work 1:
Priority target groups - analysis of the target groups and all other persons and agencies participating and involved in the problem.
· ask workshop participants to discuss all interest groups and organizations that are involved or may be affected by the problem (working children, parents of working children, employers, government agencies, NGOs, etc.);
· classify all groups involved and determine: 1) the priority target groups, i.e. children engaged or prone to be involved in hazardous and/or exploitative work and working conditions; 2) the intermediate partner groups, such as parents, employers and community leaders; 3) organizations who are or might be mobilized in combating child labour; 4) the strengths and weaknesses of these organizations; and 5) potential supporters and opponents; and
· discuss with the participants whose interests and views are to be given priority and determine priority target groups for action. This should lead to the second step and the question: "What are the core problems?".
Group work 2:
Problem analysis - identification of core problems, their causes and effects
· ask all participants to identify one problem which they deem to be the core problem in the main programme area assigned to the group;
· participants explain their choice and in the subsequent discussions try to agree on a single core problem, its main causes and effects (chart A1.1).
Chart A1.1. Problem analysis
The main causes for the core problem are placed in a parallel line above the core problem.
The main effects of the core problem are placed in a parallel line below the core problem.
· The problem analysis can be concluded when the participants are convinced that all the essential information necessary to explain the problem has been included in the problem tree (an example is provided in chart A. 1.2);
Group work 3:
Identification of strategies - formulation of recommendations for action
· recall the main strategies against child labour: prevention of child labour, withdrawal of children from work and provision of alternatives to them and their families;
· review the problem tree and identify measures to address the problem in the main programme area assigned to the group;
· discuss alternative solutions to a specific problem and make choices based on whether the proposed measures are expedient and realistic; and
· identify the agencies responsible for action and the time frame of the proposed strategies.
· The national plan of action
Based on the results of the group work and the plenary discussions, a National Plan of Action is formulated for endorsement by the Government. An example of the National Plan for Cambodia is given in Appendix 1.3.
Chart A1.2. Example of a problem tree on child labour and education, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1993